The Abbey in the Oakwood
The Abbey in the Oakwood is an oil painting by Caspar David Friedrich. It was painted between 1809 and 1810 in Dresden and was first shown together with the painting The Monk by the Sea in the Prussian Academy of Arts exhibition of 1810. On Friedrich's request The Abbey in the Oakwood was hung beneath The Monk by the Sea; this painting is one of over two dozen of Friedrich's works that include graves. After the exhibition both pictures were bought by king Frederick Wilhelm III for his collection. Today the paintings hang side by side in the Alte Berlin; this large painting is an example of a way Friedrich uses his painting skills to represent human life issues. In the painting, Friedrich painted an old abbey in the center. There are figures entering the abbey with a coffin; the artist is trying to convey a sense of passage of time by painting a human passing away. There’s a sense of coldness around the area; the remains of the abbey shows this old broken window with no remaining of glass. What is seen is that nature is forever there, while man’s creation is temporary.
A procession of monks, some of whom bear a coffin, head toward the gate of a ruined Gothic church in the center of the painting. Only two candles light their way. A newly dug grave yawns out of the snow in the foreground, near which several crosses can be faintly discerned; this lower third of the picture lies in darkness—only the highest part of the ruins and the tips of the leafless oaks are lit by the setting sun. The waxing crescent moon appears in the sky; the picture appeared at a time when Friedrich had his first public success and critical acknowledgment with the controversial Tetschener Altar. Although Friedrich's paintings are landscapes, he designed and painted them in his studio, using drawn plein air sketches, from which he chose the most evocative elements to integrate into an expressive composition; the Abbey in the Oakwood is based upon studies of the ruins of Eldena Abbey, which reappear in several other paintings. The same trees, in altered forms, can be seen in other works. Eldena Abbey may well have had personal meaning for Friedrich, as it was destroyed during the Thirty Years War by invading Swedish troops, who used bricks from the abbey to construct fortifications.
In the painting Friedrich draws a parallel between those actions and the use of Greifswald churches as barracks by occupying French soldiers. Thus, the funeral becomes a symbol of "the burial of Germany's hopes for resurrection". Friedrich may have begun work on The Abbey in the Oakwood in June 1809 after a stay in Rügen, Neubrandenburg. On 24 September 1810, shortly before the Berlin Academy exhibition, Carl Frederick Frommann described the setting sun and half-moon of the nearly-finished painting. Boime, Albert. Art in an age of Bonapartism, 1800-1815. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-06336-4. Friedrich, Caspar David: Die Briefe. Hamburg: ConferencePoint Verlag. ISBN 3-936406-12-X. Börsch-Supan, Helmut & Jähnig, Karl Wilhelm, 1973: Caspar David Friedrich. Gemälde, Druckgraphik und bildmäßige Zeichnungen. Munich: Prestel Verlag. ISBN 3-7913-0053-9 Held, Heinz-Georg Held, 2003: Romantik. Cologne: Dumont. ISBN 3-8321-7601-2 Schulze Altcappenberg, H. Th. 2006: An der Wiege der Romantik, Caspar David Friedrichs Jahreszeiten von 1803.
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. ISBN 3-88609-561-4 Wolf, Norbert, 2003: Friedrich. Cologne: Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-1958-1This article is a translation of the equivalent article on the German Wikipedia as of 21 November 2008
Swedish Pomerania was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from 1630 to 1815, situated on what is now the Baltic coast of Germany and Poland. Following the Polish War and the Thirty Years' War, Sweden held extensive control over the lands on the southern Baltic coast, including Pomerania and parts of Livonia and Prussia. Sweden, present in Pomerania with a garrison at Stralsund since 1628, had gained effective control of the Duchy of Pomerania with the Treaty of Stettin in 1630. At the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 and the Treaty of Stettin in 1653, Sweden received Western Pomerania, with the islands of Rügen and Wolin, a strip of Farther Pomerania; the peace treaties were negotiated while the Swedish queen Christina was a minor, the Swedish Empire was governed by members of the high aristocracy. As a consequence, Pomerania was not annexed to Sweden like the French war gains, which would have meant abolition of serfdom, since the Pomeranian peasant laws of 1616 was practised there in its most severe form.
