Fasces is a bound bundle of wooden rods, sometimes including an axe with its blade emerging. The fasces had its origin in the Etruscan civilization and was passed on to ancient Rome, where it symbolized a magistrate's power and jurisdiction; the axe associated with the symbol, the Labrys the double-bitted axe from Crete, is one of the oldest symbols of Greek civilization. To the Romans, it was known as a bipennis; the symbol was associated with female deities, from prehistoric through historic times. The image has survived in the modern world as a representation of magisterial or collective power and governance; the fasces occurs as a charge in heraldry: it is present on the reverse of the U. S. Mercury dime coin and behind the podium in the United States House of Representatives. During the first half of the 20th century both the fasces and the swastika became identified with the authoritarian/fascist political movements of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. During this period the swastika became stigmatized, but the fasces did not undergo a similar process.
The fact that the fasces remained in use in many societies after World War II may have been due to the fact that prior to Mussolini the fasces had been adopted and incorporated within the governmental iconography of many governments outside Italy. As such, its use persists as an accepted form of governmental and other iconography in various contexts; the fasces is sometimes confused with the related term fess, which in French heraldry is called a fasce. A few artifacts found showing a thin bundle of rods surrounding a two-headed axe point to a possible Etruscan origin for fasces, but little is known about the Etruscans themselves. Fasces symbolism might be derived via the Etruscans from the eastern Mediterranean, with the labrys, the Anatolian, Minoan double-headed axe incorporated into the praetorial fasces. There is little archaeological evidence for precise claims. By the time of the Roman Republic, the fasces had developed into a thicker bundle of birch rods, sometimes surrounding a single-headed axe and tied together with a red leather ribbon into a cylinder.
On certain special occasions, the fasces might be decorated with a laurel wreath. The symbolism of the fasces could suggest strength through unity; this symbolism occurs in Aesop's fable "The Old Man and his Sons". A similar story is told about the Bulgar Khan Kubrat, giving rise to the Bulgarian national motto "Union gives strength". However, bundled birch twigs could symbolise corporal punishment; the fasces lictoriae symbolised power and authority in ancient Rome, beginning with the early Roman Kingdom and continuing through the republican and imperial periods. By republican times, use of the fasces was surrounded with protocol. A corps of apparitores called lictors each carried fasces before a magistrate, in a number corresponding to his rank. Lictors preceded consuls, dictators, curule aediles and the Flamen Dialis during Roman triumphs. According to Livy, it is that the lictors were an Etruscan tradition, adopted by Rome; the highest magistrate, the dictator, was entitled to twenty-four lictors and fasces, the consul to twelve, the proconsul eleven, the praetor six, the propraetor five, the curule aediles two.
Another part of the symbolism developed in Republican Rome was the inclusion of just a single-headed axe in the fasces, with the blade projecting from the bundle. The axe indicated. Fasces carried within the Pomerium—the boundary of the sacred inner city of Rome—had their axe blades removed. During times of emergency, the Roman Republic might choose a dictator to lead for a limited time period, the only magistrate to be granted capital punishment authority within the Pomerium. Lictors attending the dictator kept the axes in their fasces inside the Pomerium—a sign that the dictator had the ultimate power in his own hands. There were exceptions to this rule: in 48 BC, guards holding bladed fasces guided Vatia Isauricus to the tribunal of Marcus Caelius, Vatia Isauricus used one to destroy Caelius's magisterial chair. An occasional variation on the fasces was the addition of symbolizing victory; this occurred during the celebration of a Triumph - a victory parade through Rome by a returning victorious general.
All Republican Roman commanding generals had held high office with imperium, so were entitled to the lictors and fasces. The modern Italian word fascio, used in the twentieth century to designate peasant cooperatives and industrial workers' unions, is related to fasces. Numerous governments and other authorities have used the image of the fasces as a symbol of power since the end of the Roman Empire, it has been used to hearke
A biographical film, or biopic, is a film that dramatizes the life of a non-fictional or historically-based person or people. Such films show the life of a historical person and the central character's real name is used, they differ from films "based on a true story" or "historical drama films" in that they attempt to comprehensively tell a single person's life story or at least the most important years of their lives. Because the figures portrayed are actual people, whose actions and characteristics are known to the public, biopic roles are considered some of the most demanding of actors and actresses. Ben Kingsley, Johnny Depp, Jim Carrey, Jamie Foxx all gained new-found respect as dramatic actors after starring in biopics: Ben Kingsley as Mahatma Gandhi in Gandhi, Depp as Ed Wood in Ed Wood, Carrey as Andy Kaufman in Man on the Moon, Foxx as Ray Charles in Ray, Eddie Redmayne as Stephen Hawking in The Theory of Everything. In rare cases, sometimes called auto biopics, the subject of the film plays himself or herself: Jackie Robinson in The Jackie Robinson Story.
