Dallas North Tollway
The Dallas North Tollway is a 30.2-mile controlled-access toll road operated by the North Texas Tollway Authority, which runs from Interstate 35E near downtown Dallas, Texas, to U. S. Highway 380, in Frisco, Texas; the Dallas North Tollway was the first toll road in the United States to implement electronic toll collection technology, with the introduction of the TollTag in 1989. TollTag users were charged $0.05 extra per transaction, but by 1999, the agency moved to the active encouragement of TollTag use by giving tag users a discount off the cash toll rate. In August 2007, the NTTA announced plans to phase out manned toll booths by May 2010; the Tollway was converted to all-electronic toll collection on December 11, 2010. North of I-635, the Dallas North Tollway is accompanied by frontage roads, which are designated as Dallas Parkway for address purposes; this is attributed to when Dallas Parkway was a major thoroughfare before being converted to the current Tollway configuration. The Texas Legislature created the Turnpike Act on June 9, 1953, thereby creating the Texas Turnpike Authority.
The Texas Turnpike Authority began issuing bonds on in 1955 for its second project, the first 30 mile section of the Dallas North Tollway. The original cost was $33,650,000 and started in 1966 and completed from Interstate 35E near downtown Dallas north to Royal Lane in 1968, soon after to Interstate 635. Toll Controversy: J. H. "Jack" Davis, Engineer-Manager for the Texas Turnpike Authority, stated in 1968 that "When revenue bonds for a project are paid off, the facility reverts to the state as part of its highway system, to be used free." This was supposed to happen the same way the Texas Turnpike Authority turned over the Dallas-Fort Worth Turnpike to the Highway Department in 1977 to become I-30, which became toll free. However, the Dallas North Tollway never became toll free and has never been turned over to the Highway Department; the North Texas Tollway Authority's web site states that "it was no longer a statewide practice to remove tolls from roadways due to a lack of state funding to maintain the roadways".
While it may have been Jack Davis' unofficial intent, it was not law. The last bond payment was made January 1, 2005; the Texas Legislature created the North Texas Tollway Authority in June of 1997, replacing the Texas Turnpike Authority on September 1, 1997. The Regional Tollway Authority Act, Chapter 366 of the Texas Transportation Code, is what authorizes the North Texas Tollway Authority, thereby making it a political subdivision of the State of Texas and the operator of the North Dallas Tollway; the initial segment of the tollway ran from Interstate 35E to Royal Lane along an old St. Louis Southwestern Railway corridor; the right-of-way is 100 feet along this segment, one of the narrowest controlled-access roads in Texas. The segment was completed in June 1968 and toll was 20 cents; the tollway was extended to Briargrove Lane in 1987, to Headquarters Drive in 1994, to S. H. 121 and Gaylord Parkway in 2004, to US 380 in 2007. The extensions parallel S. H. 289 known as Preston Road. The "DNT Extension Phase 3," which runs from State Highway 121 to U.
S. Highway 380, opened in mid-2007. Current tolls vary from $0.40 to $2.15 for a car with it being more expensive closer to downtown. Toll plaza in Frisco; the Tolltag offers a discount on these rates but requires a prepayment of $40 for up to three transponders, after that, TollTag accounts can be reloaded at a minimum of $10. Rates will increase every two years. All toll plazas are now equipped for electronic toll collection and main lane plazas feature TollTag express lanes; the Dallas North Tollway begins at an interchange with I-35E and Harry Hines Boulevard in the Victory Park and Market Center areas of Dallas. Southbound traffic from the Tollway going onto I-35E must first get on the access road before entering onto the main freeway. At Wycliff Avenue in Oak Lawn the Tollway has its first toll plaza; the Tollway has its first northbound exit at Lemmon Avenue before entering into Highland Park. The city streets of Eastern Avenue and Roland Avenue run alongside the Tollway on the southbound and northbound sides respectively.
