The Spectator is a weekly British magazine on politics and current affairs. It was first published in July 1828, it is owned by David and Frederick Barclay, who own The Daily Telegraph newspaper, via Press Holdings. Its principal subject areas are politics and culture, its editorial outlook is supportive of the Conservative Party, although regular contributors include some outside that fold, such as Frank Field, Rod Liddle and Martin Bright. The magazine contains arts pages on books, music and film and TV reviews. Editorship of The Spectator has been a step on the ladder to high office in the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom. Past editors include Boris Johnson and other former cabinet members Iain Macleod, Ian Gilmour, Nigel Lawson. In late 2008, Spectator Australia was launched; this offers 12 pages of "Unique Australian Content" in addition to the full UK contents. Readership of The Spectator Australia was revealed through a court case as being 3,000. In early 2018, Spectator USA was launched as a website.
The company announced plans to issue a U. S. print version debuting in October 2019. The Spectator's founding editor, the Dundonian reformer Robert Stephen Rintoul, launched the paper in July 1828 with a first issue for the "week ending Saturday July 5, 1828", he revived the title from the 1711 publication by Addison & Steele. As he had long been determined "to edit a perfect newspaper", Rintoul insisted on "absolute power" over content, commencing a long-lasting tradition of the paper's editor and proprietor being one and the same person; the Spectator’s political outlook in its first thirty years reflected Rintoul’s liberal-radical agenda. Despite its political stance it was regarded and respected for its non-partisanship. Under Rintoul The Spectator came out for the Great Reform Act of 1832, coining the well-known phrase, "The Bill, the whole Bill and nothing but the Bill", in its support, it objected to the appointment of the Duke of Wellington as Prime Minister, condemning him as "a Field Marshal whose political career proves him to be utterly destitute of political principle – whose military career affords ample evidence of his stern and remorseless temperament."The magazine was vocal in its opposition to the First Opium War, commenting: "all the alleged aims of the expedition against China are vague and incapable of explanation, save only that of making the Chinese pay the opium-smugglers." and "There does not appear to be much glory gained in a contest so unequal that hundreds are killed on one side and none on the other.
What honour is there in going to shoot men, certain that they cannot hurt you? The cause of the war, be it remembered, is as disreputable as the strength of the parties is unequal; the war is undertaken in support of a co-partnery of opium-smugglers, in which the Anglo-Indian Government may be considered as the principal partner."In 1853 it published an anonymous and unfavourable review of Charles Dickens’ Bleak House revealed to be by George Brimley, typical of the paper's enduring contempt for him as a "popular" writer "amusing the idle hours of the greatest number of readers. Thereafter, it went into an accelerated period of decline. Records are scarce but it appears that it was owned by a Mr Scott and bought for £4200 in December 1858 by two London-based Americans, James McHenry and Benjamin Moran. McHenry was a businessman and Moran was an Assistant Secretary to the ambassador, George M. Dallas; the editor was Thornton Hunt, a friend of Moran who had worked for Rintoul. Hunt was nominally the purchaser, having been given the necessary monies in an attempt by McHenry and Moran to disguise the American ownership.
Circulation declined with this loss of independence and inspirational leadership, the views of James Buchanan, the president of the US, came to the fore. Within weeks, the editorial line followed Buchanan's pronouncements in being "...neither pro-slavery nor pro-abolitionist. To unsympathetic observers Buchanan's policy seemed to apportion blame for the impasse on the slavery question on pro-slavery and abolitionist factions – and rather than work out a solution to argue that a solution would take time; the Spectator now would publicly support that'policy.'". This set it at odds with most of the British press but gained it the sympathy of expatriate Americans in the country. Richard Fulton notes that from until 1861, "... the Spectator's commentary on American affairs read like a Buchanan administration propaganda sheet." And that this represented a volte-face. On 19 January 1861, The Spectator was bought by a journalist, Meredith Townsend, for £2000; the need to promote the Buchanan position in Britain had been reduced as British papers such as The Times and The Saturday Review turned in his favour, fearing the potential effects of a split in the Union.
Abraham Lincoln had replaced the vacillating Buchanan and Moran's position in London was in doubt now that Dallas had been removed as ambassador. In addition, the owners had been pumping money into a loss-making publication and were reluctant to continue the practice. From the outset, Townsend took up an anti-Buchanan, anti-slavery position, arguing that his unwillingness to act decisively had been a weakness and a contributor to the problems apparent in the US, he soon went into partnership with Richa
A+B Kasha is a French company specializing in the restoration of historic apartments and luxury real estate sales in the Saint-Germain-des-Prés area of Paris. The company is noted for its ability to faithfully restore the architectural details of apartments built in the 17th and 18th century and at the same time update them for modern living. Architectural details are refurbished by craftsmen using techniques similar to those used in classical Parisian apartments. Unlike most property developers, the company's Left Bank properties are purchased, designed and furnished before being offered for sale as turnkey properties, in order to maintain the integrity of the original architecture without influence from potential buyers; the apartments are designed by the company owners and Betsy Kasha. Ms. Kasha is a former marketing executive at Cartier, Mr. Kasha is a former banking executive. Both have studied Parisian architecture extensively. A+B Kasha designed apartments ranging from 700 to 2,000 square feet, are sold for $800,000 to more than $2 million, a premium of 15-20% above market values.