Biopic scholars include George F. Custen of the College of Staten Island and Dennis P. Bingham of Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis. Custen, in Bio/Pics: How Hollywood Constructed Public History, regards the genre as having died with the Hollywood studio era, in particular, Darryl F. Zanuck. On the other hand, Bingham's 2010 study Whose Lives Are They Anyway? The Biopic as Contemporary Film Genre shows how it perpetuates as a codified genre using many of the same tropes used in the studio era that has followed a similar trajectory as that shown by Rick Altman in his study, Film/Genre. Bingham addresses the male biopic and the female biopic as distinct genres from each other, the former dealing with great accomplishments, the latter dealing with female victimization. Ellen Cheshire's Bio-Pics: a life in pictures examines UK/US films from the 1990s and 2000s; each chapter concludes with further viewing list. Christopher Robé has written on the gender norms that underlie the biopic in his article, "Taking Hollywood Back" in the 2009 issue of Cinema Journal.
Roger Ebert defended The Hurricane and distortions in biographical films in general, stating "those who seek the truth about a man from the film of his life might as well seek it from his loving grandmother.... The Hurricane is not a documentary but a parable." Some biopics purposely stretch the truth. Confessions of a Dangerous Mind was based on game show host Chuck Barris' debunked yet popular memoir of the same name, in which he claimed to be a CIA agent. Kafka incorporated both the surreal aspects of his fiction; the Errol Flynn film They Died with Their Boots On tells the story of Custer but is romanticized. The Oliver Stone film The Doors about Jim Morrison, was praised for the similarities between Jim Morrison and actor Val Kilmer, look-wise and singing-wise, but fans and band members did not like the way Val Kilmer portrayed Jim Morrison, a few of the scenes were completely made up. Casting can be controversial for biographical films. Casting is a balance between similarity in looks and ability to portray the characteristics of the person.
Anthony Hopkins felt that he should not have played Richard Nixon in Nixon because of a lack of resemblance between the two. The casting of John Wayne as Genghis Khan in The Conqueror was objected to because of the American Wayne being cast as the Mongol warlord. Egyptian critics criticized the casting of Louis Gossett, Jr. an African American actor, as Egyptian president Anwar Sadat in the 1982 TV miniseries Sadat. Some objected to the casting of Jennifer Lopez in Selena because she is a New York City native of Puerto Rican descent while Selena was Mexican-American; the musical biopic Bohemian Rhapsody, based on the life of Queen singer Freddie Mercury, became the highest-grossing biopic of all time in 2018. Biographical novel Biography in literature List of biographical films
John Farley (actor)
John Patrick Farley is an American actor and comedian. Farley was born in Madison, the son of Mary Anne, a housewife, Thomas "Tom" Farley, Sr. who owned an oil company. He was raised in an Irish Catholic family, he is the youngest brother of actors Chris Kevin Farley. He has two children, he majored in marketing in college, graduating in 1992 from Regis University, studied at The Second City in Chicago. He and Kevin work together on projects and tour comedy clubs around the country. Farley has received many roles from Chris's former SNL alums, such as Adam Sandler, David Spade, Rob Schneider, his notable film work includes The Benchwarmers. He has small roles in You Don't Mess with the Zohan, Joe Dirt, Almost Heroes and Extreme Movie, he appears on multiple episodes of Frank TV and in one episode on the sitcom Rules of Engagement. In 2015, Farley appeared in the documentary I Am Chris Farley alongside his brother Kevin and many other stars like Adam Sandler and Dan Aykroyd which documented the life of his brother Chris Farley.