Due to passing through a populated area, high noise cancelling walls line the Tollway with numerous signs warning drivers about limited sight distance. At the Mockingbird Lane interchange, the Dallas North Tollway enters into University Park before returning to Dallas. Between Loop 12 and Northaven Road, the Tollway runs about a 1/4 mile west of SH 289; the Tollway interchanges with I-635 near the Galleria Dallas and runs along the eastern edge of Farmers Branch and enters into Addison. At the Dallas-Collin county line, the Tollway enters into extreme North Dallas and has an interchange with the President George Bush Turnpike and enters the city of Plano; the Dallas North Tollway runs by many shopping centers and housing developments. Going through northern Plano, the Tollway passes by the corporate headquarters of Pizza Hut; the Tollway interchanges with SH 121/Sam Rayburn Tollway and enters into Frisco, passing by the Dr Pepper Ballpark. Development along the Tollway begins to thin before it picks up again near Main Street, passing by Toyota Stadium.
Development thins again. The Dallas North Tollway ends at an interchange with US 380, with Dallas Parkway continuing north as a county road. At the Tollway's southern end, near downtown, the agency has rebuilt the road around the main toll plaza and added ramps at Oak Lawn Avenue; this project, started i
Giorgio Armani S.p. A. is an Italian luxury fashion house founded by Giorgio Armani which designs, manufactures and retails haute couture, ready-to-wear, leather goods, watches, accessories, eyewear and home interiors. The brand markets these products under several labels: Giorgio Armani Privé, Giorgio Armani, Armani Collezioni, Emporio Armani, Armani Jeans, Armani Junior, Armani Exchange; the brand utilizes the association of the Armani name with high-fashion, benefiting from its prestige in the fashion industry. In 2016, estimated sales of the company were around $2.65 billion. In 2017, Giorgio Armani announced that his company will close two of its fashion labels, Armani Collezioni and Armani Jeans, as part of the restructuring process for his company. While Armani Collezioni will merge back into the "Giorgio Armani" line, Armani Jeans will be mixed with the Emporio Armani line due to their similarities in styles and the use of the same brand logo. Giorgio Armani is in collaboration with Emaar Properties, a chain of luxury hotels and resorts in several big cities including Milan, New York, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Shanghai, Dubai.
The company operates a range of cafés worldwide, in addition to a bar and nightclub. Giorgio Armani is a high-end label specializing in men's and women's ready-to-wear, glasses and perfumes, it is available only in Giorgio Armani boutiques, specialty clothiers and select high-end department stores. The logo is a curved "G" completing a curved "A". In 2016, the fashion house stopped using animal fur in all of its collections, citing the availability of "valid alternatives at our disposition that render the use of cruel practices unnecessary as regards animals."According to The Wall Street Journal and other influential sources, in addition to couture line Armani Privé, Giorgio Armani and Emporio Armani are company's ready-to-wear lines that show at Milan fashion week. In addition, selling at lower prices are Armani Exchange and Armani Jeans. Emporio Armani is the second brand of Armani family, features ready-to-wear and runway collections. Emporio Armani focuses on modern traits. Emporio Armani along with Giorgio Armani are the only two ready-to-wear brands that are designed by Giorgio Armani himself, has a spotlight at Milan Fashion Week every year while Armani Collezioni, Armani Jeans, Armani Exchange do not.