Instead, it remained part of the Holy Roman Empire, making the Swedish rulers Reichsfürsten and leaving the nobility in full charge of the rural areas and its inhabitants. While the Swedish Pomeranian nobles were subjected to reduction when the late 17th century kings regained political power, the provisions of the peace of Westphalia continued to prevent the pursuit of the uniformity policy in Pomerania until the Holy Roman empire was dissolved in 1806. In 1679, Sweden lost most of her Pomeranian possessions east of the Oder river in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, in 1720, Sweden lost her possessions south of the Peene and east of the Peenestrom rivers in the Treaty of Stockholm; these areas were integrated into Brandenburgian Pomerania. In 1720, Sweden regained the remainder of her dominion in the Treaty of Frederiksborg, lost to Denmark in 1715. In 1814, as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, Swedish Pomerania was ceded to Denmark in exchange for Norway in the Treaty of Kiel, in 1815, as a result of the Congress of Vienna, transferred to Prussia.
The largest cities in Swedish Pomerania were Greifswald and, until 1720, Stettin. Rügen is today Germany's largest island. Pomerania became involved in the Thirty Years' War during the 1620s, with the town of Stralsund under siege by imperial troops, its ruler Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Stettin, concluded a treaty with King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in June 1628. On 10 July 1630, the treaty was extended into an'eternal' pact in the Treaty of Stettin. By the end of that year the Swedes had completed the military occupation of Pomerania. After this point Gustavus Adolphus was the effective ruler of the country, though the rights of succession to Pomerania, held by George William, Elector of Brandenburg due to the Treaty of Grimnitz, were recognised, the Swedish king still demanded that the Margraviate of Brandenburg break with Emperor Ferdinand II. In 1634 the Estates of Pomerania assigned the interim government to an eight-member directorate, which lasted until Brandenburg ordered the directorate disbanded in 1638 by right of Imperial investiture.
As a consequence Pomerania lapsed into a state of anarchy, thereby forcing the Swedes to act. From 1641 the administration was led by a council from Stettin, until the peace treaty in 1648 settled rights to the province in Swedish favour. At the peace negotiations in Osnabrück, Brandenburg-Prussia received Farther Pomerania, the part of the former Duchy of Pomerania east of the Oder River except Stettin. A strip of land east of the Oder River containing the districts of Damm and Gollnow and the island of Wolin and Western Pomerania with the islands of Rügen and Usedom, was ceded to the Swedes as a fief from Emperor Ferdinand III; the recess of Stettin in 1653 settled the border with Brandenburg in a manner favourable to Sweden. The border against Mecklenburg, along the Trebel and the Recknitz, followed a settlement of 1591; the nobility of Pomerania was established and held extensive privileges, as opposed to the other end of the spectrum, populated by a class of numerous serfs. By the end of the 18th century, the serfs made up two-thirds of the population of the countryside.
The estates owned by the nobility were divided into districts and the royal domains, which covered about a quarter of the country, were divided into amts. One fourth of the "knightly" estates in Swedish Pomerania were held by Swedish nobles; the ducal estates distributed among Swedish nobles and officials, became in 1654 administered by the former Swedish queen Christina. Swedish and Pomeranian nobility intermarried and became ethnically indistinguishable in the course of the 18th century; the position of Pomerania in the Swedish Realm came to depend on the talks that were opened between the Estates of Pomerania and the Government of Sweden. The talks showed few results until the Instrument of Government of 17 July 1663 could be presented, only in 1664 did the Pomeranian Estates salute the Swedish Monarch as their new ruler; the Royal Government of Pomerania was composed of the Governor-General, who always was a Swedish Privy Councillor, as chairman and five Councillors of the Royal Government, among them the President of the Appellate Court, the Chancellor and the Castle Captain of Stettin, over inspector of the Royal Amts.