John P. Farley on IMDb
The Palme d'Or is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival. It was introduced in 1955 by the festival's organizing committee. From 1939 to 1954, the highest prize at the festival was the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film. In 1964, The Palme d'Or was replaced again by the Grand Prix, before being reintroduced in 1975; the Palme d'Or is considered to be one of the most prestigious awards in the film industry. In 1954, the festival decided to present an award annually, titled the Grand Prix of the International Film Festival, with a new design each year from a contemporary artist; the festival's board of directors invited several jewellers to submit designs for a palm, in tribute to the coat of arms of the city of Cannes. The original design by the jeweller Lucienne Lazon had the bevelled lower extremity of the stalk forming a heart, the pedestal a sculpture in terracotta by the artist Sébastien. In 1955, the first Palme d'Or was awarded to Delbert Mann for Marty. From 1964 to 1974, the Festival temporarily resumed a Grand Prix.
In 1975, the Palme d'Or was reintroduced and has since remained the symbol of the Cannes Film Festival, awarded every year to the director of the winning film, presented in a case of pure red Morocco leather lined with white suede. As of 2018, Jane Campion is the only female director to have won the Palme d'Or, for her work on The Piano. However, in 2013, when Blue Is the Warmest Color won the Palme d'Or, the Steven Spielberg-headed jury awarded it to the film's director Abdellatif Kechiche, as well as the film's actresses Adèle Exarchopoulos and Léa Seydoux; this marks the first time. The jury decided to award the actresses alongside the director due to a Cannes policy that forbids the Palme d'Or-winning film from receiving any additional awards, thereby preventing the jury from rewarding both the film and the film's actresses separately. Of the unorthodox decision, Spielberg said that "had the casting been 3% wrong, it wouldn't have worked like it did for us". Kechiche auctioned off his Palme d'Or trophy to fund his new feature film, expressed mixed feelings about the festival having given out multiple trophies in an interview with The Hollywood Reporter.
Since its reintroduction, the prize has been redesigned several times. At the beginning of the 1980s, the rounded shape of the pedestal, bearing the palm transformed to become pyramidal in 1984. In 1992, Thierry de Bourqueney redesigned its pedestal in hand-cut crystal. In 1997, a new design, created by Caroline Scheufele from Chopard, was created; the winner of the 2014 Palme d'Or, Winter Sleep—a Turkish film by Nuri Bilge Ceylan—occurred during the same year as the 100th anniversary of Turkish cinema. Upon receiving the award, Ceylan dedicated the prize to both the "young people" involved in the ongoing political unrest in Turkey and the workers who were killed in the Soma mine disaster, which occurred on the day prior to the commencement of the awards event. In 2017, the award was re-designed to celebrate the festival's 70th anniversary; the diamonds were provided by an ethical supplier certified by the Responsible Jewellery Council. * Director's nationality given at time of film's release.
§ Denotes unanimous win ‡ The Palme d'Or for Union Pacific was awarded in retrospect at the 2002 festival. The festival's debut was to take place in 1939, but it was cancelled due to World War II; the organisers of the 2002 festival presented part of the original 1939 selection to a professional jury of six members. The films were: Goodbye Mr. Chips, La Piste du Nord, Lenin in 1918, The Four Feathers, The Wizard of Oz, Union Pacific, Boefje. Eight directors or co-directors have won the award twice: 1946 & 1951 Alf Sjöberg 1974 & 1979 Francis Ford Coppola 1988 & 1992 Bille August 1985 & 1995 Emir Kusturica 1983 & 1997 Shohei Imamura 1999 & 2005 Luc and Jean-Pierre Dardenne 2009 & 2012 Michael Haneke 2006 & 2016 Ken Loach In 2002 the festival began to sporadically award a non-competitive Honorary Palme d'Or to directors who had achieved a notable body of work but who had never won a competitive Palme d'Or. In 2011 the festival announced that the award would be given out annually, however plans for this fell through and it was not awarded again until four years in 2015.