Emporio Armani is only sold in freestanding Emporio Armani boutiques and its official website. Apollo Minerva starred in four Emporio Armani underwear campaigns from Spring/Summer 2008 to Fall/Winter 2009-2010. David Beckham appeared with his wife, former Spice Girl Victoria, in the campaigns twice in 2009. All campaigns were photographed by Marcus Piggott. In January 2010, football star Cristiano Ronaldo and Hollywood movie star Megan Fox became the male and female face and body of Emporio Armani. In 2011, Megan Fox was replaced with Rihanna and Ronaldo was replaced by tennis athlete Rafael Nadal. Emporio Armani has teamed up with Reebok to create fashion shoes under the label EA7. In 2019, Emporio Armani released a new series centered around Shawn Mendes; the black-and-white advertisement featured an instrumental version of his song, "In My Blood". Emporio Armani has boutiques in Oslo, Amman, Jeddah, Bogotá, Tokyo, Madrid, Paris, Glasgow, Los Angeles, Mexico City, Kuala Lumpur, Buenos Aires, Tel Aviv, Dubai, Lima, Singapore, New York, São Paulo, New Delhi, many other cities around the world.
Armani Collezioni is the diffusion line of Giorgio Armani that retails at a lower price than Giorgio Armani and the haute couture line, Armani Privé. The logo is displayed black written on a white label, but varies. "Armani" being larger and "Collezioni" underneath it. It provides made-to-measure tailored shirts where every element can be chosen. In addition to being sold in the two freestanding boutiques in Milan and Paris, Armani Collezioni sold in department stores and outlets while Giorgio Armani and Emporio Armani only sold in freestanding boutiques. Last year, a sporty line of this label has appeared named "Armani Collezioni Active" in the same way as the EA7 line from Emporio Armani line. Armani Jeans is a diffusion line collection of denim-related clothing, created in 1981, by Giorgio Armani. Armani Jeans is sold in department stores, although there are many freestanding Armani Jeans stores in the world, in addition to an Armani Jeans Cafe in Milan; some Armani Jeans items are sold in Emporio Armani Stores.
This line does not feature Giorgio Armani's signature simplicity. The colors used are more diverse. A|X Armani Exchange was launched in 1991 in the U. S, it retails fashion and lifestyle products and is known for its provocative ad campaigns. Inspired by street-chic culture and dance music, it is targeted as the more accessible Armani brand. To accelerate development of the nascent line, Giorgio Armani co-established the joint venture company Presidio Holdings Ltd in 2005 alongside Como Holdings, the company owned by the Singaporean tycoon Ong Beng Seng that, since 1994, has held the production and distribution license for A/X Armani Exchange in the United States, Canada and South America and Asia-Pacific; the Italian company held 25% of Presidio Holdings, the remaining 75% in the hands of Como Holdings. In 2008, Giorgio Armani acquired an additional 25% stake. In 2014, it acqui
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit. A shopping arcade is a specific type of shopping precinct, distinguished in English for mall shopping by the fact that connecting walkways are not owned by a single proprietor and are in open air. Shopping malls in 2017 accounted for 8% of retailing space in the United States. Many early shopping arcades such as the Burlington Arcade in London, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, numerous arcades in Paris are famous and still trading. However, many smaller arcades have been demolished, replaced with large centers or "malls" accessible by vehicle. Technical innovations such as electric lighting and escalators were introduced from the late 19th century. From the late 20th century, entertainment venues such as movie theaters and restaurants began to be added.
As a single built structure, early shopping centers were architecturally significant constructions, enabling wealthier patrons to buy goods in spaces protected from the weather. In places around the world, the term shopping centre is used in Europe and South America. Mall is a term used predominantly in North America. Outside of North America, "shopping precinct" and "shopping arcade" are used. In North America, Persian Gulf countries, India, the term shopping mall is applied to enclosed retail structures, while shopping centre refers to open-air retail complexes. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, "malls" are referred to as shopping centres. Mall refers to either a shopping mall – a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area – or an pedestrianized street that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. In North America, mall is used to refer to a large shopping area composed of a single building which contains multiple shops "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term "arcade" is more used in the United Kingdom, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street covered or between spaced buildings.
The majority of British shopping centres are located in city centres found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets. Large examples include West Quay in Southampton. In addition to the inner city shopping centres, large UK conurbations will have large out-of-town "regional malls" such as the Metrocentre in Gateshead; these centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres. Westfield Stratford City, in Stratford, is the largest shopping centre in Europe with over 330 shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema and Westfield London is the largest inner-city shopping center in Europe. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year.