The company's renovation process focuses on the original built structure of the apartment while adding modern features and amenities. The company views its products less as real estate, more as luxury fashion; because of its prices and positioning, the company has been a subject of controversy. Detractors contend; the company responds by saying that its higher prices are necessary to provide the public service of faithfully restoring historic apartments. At any given time A+B Kasha has up to ten properties in various phases, from purchase offers to renovation to contract. Official website Official blog
Behind the Screen is an American late-night weekly serial which aired on CBS from October 9, 1981 to January 8, 1982. It was created by David Jacobs for CBS, which wanted to experiment with late night programming as a counterpoint to ABC and NBC's more successful efforts at that time of night. Drawing upon his experience with the prime-time serials, Behind the Screen was a dramatization of the goings-on at a fictional TV soap opera called Generations; this was not the first attempt to explore the concept of a "soap within a soap" as radio soaps had used the idea as far as back as the 1940s, Ryan's Hope had used the idea for a story in the early 1980s. It premiered as an hour-long special, regular episodes were 30 minutes; the show focused on the beautiful young star of Generations, Janie-Claire Willow, a pawn in a power struggle between her wheelchair-using mother Zina, her powerful agent Evan, her show's leading man, Brian. The show's early pacing had problems finding an audience; the show seemed to be finding its focus, helped by stronger writing by Ronnie Wencker-Konner, when it was canceled after only 3 months on the air.
The last episode concerned a backstage party. Suspicion fell on Lynette Porter. In a bit of levity, Michele Lee appeared as herself; the lasting effect of the show lies in the wonderful cast. Mel Ferrer and Joanne Linville added a touch of class to the proceedings, other cast members made impact on other shows. Janine Turner gained notice when she appeared as a Laura lookalike on General Hospital and found fame in movies and on the quirky series Northern Exposure. Michael Sabatino appeared on Knots Landing as the unhinged Chip Roberts and appeared on several daytime soaps. After Behind the Screen, Debbi Morgan was cast as Angie Baxter on All My Children. Coincidentally, she appeared on a different soap called Generations as Chantal. Evan Hammer played by Mel Ferrer Janie-Claire Willow played by Janine Turner Zina Willow played by Joanne Linville Jordan Willow played by Scott Mulhern Brian Holmby played by Michael Sabatino Gerry Holmby played by Joshua Bryant Dory Holmby played by Loyita Chapel Karl Madison played by Mark Pinter Angela Aries played by Claudette Nevins Joyce Daniels played by Erica Yohn Lynette Porter played by Debbi Morgan Bobby Danzig played by Bruce Fairbairn Behind The Screen on IMDb
Isethionic acid is an organosulfur compound containing a alkylsulfonic acid located beta to a hydroxy group. Its discovery is attributed to Heinrich Gustav Magnus, who prepared it by the action of solid sulfur trioxide on ethanol in 1833, it is a white water-soluble solid used in the manufacture of certain surfactants and in the industrial production of taurine. It is most available in the form of its sodium salt, its original synthesis, by the reaction of sulfur trioxide on ethanol, has been surpassed. It may be produced by the hydrolysis of carbyl sulfate, obtained by the sulfonation of ethylene; however the most common route is the reaction of ethylene oxide with aqueous sodium bisulfite, which produces the sodium salt: Isethionic acid is used as a starting material in the industrial production of taurine. Dehydration of isethionic acid gives vinylsulfonic acid. Fatty acid esters of isethionic acid are used as biodegradable anionic surfactants; these materials are much milder to skin that other sulfate based surfactants making them popular for use in make-up, shampoos and ‘Dove type’ soap bars.
Isethionic acid is used as a counter ion in certain pharmaceutical formulations, including the antimicrobials hexamidine and pentamidine. Studies made on dog heart slices suggested that heart tissue may be capable of converting taurine to isethionic acid, further experiments demonstrated that this tissue may synthetize taurine from cystine. 1,3-Propane sultone
Cecilia Harvey is a technology executive and entrepreneur. She is the founder of Tech Women Today. Harvey grew up in Westchester County in Tarrytown, New York, she attended The Ursuline School in New York. In 1996, Harvey enrolled at Wellesley College, she graduated in 2000 with a bachelor's degree in political science. After graduating from Wellesley, Harvey entered the sales and trading analyst program at Lehman Brothers in 2000, she has been working in the fintech industry in various positions that includes, former COO of Citigroup Markets and Securities Services Technology, consultant with HSBC global, senior positions with Morgan Stanley, Barclays Capital and IBM Consulting. Harvey is a regular columnist for Entrepreneur Magazine, she conducted research into Queen bee syndrome at work. In 2018, Harvey founded Tech Women Today, a professional organization that seeks to advance women in technology across various sectors. Tech Women Today is a resource for non-technical female entrepreneurs who need to leverage technology to grow their business.