When circumstances demanded, the estates, burgesses, — until the 1690s — the clergy could be summoned for meetings of a local parli
Cairn in Snow
Cairn in Snow known as Dolmen in the snow, is a landscape painting by the German painter Caspar David Friedrich. Friedrich is noted for his landscapes depicting features such as trees or Gothic ruins, silhouetted against the sky or in morning mists; the painting depicts leafless trees in the winter snow, with the tops of two of the trees broken off and the third bent by the prevailing wind, giving the work a haunted, spectral air. It is a Romantic allegorical landscape, depicting a stone cairn or dolmen set amid three oak trees on a hilltop, with a contemplative melancholy mood, it was painted around 1807, making it among Friedrich's first oil paintings. It measures 61 by 80 centimetres and has been held by the Galerie Neue Meister in Dresden since 1905; the main elements of the painting are taken from different locations in eastern Germany. The cairn is thought to be based on the Neolithic burial site at Großsteingrab Gützkow, near the town Gützkow in West Pomerania. Friedrich sketched the trees at Neubrandenburg, most an 1807 sepia sketch Hünengrab am Meer.
Similar oak trees reappear in several works by Friedrich, including Monk in the Snow, The Abbey in the Oakwood, Monastery graveyard under snow and Oak tree in snow. The hill is located near Wustrow; the painting includes four ravens, two above the cairn, one to the right, a fourth high in the tree to the right. The painting alludes to pagan symbolism. Trees and forests were seen as symbols of life endurance and immortality. Sacred groves a group of trees in ancient times, were associated with secrecy and initiation rites, they were regarded as untouchable; the main trees depicted in this painting by Friedrich appear to have had most of their old branches chopped off. The three trees around the cairn recalls the three wooden crosses on Golgotha at the crucifixion of Jesus, the stone chamber where Christ's body was entombed; the painting alludes to the permanence of the ancient stone landmark, the strength of the oak tree to withstand the storm broken and bowed but not defeated, the continuity of life in the middle of winter.
Art critics have interpreted the painting as a meditation on life and death, on the political situation in Germany following the defeats of Prussia by Napoleon's French army at the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt in 1806. Around the same times, Friedrich was working on his 1807 Tetschen Altar; the painting was first owned by the Greifswald University professor Karl Schildener. It painting is described in 1828 in the Greifswald academical journal; the work was sold at auction in Leipzig in 1845 and acquired by Friedrich's friend and fellow painter Johan Christian Dahl. Dahl imitated the work in Megalithic Tomb in Winter, it was sold from the estate of Dahl's only surviving son, Johann Siegwald Dahl, acquired by the Galerie Neue Meister in Dresden in 1905. Caspar David Friedrich and the Age of German Romanticism, Linda Siegel, p. 81-82 Political Symbolism in Modern Europe: Essays in Honor of George L. Mosse, edited by George Lachmann Mosse, Seymour Drescher, David Warren Sabean, Allan Sharlin, p. 221 The Megaliths of Northern Europe, Magdalena Midgley, p.xiii Kosegarten's Cultural Legacy: Aesthetics, Literature and Music, Lewis Holmes, p. 123-124 Friedrich, Caspar David, by Theodor Pyl Aschenbeck/Dehnel/Stock, Auf den Spuren von Caspar David Friedrich, Verlag Fischerhude, 1993, ISBN 3-88 132 111-X
The Sea of Ice
The Sea of Ice called The Wreck of Hope is an oil painting of 1823–1824 by the German Romantic artist Caspar David Friedrich. The landscape depicts a shipwreck in the middle of a broken ice-sheet, whose shards have piled up after the impact; the ice has become like a monolithic tomb. The stern of the wreck is just visible on the right; as an inscription on it confirms, this is HMS Griper, one of two ships that took part in William Edward Parry's 1819–1820 and 1824 expeditions to the North Pole. The two titles referred to the present work and another older work by Friedrich, now missing; the lost painting was shown in 1822 at the Dresden Academy exhibition under the title A Wrecked Ship off the Coast of Greenland in the Moonlight. Own Invention; the present painting was first shown in 1824 at the Prague Academy exhibition under the title An Idealized Scene of an Arctic Sea, with a Wrecked Ship on the Heaped Masses of Ice. In Friedrich's estate this work was described as Ice Picture; the Disaster-stricken North Pole Expedition.