There are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of $12.47 billion. This represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year. One of the earliest examples of public shopping areas comes from ancient Rome, in forums where shopping markets were located. One of the earliest public shopping centers is Trajan's Market in Rome located in Trajan's Forum. Trajan's Market was built around 100-110 CE by Apollodorus of Damascus, it is thought to be the world's oldest shopping center – a forerunner of today's shopping mall; the Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the 15th century and is still one of the largest covered shopping centers in the world, with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops. Numerous other covered shopping arcades, such as the 19th-century Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus, might be considered as precursors to the present-day shopping mall. Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, covered, dates from the 10th century; the 10-kilometer-long, covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar has a lengthy history.
The oldest continuously occupied shopping mall in the world is to be the Chester Rows. Dating back at least to the 13th century, these covered walkways housed shops, with storage and accommodation for traders on various levels. Different rows specialized in different goods, such as'Bakers Row' or'Fleshmongers Row'. Gostiny Dvor in St. Petersburg, which opened in 1785, may be regarded as one of the first purposely-built mall-type shopping complexes, as it consisted of more than 100 shops covering an area of over 53,000 m2; the Marché des Enfants Rouges in Paris still runs today. The Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England still runs today; the Passage du Caire was opened in Paris in 1798. The Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819; the Arcade
Lord & Taylor
Lord & Taylor is a department store in the United States, the oldest department store in the country. Headquartered in New York City, it is a subsidiary of the oldest commercial corporation in North America, the Hudson's Bay Company. Lord & Taylor has 45 locations, four L&T outlets. English-born Samuel Lord started a dry goods business in New York in 1824, opened the original store that would become Lord & Taylor in 1826, on Catherine Street; the shop stocked hosiery, misses' wear, cashmere shawls. His cousin, George Washington Taylor, joined in 1834, the store was named Lord & Taylor. James S. Taylor, Lord's brother-in-law, replaced George Taylor in 1845 and the store moved to Grand and Chrystie Streets in 1854. In 1860, they opened a second store on Broadway at Grand Street. Lord retired in 1862. In 1870, the Broadway store moved a mile uptown, to a new cast-iron building at Broadway and 20th Street, in the area known as the "Ladies' Mile"; the new store expanded around 1890 by annexing a building to east.
The downtown store continued to function, expanded through to Forsyth Street, advertised until at least 1887 as a new building. Samuel Lord's estate sold the Grand Street store in 1901; the Starrett & van Vleck-designed Fifth Avenue store and headquarters opened between 38th and 39th streets on February 24, 1914. The Broadway store was sold, on March 26; the Fifth Avenue store became a New York City Landmark on October 30, 2007. A founding unit of Associated Dry Goods, Lord & Taylor was considered to be its "crown jewel"; when the May Company acquired ADG in 1986, it was assumed that May bought it just for the luxury division. In 1945, Dorothy Shaver became the first woman to head a major retail establishment in the United States as president of Lord & Taylor; as vice president working with the well-known design firm of Raymond Loewy Associates, she opened what is credited as the first branch store, in Manhasset, New York. Unlike earlier forays into the suburbs that consisted of smaller boutique-style shops, this was a merchandising effort that became the model for modern suburban shopping.
The store consisted of 66 individual shops. Lord & Taylor's relationship with Raymond Loewy Associates continued until 1969, following the construction of the Stamford, store. Many of Lord & Taylor's special services, including personal shoppers, were introduced while Shaver presided. During this period she introduced the Andrew Geller hand written logo and the American Beauty Rose as icons of the store. Shaver died in 1959. William J. Lippincott was elected chairman and chief executive in 1972, his obituary in The New York Times read: "In his years as president and chairman, Lord & Taylor moved beyond its traditional territory in the northeast to open stores in Atlanta and Dallas and four stores in Illinois." A management shakeup ousted him in 1976. Under the leadership of CEO Joseph E. Brooks during the 1970s, the company aggressively expanded into Texas and Michigan; the chain withdrew from the oil-shocked Texas and southern Florida markets in 1989–1990 after its 1986 acquisition by May. Under May, the majority of the upscale Hahne & Co.
