Alban Hills

The Alban Hills are the caldera remains of a quiescent volcanic complex in Italy, located 20 km southeast of Rome and about 24 km north of Anzio. The 950 m high Monte Cavo forms a visible peak the centre of the caldera, but the highest point is Maschio delle Faete 2 km to the east of Cavo and 6 m taller. There are subsidiary calderas along the rim of the Alban Hills that contain the lakes Albano and Nemi; the hills are composed of peperino, a variety of tuff, useful for construction and provides a mineral-rich substrate for nearby vineyards. The hills around the shores of the lakes, have been popular since prehistoric times. From the 9th to 7th century BC, there were numerous villages; the area was inhabited by the Latini during the 5th to 3rd centuries BC. The ancient Romans called the hill Albanus Mons. On the summit was the sanctuary of Jupiter Latiaris, in which the consuls celebrated the Feriae Latinae, several generals celebrated victories here during times when they were not accorded regular triumphs in Rome.

The foundations and some of the architectural fragments of the temple were still in existence until 1777, when they were used to build the Passionist monastery by Cardinal York, but the Via Triumphalis leading up to it can still be seen. In Roman times, the area was used by the rich as a way to escape the heat and crowds of Rome, as it is today as shown by the many villas and country houses present; the towns and villages in the Alban Hills are known as the Castelli Romani. Examination of deposits have dated the four most recent eruptions to two temporal peaks, around 36,000 and 39,000 years ago; the area exhibits small localised earthquake swarms and release of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide into the atmosphere. The uplift and earthquake swarms have been interpreted as caused by a growing spherical magma chamber 5-6 kilometres below the surface. There is documentary evidence which may describe an eruption in 114 BC, but the absence of Holocene geological deposits has discredited it as a volcanic event and instead the account is considered to be a description of a forest fire.

The volcano emits large amounts of carbon dioxide which can reach lethal concentrations if it accumulates in depressions in the ground in the absence of wind. The asphyxiation of 29 cows in September 1999 prompted a detailed survey, which found that concentration of the gas at 1.5 m above the ground in a residential area on the northwestern flank sometimes exceeded the occupational health threshold of 0.5%. Eight sheep were killed in a similar incident in October 2001. Writers and artists who have produced work about this area include: Thomas Ashby, wrote The Roman Campagna in Classic Time William Brockedon painter and illustrator of guide-books George Gordon Byron in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage Charles Coleman painter Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Italian Journey Louis Gurlitt, German painter Jacob Philipp Hackert, German painter Gavin Hamilton and antiquarian, painter and archaeologist, in Genzano and Lanuvio James Duffield Harding in Tourist in Italy John Henry Henshall watercolor painter Richard Colt Hoare in A classical tour through Italy and Sicily Ellis Cornelia Knight and painter in Description of Latium or La Campagna di Roma Edward Lear painter and lithographer William Leighton Leitch watercolor painter in Lanuvio Charles H. Poingdestre painter John Singer Sargent, painter in Villa Torlonia - Frascati Stendhal, writer, in Albano Laziale, Chroniques italiennes: L'Abbesse de Castro Georgina E. Troutbeck, Rambles in Rome - London - ed. Mills & Boon - 1914 Richard Voss, German dramatist and novelist Clara Louisa Wells in The Alban Hills ed. 1878 List of volcanoes in Italy

Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record

The Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record is a shared electronic health summary set up by the Australian government with implementation overseen by the National Electronic Health Transition Authority. The purpose of the PCEHR is to provide a secure electronic summary of people's medical history which will include information such as current medications, adverse drug reactions and immunisation history in an accessible format; this PCEHR is stored in a network of connected systems with the ability to improve the sharing of information amongst health care providers to improve patient outcomes no matter where in Australia a patient presents for treatment. It is an opt-in system with a unique individual healthcare identifier being assigned to participants and the option of masking and limiting information available for viewing controlled by the patient or a nominated representative, it is reported that on average, each Australian has 22 health system interactions annually, be that General practitioner visits, specialists, or prescriptions.

All of these interactions are held in individual, paper-based records making the entire health picture of an individual difficult to ascertain. It is reported that up to 10% of hospital admissions are due to adverse drug events, 18% are due to medical errors relating to lack of adequate available patient information, an estimated 25% of clinicians time is spent collecting information regarding the patient than treating them; these facts combined with the ageing Australian population, vast geographic expanse, increasing population, have necessitated the implementation of the PCEHR in an effort to bring the medical record into the 21st century. As part of the 2010/11 Australian federal budget the Hon. Nicola Roxon announced the PCEHR as a "key building block of the National Health and Hospitals Network"; the system went live on 1 July 2012 The system is based on the XDS Profile published by Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise. However, the usual IHE Patient Management system has been replaced by the National Health Identity Service.

In addition the usual authentication and security IHE profiles have been replaced by, or modified to work with, existing infrastructure. HL7 CDA format is used to transfer information between different healthcare clinical systems whilst still allowing information to be accessed and viewed The six GP Desktop Vendor Panel members are:- Best Practice Software Pty Ltd Communicare System Genie Solutions iSoft Medtech Global Zedmed National Authentication Service for Health Public Key Infrastructure is a certificate that authenticates healthcare professionals accessing the eHealth records system; these certificates can be loaded onto smart cards which are used in combination with the healthcare professionals HPI-I to log on to patients who have a PCEHR using the patients IHI. This system facilitates secure electronic communications with other healthcare provider organisations; the PKI allows users to know: who sent the message the message hasn't been altered between sending and receiving it. The sender can't dispute the message they created and sent that only the person the message is directed to can open itThese benefits allow users to securely and confidently relay patient information to trustworthy sources.

For the PKI to work there must be a Chain of Trust on your computer. This Chain of Trust is composed of three certificates, namely: Medicare Australia Root CA Medicare Australia Organisation CA Medicare Australia Organisation CA2The PKI Certificates are based on the Australian Gatekeeper framework and met the International Organisation for Standardization Health Informatics-Public Key Infrastructure technical specification, it was budgeted to cost $466.7m but had surpassed this to $766m before the actual launch date with the final figure still to be calculated. In contrast a recent study published by Deloitte projected the PCEHR to save $11.5 billion over the 2010 to 2025 period. This consists of $9.5 billion in net direct benefits to the Australian Government and $2.0 billion in net direct benefits to the private sector. As of 17 February 2013, 1233 healthcare organisations had registered for the PCEHR with NEHTA CEO Peter Fleming estimating 98% of GP-specific software was PCEHR compatible.

At the 7-month mark 56,761 patients had registered with the 12-month target at 500,000 patients. This target figure was still considered achievable according to the DoHA deputy secretary Rosemary Huxtable who had released this information to a Senate Estimates committee. On 16 August 2012 the Hon. Tanya Plibersek, the Minister for Health announced the Personally Controlled Electronic Health Records Act 2012 The legislation was amended in late 2015 to be known as the My Health Records Act 2012 Patients can read in full everything, added to their eHealth record, they may choose to include additional information in their own local clinical information system, not included in the eHealth record. In any event, patients have a right under the Privacy Act 1988 to access the personal information that healthcare professionals hold about them. From November 2015 the My Health Records Act 2012 was amended to reflect that representatives of persons who require decision-making support related to the Act must support the person to make decisions, or make decisions on their behalf, reflecting the individual's "will and preferences".

This reflects the principle that people with disability or varied capacity have an equal right to have their decisions respected. Healthcare Identifiers Act 2010 This Act outlines