On the Tech Women Today YouTube channel Harvey interviews female technology entrepreneurs and shares advice with up and coming women in technology. Green Machine: A Career Guide For The Young Professional. Virtualbookworm. 2007. ISBN 9781602640474. 2019 EmPower 100 Ethnic Minority Role Model List 2019 Inclusive Tech Alliance Awards Finalist Workplace bullying Tech Women Today Official
Comprehensive models of the late-stage evolution of massive stars predict that a pair-instability supernova occurs when pair production, the production of free electrons and positrons in the collision between atomic nuclei and energetic gamma rays, temporarily reduces the internal pressure supporting a supermassive star's core against gravitational collapse. This pressure drop leads to a partial collapse, which in turn causes accelerated burning in a runaway thermonuclear explosion, resulting in the star being blown apart without leaving a stellar remnant behind. Pair-instability supernovae can only happen in stars with a mass range from around 130 to 250 solar masses and low to moderate metallicity. SN 2006gy, SN 2007bi, SN 2213-1745, SN 1000+0216, SN 2010mb, OGLE14-073, SN 2016iet, are hypothesized to have been pair-instability supernovae. Photons given off by a body in thermal equilibrium have a black-body spectrum with an energy density proportional to the fourth power of the temperature, as described by the Stefan–Boltzmann law.
Wien's law states that the wavelength of maximum emission from a black body is inversely proportional to its temperature. Equivalently, the frequency, the energy, of the peak emission is directly proportional to the temperature. In large hot stars with a temperature above about 3×108 K, photons produced in the stellar core are in the form of gamma rays, with a high energy level; the pressure from these gamma rays helps to support the upper layers of the star against the inward pull of gravity. If the level of gamma rays is reduced the outer layers of the star will begin to collapse inwards. Sufficiently energetic gamma rays can interact with electrons, or one another, they can form pairs of particles, such as electron-positron pairs, electron-positron pairs can meet and annihilate each other to create gamma rays again, in accordance with Einstein's mass-energy equivalence equation E = mc2. At the high density of a large stellar core, pair production and annihilation occur rapidly. Gamma rays and positrons are overall held in thermal equilibrium, ensuring the star's core remains stable.
By random fluctuation, the sudden heating and compression of the core can generate gamma rays energetic enough to be converted into an avalanche of electron-positron pairs. This reduces the pressure; when the collapse stops, the positrons find electrons and the pressure from gamma rays is driven up, again. The population of positrons provides a brief reservoir of new gamma rays as the expanding supernova's core pressure drops; as temperatures and gamma ray energies increase and more gamma ray energy is absorbed in creating electron–positron pairs. This reduction in gamma ray energy density reduces the radiation pressure that resists gravitational collapse and supports the outer layers of the star; the star contracts and heating the core, thereby increasing the rate of energy production. This increases the energy of the gamma rays that are produced making them more to interact and so increases the rate at which energy is absorbed in further pair production; as a result, the stellar core loses its support in a runaway process, in which gamma rays are created at an increasing rate, but more and more of the gamma rays are absorbed to produce electron–positron pairs, the annihilation of the electron–positron pairs is insufficient to halt further contraction of the core, resulting in a supernova.
For a star to undergo pair-instability supernova, the increased creation of positron/electron pairs by gamma ray collisions must reduce outward pressure enough for inward gravitational pressure to overwhelm it. High rotational speed and/or metallicity can prevent this. Stars with these characteristics still contract as their outward pressure drops, but unlike their slower or less metal-rich cousins, these stars continue to exert enough outward pressure to prevent gravitational collapse. Stars formed by collision mergers having a metallicity Z between 0.02 and 0.001 may end their lives as pair-instability supernovae if their mass is in the appropriate range. Large high-metallicity stars are unstable due to the Eddington limit, would tend to shed mass during the formation process. Several sources describe the stellar behavior for large stars in pair-instability conditions. Gamma rays produced by stars of fewer than 100 or so solar masses are not energetic enough to produce electron-positron pairs.
Some of these stars will undergo supernovae of a different type at the end of their lives, but the causative mechanisms do not involve pair-instability. These stars are large enough to produce gamma rays with enough energy to create electron-positron pairs, but the resulting net reduction in counter-gravitational pressure is insufficient to cause the core-overpressure required for supernova. Instead, the contraction caused by pair-creation provokes increased thermonuclear activity within the star that repulses the inward pressure and returns the star to equilibrium, it is thought that stars of this size undergo a series of these pulses until they shed sufficient mass to drop below 100 solar masses, at which point they are no longer hot enough to support pair-creation. Pulsing of this nature may have been responsible for the variations in brightness experienced by Eta Carinae in 1843, though this explanation is not universally accepted. For high-mass stars, with mass at least 130 and up to roughly 250 solar masses, a true pair-instability supernova can occur.
In these stars, the first time that conditions support pair production instability, the situation runs out of control. The collapse proceeds to efficiently compress