Wanamaker's, Woodward & Lothrop chains were converted to Lord & Taylor. Jane Elfers became Lord & Taylor's second female president in June 2000. Former Neiman Marcus executive, Brendan Hoffman replaced her in October 2008, when Elfer's contract had expired. A third female president, Bonnie Brooks, took over in 2011, a fourth female president, Liz Rodbell, took over in 2013. Federated Department Stores, now Macy's Inc, acquired May Department Stores on August 30, 2005. On January 12, 2006, Federated chairman, CEO Terry Lundgren announced that Lord & Taylor would be sold by the end of the year. In a move that took advantage of valuable real estate, Federated announced on March 10, 2006, that seven conflicting Lord & Taylor locations would either close or downscale into Macy's; the legendary Center City, Philadelphia store, former flagship of the John Wanamaker chain, opened after a one-month renovation as Macy's City Center on August 1, 2006. On June 22, 2006, NRDC Equity Partners, LLC announced it would purchase Lord & Taylor for $1.2 billion after Federated converted and closed the seven locations that it announced were closing.
Federated continued to service Lord & Taylor consumer credit accounts in an agreement with NRDC under the terms of its sale until mid-2007. On July 16, 2008, NRDC Equity Partners announced that it had purchased the 338-year-old Hudson's Bay Company for an undisclosed price, with the intention of expanding internationally, positioned Lord & Taylor under HBC; the combined HBC, as of February 2018, consists of Hudson's Bay and Home Outfitters in Canada, Galeria Kaufhof in Germany, Lord & Taylor and Saks Fifth Avenue in the United States. HBC committed to spend an additional $250 million upgrading stores; the Fifth Avenue flagship store received a $150 million update in 2010. In March 2017, Lord & Taylor partnered with Brideside to launch an in-store bridal shop. In April 2017, Lord & Taylor completed a $12 million renovation plan at the Fifth Avenue store, however in October 2017 they announced that they were selling the building to WeWork for $850 million. In February 2019 the sale completed for $725 million in cash and the remainder in equity, forming a joint venture with Lord & Taylor was minority owners.
On April 1, 2018 the Hudson Bay Company gave notice of a theft of customers credit and debit cards due to a hacking incident. A hacking group, known as JokerStash or Fin7, was attempting to sell the information from f
Neiman Marcus Group, Inc. Neiman-Marcus, is an American chain of luxury department stores owned by the Neiman Marcus Group, headquartered in Dallas, Texas; the company owns the Bergdorf Goodman department stores and operates a direct marketing division, Neiman Marcus Direct, which operates catalog and online operations under the Horchow, Neiman Marcus, Bergdorf Goodman names. Neiman Marcus is owned by the Toronto-based Canada Pension Plan Investment Board and Los Angeles-based Ares Management. Herbert Marcus, Sr. a former buyer with Dallas' Sanger Brothers department store, had left his previous job to found a new business with his sister Carrie Marcus Neiman and her husband, A. L. Neiman employees of Sanger Brothers competitor A. Harris and Co. In 1907 the trio had $25,000 from the successful sales-promotion firm they had built in Atlanta and two potential investments into which to invest the funds. Rather than take a chance on an unknown "sugary soda pop business," the three entrepreneurs rejected the fledgling Coca-Cola company and chose instead to return to Dallas to found a retail business.