American director Woody Allen was the inaugural recipient while pioneering French filmmaker Agnès Varda was the first woman to receive the award in 2015. In 2016, Jean-Pierre Léaud became the first person to be awarded for acting. In 2018, the Cannes jury awarded a "Special Palme d'Or" for the first time. Golden Bear, the highest prize awarded at the Berlin Film Festival Golden Lion, the highest prize awarded at the Venice Film Festival Palme d'Or Winners, 1976 to present, by gross box-office Festival-cannes.com Cannes Film Festival IMDB
Kevin Peter Farley is an American actor, production designer, dancer, occasional composer and stand-up comic. Farley was born in Madison, the son of Mary Anne, a homemaker, Thomas Farley, who owned an oil company, Scotch Oil, he is older brother of actor John P. Farley. Like his brother Chris, Kevin Farley graduated from Marquette University. Farley is best known for portraying "Doug Linus" in the fictional boy band 2ge+her, he has appeared in alongside many of Chris Farley's Saturday Night Live castmates, such as David Spade and Adam Sandler. He was credited in Tommy Boy and Black Sheep as Bouncer in Beverly Hills Ninja as Police, he appeared in The Waterboy and in Dirty Work as an employee of a cinema. He played a cop in the 2001 film Joe Dirt starring David Spade. In 2005, Farley appeared in the Lifehouse video for the band's single "Blind", he portrayed a neglectful father who brings different women home, where he lives with his daughter, played by Tina Majorino. Farley appeared on the HBO series Curb Your Enthusiasm as an exterminator in the episode "The Rat Dog".
Farley was in a Dairy Queen commercial advertising the Kit Kat Blizzard, commercials for Hertz Rent-A-Car, portrayed Felix the limo driver on Disney's That's So Raven. He starred in the parody movie An American Carol with Kelsey Grammer and Jon Voight in 2008. Farley appeared on The View to promote the movie. In 2007, Farley was featured in the web serial Two Guys Drinking at a Bar. Farley appeared at the 2008 Republican National Convention, during an interview with 97.1 FM Talk's Jamie Allman he identified his politics as conservative. Farley appeared as the kidnapped beer truck driver in the 2010 music video for "This Afternoon" by Nickelback. In May 2010, Farley appeared as a guest on Tom Green's House Tonight where he performed a section of his new stand-up routine. Farley directed the film Hollywood & Wine, released in 2011. On May 9, 2013, Farley was a featured guest for Sirius/XM radio on the Jason Ellis Show. In 2013, Paranormal Movie, a spoof film of Paranormal Activity, was released. Farley directed and co-stars in the film alongside Carly Craig, Nicky Whelan, William Katt, Tom Sizemore, Maria Menounos, his brother John P. Farley, Kevin Sorbo, Quinton Aaron, Deep Roy, Academy Award nominee Eric Roberts.
The same year, he starred in an episode of Rules of Engagement. In 2015, Farley appeared in the documentary I Am Chris Farley alongside his brother John and many other stars such as Adam Sandler and Dan Aykroyd which documented the life of his brother Chris Farley, he filmed independent film Crowning Jules in South Bend, Indiana. In 2015, along with Jaleel White & Pauly Shore, have appeared on the series Hawaii Five-0 in the Season 5 episode "Hoʻamoano" "Chasing Yesterday" on April 24, 2015. In 2016, he made a guest appearance as'Turkey' in the It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia episode "The Gang Hits the Slopes." He made a guest appearance as the NRA card-carrying, gun-toting protester,'Eric,' in the Superstore episode, "Guns and Birds." In 2017 Farley appeared in the Rascal Flatts music video as Earl, for their new song Yours If You Want It alongside Kristy Swanson. Official website Kevin Farley on IMDb
John Deere is the brand name of Deere & Company, an American corporation that manufactures agricultural and forestry machinery, diesel engines, drivetrains used in heavy equipment, lawn care equipment. In 2018, it was listed as 102nd in the Fortune 500 America's ranking and was ranked 394th in the global ranking; the company provides financial services and other related activities. Deere & Company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol DE; the company's slogan is "Nothing Runs Like a Deere", its logo is a leaping deer, with the words'JOHN DEERE' under it. Various logos incorporating a leaping deer have been used by the company for over 155 years. Deere & Company began when John Deere, born in Rutland, Vermont, USA on February 7, 1804, moved to Grand Detour, Illinois in 1836 to escape bankruptcy in Vermont. An established blacksmith, Deere opened a 1,378-square-foot shop in Grand Detour in 1837, which allowed him to serve as a general repairman in the village, as well as a manufacturer of large tools such as pitchforks and shovels.