The collector Johann Gottlob von Quandt commissioned two pictures that were to symbolize the south and the north. Johann Martin von Rohden received the commission to paint Southern Nature in her Abundant and Majestic Splendor, while the commission for Northern Nature in the whole of her Terrifying Beauty fell to Friedrich. However, as Schukowski in a letter dated 1821 reported, Friedrich – himself does not know what he will paint. Accounts of expeditions to the North Pole were published during those years, how Friedrich became familiar with William Edward Parry's 1819–1820 expedition to find the Northwest Passage. In the winter of 1820–21, Friedrich made extensive oil studies of ice floes on the river Elbe, near Dresden; these were incorporated into The Sea of Ice. The image created a lasting impression on the French sculptor David d'Angers during his visit to Dresden in 1834, which he described as follows: Friedrich has a somber spirit, he has understood how to represent in landscape the great struggles of nature.
Overall, the work was seen as too radical in composition, went unsold until after Friedrich's death in 1840. From the twentieth century the work has proved influential upon the arctic landscapes of Lawren Harris, it directly influenced Paul Nash's painting Totes Meer; the painting has been hailed by critic Russell Potter as a key instance of the "Arctic Sublime", an influence on nineteenth-century polar paintings. Architect Thom Mayne references The Sea of Ice as a primary influence as to how he approaches the dynamic relationship between architecture and nature, it served as an inspiration for the Sydney Opera House. Schmied, Wieland. Caspar David Friedrich. Cologne: DuMont. ISBN 3-8321-7207-6
Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom
Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom was a Swedish romantic poet, a member of the Swedish Academy. He was son of a country parson, was born in the province of Ostergotland on 19 January 1790, he studied in the university of Upsala from 1805 to 1815, became professor of philosophy there in 1828. He was the first great poet of the romantic movement which, inaugurated by the critical work of Lorenzo Hammarsköld, was to revolutionize Swedish literature. In 1807, when in his seventeenth year, he founded at Upsala an artistic society, called the Aurora League, the members of which included V. F. Palmblad, Anders Abraham Grafström, Samuel Hedborn, other youths whose names were destined to take a foremost rank in the literature of their generation, their first newspaper, was a crude effort, soon abandoned, but in 1810 there began to appear a journal, edited by Atterbom, which lasted for three years and finds a place in classic Swedish literature. It consisted of poetry and aesthetic-polemical essays; the members of the Aurora League established the Poetisk Kalender, in which their poems appeared, a new critical organ, Svensk Litteraturtidning.
Among Atterbom's independent works the most celebrated is Lycksalighetens Ö, a romantic drama of extraordinary beauty, published in 1823. Before this he had published a cycle of lyrics, Blommorna, of a mystical character, somewhat in the manner of Novalis. Of a dramatized fairy tale, Fågel Blå, only a fragment, among the most exquisite of his writings, is preserved; as a purely lyrical poet he has not been excelled in Sweden, but his more ambitious works are injured by his weakness for allegory and symbolism, his consistent adoption of the mannerisms of Tieck and Novalis. In his years he became less violent in literary controversy, he became in 1835, professor of aesthetics and literature at Upsala, four years he was admitted to the Swedish Academy. He died on 21 July 1855, his Svenska Siare och Skalder consists of a series of biographies of Swedish poets and men of letters, which forms a valuable history of Swedish letters down to the end of the “classical” period. Atterbom's works were collected in 1854-1870.
Blommorna Fågel Blå 1813 Lycksalighetens Ö 1824-27 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Atterbom, Per Daniel Amadeus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Works by or about Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom at Internet Archive Works by Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom at LibriVox
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences. Allegory has occurred throughout history in all forms of art because it can illustrate or convey complex ideas and concepts in ways that are comprehensible or striking to its viewers, readers, or listeners. Writers or speakers use allegories as literary devices or as rhetorical devices that convey hidden or complex meanings through symbolic figures, imagery, or events, which together create the moral, spiritual, or political meaning the author wishes to convey. First attested in English in 1382, the word allegory comes from Latin allegoria, the latinisation of the Greek ἀλληγορία, "veiled language, figurative", which in turn comes from both ἄλλος, "another, different" and ἀγορεύω, "to harangue, to speak in the assembly", which originates from ἀγορά, "assembly". Northrop Frye discussed what he termed a "continuum of allegory", a spectrum that ranges from what he termed the "naive allegory" of The Faerie Queene, to the more private allegories of modern paradox literature.