For this reason, early company CEO Peb Atera was quoted in 1957 as saying in jest that Neiman Marcus was "founded on bad business judgment." The store, established on September 10, 1907, was lavishly furnished and stocked with clothing of a quality not found in Texas. Within a few weeks, the store's initial inventory acquired on a buying trip to New York made by Carrie, was sold out. Oil-rich Texans, welcoming the opportunity to flaunt their wealth in more sophisticated fashion than was possible, flocked to the new store. In spite of the Panic of 1907 set off only a few weeks after its opening, Neiman Marcus was successful, its first several years of operation were quite profitable. In 1914 a fire destroyed all of its merchandise. A temporary store was opened in 17 days. By the end of 1914, Neiman Marcus opened in its new, permanent location at the corner of Main Street and Ervay Street. With the opening of the flagship Neiman Marcus Building, the store increased its product selection to include accessories and children's clothing, as well as expanding the women's apparel department.
In its first year at the new building, Neiman Marcus recorded a profit of $40,000 on sales of $700,000, nearly twice the totals reached in its last year at the original location. In 1927 the store expanded and Neiman Marcus premiered the first weekly retail fashion show in the United States; the store staged a show called "One Hundred Years of Texas Fashions" in 1936 in honor of the centennial of Texas' independence from Mexico. A profile of the store, "Neiman Marcus of Texas", described the "grandiose and elaborate" gala, noting, "It was on this occasion that one of the most critical among the store's guests, Mrs. Edna Woolman Chase, editor of Vogue, expressing the sentiment of the store's starry-eyed clientele, told the local press: I dreamed all my life of the perfect store for women. I saw Neiman Marcus, my dream came true. In 1929 the store began offering menswear. During the 1930s and 1940s Neiman Marcus began to include less expensive clothing lines along with its high-end items, in response to the Great Depression and following war years.
Between 1942 and 1944, sales at Neiman Marcus grew from $6 million to $11 million. Despite a major fire in 1946, the store continued to profit. Herbert Marcus, Sr. died in 1950, Carrie Neiman died two years leaving Stanley Marcus in charge of the company's operations. The 1950s saw the addition of a $1.6 million store at 8300 Preston Road. It was 63,000-square-foot, "inspired by the art and culture of Southwestern Indians" and "colors... copied from Indian weaving and sand paintings". The themed decor included Kachina figures on colored-glass murals and an Alexander Calder mobile named "Mariposa," the Spanish word for butterfly. Art was used as inspiration for Stanley Marcus' seasonal campaigns to solicit new colors in fabrics, as he did the year that he borrowed 20 Paul Gauguin paintings — many of which had never been publicly exhibited — from collectors around the world and had the vivid colors translated into dyes for wool and leather. Area teachers cited. In the 1950s and 1960s Gittings operated a portrait studio in Neiman Marcus.
Clients included Hope Portocarrero, Lyndon Johnson, Howard Hughes, the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his family. A late 1960s Christmas Book featured portraits of Wyatt Cooper, his wife Gloria Vanderbilt, children Carter and Anderson Cooper; the company continued its extravagant marketing efforts with the inauguration of Fortnight in 1957. The Fortnight was an annual presentation of fashions and culture from a particular country, held in late October and early November of each year, was one of the most anticipated events in Dallas, it brought fashion, celebrities, exotic food and extravagant celebrations to the downtown store for 29 years. Neiman Marcus opened its first store outside the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex in downtown Houston in 1957; the freestanding store was replaced with a new anchor store located in the Houston Galleria in 1970. In 1965 the Preston Center store was closed and a new store, more than twice as big, was opened at NorthPark Center. Another branch in Fort Worth was opened.
