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The Tale of the Heike

The Tale of the Heike is an epic account compiled prior to 1330 of the struggle between the Taira clan and Minamoto clan for control of Japan at the end of the 12th century in the Genpei War. Heike refers to the Taira, hei being the Sino-Japanese reading of the first Chinese character. Note that in the title of the Genpei War, "hei" is in this combination read as "pei" and the "gen" is the first kanji used in the Minamoto clan's name; the Tale of the Heike is likened to a Japanese Iliad. It has been translated into English at least five times, the first by Arthur Lindsay Sadler in 1918–1921. A complete translation in nearly 800 pages by Hiroshi Kitagawa & Bruce T. Tsuchida was published in 1975. Translated by Helen McCullough in 1988. An abridged translation by Burton Watson was published in 2006. In 2012, Royall Tyler completed his translation, which seeks to be mindful of the performance style for which the work was intended, it was famously retold in Japanese prose by historical novelist Eiji Yoshikawa, published in Asahi Weekly in 1950 with the title New Tale of the Heike.

The Tale of the Heike's origin cannot be reduced to a single creator. Like most epics, it is the result of the conglomeration of differing versions passed down through an oral tradition by biwa-playing bards known as biwa hōshi; the monk Yoshida Kenkō offers a theory as to the authorship of the text, in his famous work Tsurezuregusa, which he wrote in 1330. According to Kenkō, "The former governor of Shinano, wrote Heike monogatari and told it to a blind man called Shōbutsu to chant it", he confirms the biwa connection of that blind man, who "was natural from the eastern tract", and, sent from Yukinaga to "recollect some information about samurai, about their bows, their horses and their war strategy. Yukinaga wrote it after that". One of the key points in this theory is that the book was written in a difficult combination of Chinese and Japanese, which in those days was only mastered by educated monks, such as Yukinaga. However, in the end, as the tale is the result of a long oral tradition, there is no single true author.

Moreover, as it is true that there are frequent steps back, that the style is not the same throughout the composition, this cannot mean anything but that it is a collective work. The story of the Heike was compiled from a collection of oral stories recited by traveling monks who chanted to the accompaniment of the biwa, an instrument reminiscent of the lute; the most read version of the Heike monogatari was compiled by a blind monk named Kakuichi in 1371. The Heike is considered one of the great classics of medieval Japanese literature; the central theme of the story is the Buddhist law of impermanence in the form of the fleeting nature of fortune, an analog of sic transit gloria mundi. The theme of impermanence is captured in the famous opening passage: 祇園精舎の鐘の聲、諸行無常の響き有り。 沙羅雙樹の花の色、盛者必衰の理を顯す。 驕れる者も久しからず、唯春の夜の夢の如し。 猛き者も遂には滅びぬ、偏に風の前の塵に同じ。 Gionshōja no kane no koe, Shogyōmujō no hibiki ari. Sarasōju no hana no iro, Jōshahissui. Ogoreru mono mo hisashikarazu, tada haru no yo no yume no gotoshi. Takeki mono mo tsui ni wa horobin, hitoeni kaze no mae no chiri ni onaji.

The sound of the Gion Shōja bells echoes the impermanence of all things. The proud do not endure, they are like a dream on a spring night. -- Chapter 1.1, Helen Craig McCullough's translation The 4-character expression "the prosperous must decline" is a phrase from the Humane King Sutra, in full "The prosperous decline, the full empty". The second concept evident in the Tale of the Heike is karma; the concept of karma says that every action has consequences that become apparent in life. Thus, karma helps to deal with the problem of both natural evil. Evil acts in life will bring about an inevitable suffering in life; this can be seen with the treatment of Kiyomori in The Tale of the Heike, cruel throughout his life, falls into a painful illness that kills him. The fall of the powerful Taira – the samurai clan who defeated the imperial-backed Minamoto in 1161–symbolizes the theme of impermanence in the Heike; the Taira warrior family sowed the seeds of their own destruction with acts of arrogance and pride that led to their defeat in 1185 at the hands of the revitalized Minamoto.