In this perspective, the characters in a "naive" allegory are not three-dimensional, for each aspect of their individual personalities and the events that befall them embodies some moral quality or other abstraction. The origins of Allegory can be traced at least back to Homer in his "quasi-allegorical" use of personifications of, e.g. Terror and Fear at Il. 115 f. The title of "first allegorist," however, is awarded to whoever was the earliest to put forth allegorical interpretations of Homer; this approach leads to two possible answers: Theagenes of Rhegium or Pherecydes of Syros, both of whom are presumed to be active in the 6th century B. C. E. Though Pherecydes is earlier and as he is presumed to be the first writer of prose; the debate is complex, since it demands we observe the distinction between two conflated uses of the Greek verb "allēgoreīn," which can mean both "to speak allegorically" and "to interpret allegorically." In the case of "interpreting allegorically," Theagenes appears to be our earliest example.
In response to proto-philosophical moral critiques of Homer, Theagenes proposed symbolic interpretations whereby the Gods of the Iliad stood for physical elements. So, Hephestus represents Fire, for instance; some scholars, argue that Pherecydes cosmogonic writings anticipated Theagenes allegorical work, illustrated by his early placement of Time in his genealogy of the gods, thought to be a reinterpretation of the titan Kronos, from more traditional genealogies. In classical literature two of the best-known allegories are the Cave in Plato's Republic and the story of the stomach and its members in the speech of Menenius Agrippa. Among the best-known examples of allegory, Plato's Allegory of the Cave, forms a part of his larger work The Republic. In this allegory, Plato describes a group of people who have lived chained in a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall; the people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows, using language to identify their world.
According to the allegory, the shadows are as close as the prisoners get to viewing reality, until one of them finds his way into the outside world where he sees the actual objects that produced the shadows. He tries to tell the people in the cave of his discovery, but they do not believe him and vehemently resist his efforts to free them so they can see for themselves; this allegory is, on a basic level, about a philosopher who upon finding greater knowledge outside the cave of human understanding, seeks to share it as is his duty, the foolishness of those who would ignore him because they think themselves educated enough. In Late Antiquity Martianus Capella organized all the information a fifth-century upper-class male needed to know into an allegory of the wedding of Mercury and Philologia, with the seven liberal arts the young man needed to know as guests. Other early allegories are found in the Hebrew Bible, such as the extended metaphor in Psalm 80 of the Vine and its impressive spread and growth, representing Israel's conquest and peopling of the Promised Land.
Allegorical is Ezekiel 16 and 17, wherein the capture of that same vine by the mighty Eagle represents Israel's exile to Babylon. Allegorical interpretation of the Bible continues. For example, the re-discovered IVth Commentary on the Gospels by Fortunatianus of Aquileia has a comment by its English translator: The principal characteristic of Fortunatianus’ exegesis is a figurative approach, relying on a set of concepts associated with key terms in order to create an allegorical decoding of the text. Allegory has an ability to freeze the temporality of a story, while infusing it with a spiritual context. Mediaeval thinking accepted allegory as having a reality underlying any rhetorical or fictional uses; the allegory was as true as the facts of surface appearances. Thus, the Papal Bull Unam Sanctam presents themes of the unity of Christendom with the pope as its head in which the allegorical details of the metaphors are adduced as facts on, based a demonstration with the vocabulary of logic: "There
Duchy of Pomerania
The Duchy of Pomerania was a duchy in Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, ruled by dukes of the House of Pomerania. The duchy originated from the realm of Wartislaw I, a Slavic Pomeranian duke, was extended by the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp in 1317, the Principality of Rügen in 1325, the Lauenburg and Bütow Land in 1455. During the High Middle Ages, it comprised the northern Neumark and Uckermark areas as well as Circipania and Mecklenburg-Strelitz; the Dukes of Pomerania were vassals of Poland from 1122 to 1138. Most of the time, the duchy was ruled by several "Griffin" dukes in common, resulting in various internal partitions. After the last Griffin duke had died during the Thirty Years' War in 1637, the duchy was partitioned between Brandenburg-Prussia and Sweden; the Kings of Sweden and the Margraves of Brandenburg Kings of Prussia, became members as Dukes of Pomerania in the List of Reichstag participants. The name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more. In the 12th century, the Holy Roman Empire's Duchy of Saxony and Denmark variously conquered Pomerania, ending the tribal era.