By 1967 the four Neiman Marcus stores in operation were generating annual sales of $58.5 million, the company's profit for that year was in excess of $2 million. In 1968 the company merged
WFAA, virtual and VHF digital channel 8, is an ABC-affiliated television station licensed to Dallas, United States and serving the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex. The station is owned by Tegna Inc. WFAA maintains business offices and secondary studio facilities at the WFAA Communications Center Studios on Young Street in downtown Dallas, operates a primary studio facility, used for the production of WFAA's newscasts and houses certain other business operations handled by the station, in the Victory Park neighborhood in central Dallas; the station's transmitter is located south of Belt Line Road in Cedar Hill. WFAA is the largest ABC-affiliated station by market size, not owned and operated by the network through its ABC Owned Television Stations subsidiary, the largest affiliate of any of the "Big Four" television networks, not owned by that respective network, it is one of only two television stations in the Dallas–Fort Worth market, not owned by the corporate parent of its affiliated network.
The initial application for the television station was filed on October 23, 1944, when local businessman Karl Hoblitzelle, owner of movie theater chain Interstate Circuit Theatres, applied with the Federal Communications Commission to obtain a construction permit and license to operate a television station on VHF channel 8. Hoblitzelle planned to operate the station out of the Republic Bank building in downtown Dallas, conducted a closed-circuit television broadcast of the opening of one of his properties, the Wilshire Theatre. Texas oil magnate Tom Potter filed a separate application for the Channel 8 license and was awarded the permit over Hoblitzelle; the station first signed on the air at 8 p.m. on September 17, 1949 as KBTV, with a fifteen-minute ceremony inaugurating the launch of Channel 8 as its first broadcast. Potter founded and operated the station through the Lacy-Potter TV Broadcasting Company, which he controlled, it was the third television station to sign on in Texas, the second station in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the first to be licensed to Dallas.
The station operated from studio facilities located at Harry Hines Boulevard and Wolf Street, north of downtown Dallas. When the station commenced its full schedule on September 18, KBTV had broadcast for only four hours of programming per day, it operated as a primary affiliate of the DuMont Television Network and a secondary affiliate of the short-lived Paramount Television Network. KBTV, NBC affiliate WBAP-TV and CBS affiliate KRLD-TV —the latter of, licensed to Dallas and signed on three months on December 3—would be the only television stations in the Dallas–Fort Worth area to sign on for the next six years as the FCC had instituted a freeze on new applications for television station licenses in November 1948, a moratorium that would last for four years. Lacy-Potter Television Broadcasting lost $128,020 in net revenue during its four-month stewardship of KBTV, leading Tom Potter to make the decision to put the station up for sale; the A. H. Belo Corporation, owner of The Dallas Morning News, had attempted to launch a new television station in Dallas two years earlier, when it applied for a construction permit to build transmitter and broadcasting facilities for a proposed station that would have transmitted on VHF channel 12.
The FCC rejected Belo's application and, following the issuance of the Sixth Report and Order in 1952 chose to reassign the Channel 12 allocation to Waco. Complicating matters, the agency's moratorium on new license applications, which the FCC instituted to sort out the backlog of prospective applicants that filed to build such operations, left Belo with the sole recourse of acquiring a television station, on the air if it wanted to own one in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. In January 1950, Belo purchased KBTV from Lacy-Potter for $575,000; the station was the first television property to be owned by the Dallas-based company, served as the flagship station of its broadcasting division until Belo merged with the Gannett Company in 2013. Four days on March 21, Belo changed the station's call letters to WFAA-TV to match those of its new radio partner WFAA; the WFAA calls stood for "Working For All Alike," although the radio station billed itself as the "World's Finest Air Attraction" (the KBTV call letters were used from 1953 to 1984 by what i
Lewisville Independent School District
Lewisville Independent School District is a 127-square mile school district based in Lewisville, Texas covering all of Lewisville, The Colony, Flower Mound, Highland Village, Copper Canyon, Double Oak as well as portions of Plano, Frisco, Coppell and Argyle. The recent suburban growth of the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex has caused LISD to grow at a great pace, becoming the 94th-largest school district in the United States in 2006. Proximity calculated a 28.56% increase in student population from 2000 to 2006. To help maintain this growth, in May 2008, voters approved a $697 million bond package. In 2010, the school district was rated "Recognized" by the Texas Education Agency. For several years in the aughts/2010s the district grew by about 2,000 pupils annually. In the aughts the district expected to have its student body reach 60,000 by 2016, but a 2011 study commissioned by the district stated that the student enrollment would peak at 55,000. LISD is ranked as Recognized under the Texas Education Agency, individual schools are broken down as follows: Exemplary: 38 Recognized: 20 Academically Acceptable: 2 Academically Unacceptable: 0For the 2010–11 school year, LISD had 51,000 students enrolled, with a total staff of 6,145.