Small tools production was just a start. Prior to Deere's steel plow, most farmers used iron or wooden plows to which the rich Midwestern soil stuck, so they had to be cleaned frequently; the smooth-sided steel plow solved this problem, aided migration into the American Great Plains in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The traditional way of doing business was to make the product as and when it was ordered; this style was slow, As Deere realized that this was not going to be a viable business model, he increased the rate of production by manufacturing plows before putting them up for sale. Word of his products began to spread quickly. In 1842, Deere entered a business partnership with Leonard Andrus and purchased land for the construction of a new, two-story factory along the Rock River in Illinois; this factory, named the "L. Andrus Plough Manufacturer", produced about 100 plows in 1842 and around 400 plows during the next year. Deere's partnership with Andrus ended in 1848, Deere relocated to Moline, Illinois, to have access to the railroad and the Mississippi River.
There, Deere formed a partnership with Robert Tate and John Gould and built a 1,440-square-foot factory the same year. Production rose and by 1849, the Deere, Tate & Gould Company was producing over 200 plows a month. A two-story addition to the plant was built. Deere bought out Tate and Gould's interests in the company in 1853, was joined in the business by his son Charles Deere. At that time, the company was manufacturing a variety of farm equipment products in addition to plows, including wagons, corn planters, cultivators. In 1857, the company's production totals reached 1,120 implements per month. In 1858, a nationwide financial recession took a toll on the company. To prevent bankruptcy, the company was reorganized and Deere sold his interests in the business to his son-in-law, Christopher Webber, his son, Charles Deere, who would take on most of his father's managerial roles. John Deere served as president of the company until 1886; the company was reorganized again in 1868, when it was incorporated as Company.
While the company's original stockholders were Charles Deere, Stephen Velie, George Vinton, John Deere, Charles ran the company. In 1869, Charles began to introduce marketing centers and independent retail dealers to advance the company's sales nationwide; this same year, Deere & Company won "Best and Greatest Display of Plows in Variety" at the 17th Annual Illinois State Fair, for which it won $10 and a Silver Medal. The core focus remained on the agricultural implements, but John Deere made a few bicycles in the 1890s. Increased competition during the early 1900s from the new International Harvester Company led the company to expand its offerings in the implement business, but the production of gasoline tractors came to define Deere & Company's operations during the 20th century. In 1912, Deere & Company president William Butterworth, who had replaced Charles Deere after his death in 1907, began the company's expansion into the tractor business. Deere & Company experimented with its own tractor models, the most successful of, the Dain All-Wheel-Drive, but in the end decided to continue its foray into the tractor business by purchasing the Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company in 1918, which manufactured the popular Waterloo Boy tractor at its facilities in Waterloo, Iowa.
Deere & Company continued to sell tractors under the Waterloo Boy name until 1923, when the John Deere Model D was introduced. The company continues to manufacture a large percentage of its tractors in Waterloo, namely the 7R, 8R, 9R series; the company produced the John Deere No. 2, in 1927. A year this innovation was followed up by the introduction of John Deere No. 1, a smaller machine, more popular with customers. By 1929, the No. 1 and No. 2 were replaced by newer, lighter-weight harvesters. In the 1930s, John Deere and other farm equipment manufacturers began developing hillside harvesting technology. Harvesters now had the ability to use their combines to harvest grain on hillsides with up to a 50% slope gradient. On an episode of the Travel Channel series Made in America that profiled Deere & Company, host John Ratzenberger stated that the company never repossessed any equipment from American farmers du
Windham Hill Records
Windham Hill Records was an independent record label that specialized in instrumental acoustic music. It was founded by guitarist William Ackerman and Anne Robinson in 1976 and was popular in the 1980s and 1990s; the label was purchased by BMG through a series of buyouts from 1992 through 1996 and is a subsidiary of Sony Music Entertainment after BMG's subsequent merger in 2008. Private Music a subsidiary of BMG, has issued some back-catalog releases under the Windham Hill Records imprint. Since the Sony merger in 2007, Windham Hill has released no new material but reissues albums and compilations as part of Sony's Legacy Recordings brand. In 1975, William Ackerman was a college dropout who played acoustic guitar on the Stanford University campus. Friends asked him to record his instrumental music for them on cassette, they chipped in so he could make The Search for the Turtle's Navel. He gave copies to radio stations, which attracted an audience as well as California record store owners, his albums began to sell.