The Stolp and Schlawe areas were ruled by Ratibor I and his descendants until the Danish occupation and extinction of the Ratiboride branch in 1227. The areas stretching from Kolberg to Stettin were ruled by Ratibor's brother Wartislaw I and his descendants until the 1630s; the terms of surrender after the Polish conquest were that Wartislaw had to accept Polish sovereignty, convert his people to Christianity, pay an annual tribute to the Polish duke. In several expeditions mounted between 1102 and 1121, most of Pomerania had been invaded by the Polish duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. From 1102 to 1109, Boleslaw campaigned in the Persante area; the Pomeranian residence in Belgard was taken in 1102. From 1112 to 1116, Boleslaw subdued all of Pomerelia. From 1119 to 1122, the area towards the Oder were subdued. Stettin was taken in the winter of 1121–1122; the conquest resulted in a high death toll and devastation of vast areas of Pomerania, the Pomeranian dukes were forced to become vassals of Boleslaw III, King of Poland.
Poland's influence vanished in the next decade. In 1135, Boleslaw had accepted overlordship of Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III and in turn received his Pomeranian gains as well as the still undefeated Principality of Rügen as a fief. Wartislaw I accepted the Emperor as his overlord. With Boleslaw's death in 1138, Polish overlordship ended, triggering competition of the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark for the area. In the meantime, Wartislaw managed to conquer vast territories west of the Oder river, an area inhabited by Lutici tribes weakened by past warfare, included these territories into his Duchy of Pomerania. In 1120, he had expanded west into the areas near the Oder Lagoon and Peene river. Most notably Demmin, the Principality of Gützkow and Wolgast were conquered in the following years; the major stage of the westward expansion into Lutici territory occurred between Otto of Bamberg's two missions, 1124 and 1128. In 1128, the County of Gützkow and Wolgast were incorporated into Wartislaw I's realm, yet warfare was still going on.
Captured Lutici and other war loot, including livestock and clothes were apportioned among the victorious. After Wartislaw's Lutician conquests, his duchy lay between the Bay of Greifswald to the north, including Güstrow, to the west, Kolobrzeg in the east, as far as the Havel and Spree rivers in the south; these gains were not subject to Polish over lordship, but were placed under over lordship of Nordmark margrave Albrecht the Bear a dedicated enemy of Slavs, by Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor. Thus, the western territories contributed to making Wartislaw independent from the Polish dukes. Wartislaw was not the only one campaigning in these areas; the Polish Duke Boleslaw III, during his Pomeranian campaign launched an expedition into the Müritz area in 1120–21, before he turned back to subdue Wartislaw. The Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III in 1114 initiated massive campaigns against the local Lutici tribes resulting in their final defeat in 1228; the territories were invaded by Danish forces multiple times, coming from the Baltic Sea, used the rivers Peene and Uecker to advance to a line Demmin–Pasewalk.
At different times, Pomeranians and Danes were either allies or opponents. The Pomeranian dukes consolidated their power in the course of the 12th century, yet the preceding warfare had left these territories devastated. A first attempt to convert the Pomeranians was made following the subjugation of Pomerania by Boleslaw III of Poland. In 1122, Spanish monk Bernard travelled to Jumne, accompanied only by his chaplain and an interpreter; the Pomeranians however were not impressed by his missionary efforts and threw him out of town. Bernard was made bishop of Lebus. After Bernard's misfortune, Boleslaw III asked Otto of Bamberg to convert Pomerania to Christianity, which he accomplished in his first visit in 1124–25. Otto's strategy differed from the one Bernard used: While Bernard trav