Lewisville ISD was recognized in both 2006 and 2007 as one of the 100 best communities for music education. In late 2007, Standard & Poor's upgraded LISD's bond rating to AA+, the highest rating given at the time to any school district in Texas, one of only three nationwide. For the 2017–2018 school year, LISD recognized 58 National Merit Finalists. On the SAT, LISD students score 102 points higher than the National average. Ethnic composition African American – 10.4% Hispanic – 29.1% White – 42.8% American Indian –.4% Asian – 13.7% Pacific Islander –.1% Two or more races – 3.6% 2007 tax rate $1.4087 per $100 of property valuation Tax base composition 32.2% business 67.8% residential Total taxable value, 2009–10 school year $22,072,671,296 1:X is a program implemented across the District of LISD. The program rolled out iPads to the vast majority of LISD Students, implemented Google Apps for the school district; the goal is to have "The right technology at the right time." Edward S. Marcus High School Flower Mound High School Hebron High School Lewisville High School The Colony High School Arbor Creek Middle School, Texas, feeds into Hebron High School Briarhill Middle School Creek Valley Middle School DeLay Middle School Clayton Downing Middle School Durham Middle School Forestwood Middle School Griffin Middle School Hedrick Middle School Huffines Middle School feeds into Killough Lewisville High School North and Lewisville High School Killian Middle School Lakeview Middle School Lamar Middle School McKamy Middle School Shadow Ridge Middle School B.
B. Owen Elementary Bluebonnet Elementary Bridlewood Elementary Camey Elementary Castle Hills Elementary Central Elementary College Street Elementary Coyote Ridge Elementary Creekside Elementary Degan Elementary LISD STEM Academy at Donald Elementary 2006 National Blue Ribbon School Ethridge Elementary Flower Mound Elementary 1993–94 National Blue Ribbon School Forest Vista Elementary Garden Ridge Elementary Hebron Valley Elementary Hedrick Elementary Heritage Elementary 2000–01 National Blue Ribbon School Hicks Elementary Highland Village Elementary 1993–94 National Blue Ribbon School Homestead Elementary Indian Creek Elementary Independence Elementary Lakeland Elementary Lewisville Elementary Liberty Elementary Lillie J. Jackson Early Childhood Center, for students that qualify under the TEA Prekindergarten requirements. McAuliffe Elementary 1991–92 National Blue Ribbon School Morningside Elementary Old Settlers Elementary Parkway Elementary School Peters Colony Elementary Polser Elementary Prairie Trail Elementary Rockbrook Elementary Southridge Elementary Stewart's Creek Elementary Timber Creek Elementary Valley Ridge Elementary Vickery Elementary Wellington Elementary Career Center East Dale Jackson Career Center Denton County Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Program Lewisville Learning Center.
The LLC offers three main programs: District Alternative Education Program, for disciplinary students Accelerated Division, for grade advancement in both Middle and High Schools Student Age Parenting Program, the only location in LISD to offer Parenting Education classes Lina Milliken Middle School After closure as a middle school, the facility was used as the Lewisville High 9th Grade Campus until its new facility opened in 2005, whereupon it was closed and unoccupied. The facility reopened in fall 2010 as the relocated DeLay Middle School. 1992–93 National Blue Ribbon School List of school districts in Texas Lewisville Independent School District home page Facts and Figures regarding LISD 1:X home page