He founded the label with his then-girlfriend Anne Robinson in 1976. Ackerman invited like-minded musicians to the label, including Alex De Grassi, his cousin and an acoustic guitarist who became one of Windham Hill's best sellers. Ackerman began recording friends and fellow Bay Area musicians, Robinson would market and design the albums. Windham Hill produced music, difficult to define, with elements of classical and jazz, nearly all of it instrumental and mellow. California-based Tower Records stores gave Windham Hill its own section. Billboard magazine called the music soft jazz in 1983, but listed the label as new age; the roster included acoustic guitarists Michael Hedges, David Cullen, John Doan, Andrew York. The label's albums topped the New Contemporary Jazz charts in Billboard magazine. Albums of solo piano by George Winston crossed over into the Folk charts. Seven albums by Winston have been certified Gold and Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America; the staff concentrated on the quality of pressing.
Anne Robinson, a student of design, produced covers that were minimal, with a centered photograph of nature surrounded by a large white area. The albums were packaged in loose plastic rather than tight cellophane, distributed in health-food stores and book stores. Windham Hill's music was distributed by A&M Records until PolyGram purchased A&M in 1989; when A&M was purchased and Robinson began considering selling Windham Hill to a media conglomerate. When BMG took over distribution from A&M in 1989, they began negotiations to purchase Windham Hill from its two principal shareholders. Ackerman sold his half of the company to BMG in 1992 and Anne Robinson sold her half in 1996. BMG relocated the Windham Hill office to Los Angeles and began distributing Windham Hill through RCA Records. BMG merged other music labels. In doing so, artists such as Yanni and Vangelis joined the label, though they were not original Windham Hill artists. Jim Brickman was the last artist signed to the label pre-buyout and he was the last artist to leave Windham Hill in 2006, joining Savoy Records.
George Winston, who founded his own Dancing Cat Records in the early 1980s, continued working with Windham Hill as a distribution partner until the label was closed in 2007. BMG negotiated a distribution arrangement with Dancing Cat and Winston moved to RCA Victor until 2009, Sony Classical thereafter. Winston is the only original Windham Hill artist still working as an artist under Windham Hill's parent company. Today a majority of Windham's releases are distributed through Legacy Recordings, a division of Sony Music Entertainment. In 2008 Sony wrapped Windham Hill into their conglomerate. Sony records no new music at this time, it is uncertain whether or not Windham Hill will release any new material, though, as part of the Legacy Recordings branch, Windham Hill recycles tunes released. For Windham Hill's 30th Anniversary in 2006, Sony BMG released a special collection kit, with an article from Will Ackerman. For the first time in over 15 years, many of the early Windham Hill artists who recorded under Ackerman performed together on August 27, 2006 at the Villa Montalvo in Saratoga, California near San Jose.
Artists included: Barbara Higbie, Jim Brickman, Tuck & Patti, Alex de Grassi, Liz Story, Philip Aaberg, Michael Manring, David Cullen, Tracy Silverman, Lisa Lynne, George Tortorelli, Sean Harkness, Will Ackerman. Starting in 2009, Valley Entertainment began reissuing titles from the Windham Hill catalog. Other acoustic music record labels have signed licensing deals with Legacy Recordings, including Adventure Music, Gnome Life Records, Grass-Tops Recording and Dancing Cat. Dancing Cat Records, label founded by George Winston which began with Winston's albums and migrated to Hawaiian music, received distribution through Windham Hill. Dancing Cat remains an independent label under Sony Classical. High Street Records, a singer-songwriter-oriented sub-label started by Will Ackerman and managed by Dawn Atkinson and Bob Duskis. Hip Pocket, jazz-oriented label started by Andy Narell and Steven Miller in 1981, folded into the Windham Hill Jazz label with Magenta in 1987. Magenta jazz-oriented label, started by Steve Backer in 1985, folded into the Windham Hill Jazz label with Hip Pocket in 1987.
Living Music new-age label started by Paul Winter in 1980, distributed by Windham Hill from 1986–1988. Lost Lake Arts reissued