The story is designed to be told in a series of nightly installments. It is a samurai epic focusing on warrior culture – an ideology that laid the groundwork for bushido; the Heike includes a number of love stories, which harkens back to earlier Heian literature. The story is divided into three sections; the central figure of the first section is Taira no Kiyomori, described as arrogant, ruthless and so consumed by the fires of hatred that in death his feverish body does not cool when immersed in water. The main figure of the second section is the Minamoto general Minamoto no Yoshinaka. After he dies the main figure of the third section is the great samurai, Minamoto no Yoshitsune, a military genius, falsely accused of treachery by his politically astute elder brother Minamoto no Yoritomo; the Tale of the Heike has provided material for many artistic w


Glutamate-rich protein 3 known as Uncharacterized Protein C1orf173 or Chromosome 1 Open Reading Frame 173, is a protein encoded by the ERICH3 gene. The ERICH3 gene in humans is 105,628 bases and is encoded on the minus strand at position 31.1 on the short arm of chromosome 1 from base pair 75,033,795 bp to 75,139,422 bp from pter. C1orf173's function in humans is still unclear though there is a link between expression of this gene and several forms of cancer, such as breast cancer and skin sarcomas. C1orf173 is expressed in the brain, lung, mammary gland, pituitary gland, testis and uterus; the C1orf173 protein in humans is 1,530 amino acids in length and contains two domains of unknown function, DUF4590 and DUF4543. Both DUF regions are uncharacterized though they are found in eukaryotes including humans. There are three known isoforms of the C1orf173 protein in humans, Q5RHP9-1, Q5RHP9-2 and Q5RHP9-3. Other animals tend to have a multitude of variant forms of this gene C1orf173 is predicted to be a nuclear protein based on PSORT II analysis and the suggested protein interactions found between c1orf173 and other proteins such as TAF5L.

Analyzing the protein for isoelectric point using the Compute pI/Mw tool in Expasy, it was found that C1orf173 is acidic ranging from a pH of 4.6-5 for most orthologs. Further analysis using the NetPhos tool on Expasy found that there are a large number of phosphorylated serines, an intermediate number of phosphorylated threonines and a few phosphoylated tyrosines; the C1orf173 protein has a secondary structure, alpha helices and random coils based on bioinformatical analysis. In humans the tertiary structure of C1orf173 has two components that resemble ubiquitin-like 2 activating enzyme e1b and alginase; the C1orf173 protein has been predicted or experimentally observed to interact with the following proteins: C1orf146


Deal. II is a free, open-source library to solve partial differential equations using the finite element method; the current release is version 9.1.1 released in May 2019. In 2007 the authors won the J. H. Wilkinson Prize for Numerical Software for deal. II; the library features dimension independent programming using C++ templates on locally adapted meshes, a large collection of different finite elements of any order: continuous and discontinuous Lagrange elements, Nedelec elements, Raviart-Thomas elements, combinations, parallelization using multithreading through TBB and massively parallel using MPI. deal. II has been shown to scale to at least 16,000 processors and has been used in applications on up to 300,000 processor cores. Multigrid method with local smoothing on adaptively refined meshes hp-FEM extensive documentation and tutorial programs, interfaces to several libraries including Gmsh, PETSc, Trilinos, METIS, VTK, p4est, BLAS, LAPACK, HDF5, NetCDF, Open Cascade Technology; the software started from work at the Numerical Methods Group at Heidelberg University in Germany in 1998.

The first public release was version 3.0.0 in 2000. Since deal. II has gotten contributions from several hundred authors and has been used in more than a thousand research publications; the primary maintainers, coordinating the worldwide development of the library, are today located at Colorado State University, Clemson University, Heidelberg University, Texas A&M University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and a number of other institutions. It is developed as a worldwide community of contributors through GitHub that incorporates several hundred changes by dozens of authors every month. List of finite element software packages List of numerical analysis software Official website Source Code on Github List of Scientific publications

Marian Ramelson

Marian Ramelson was a 20th-century communist, political activist and historian. Ramelson was the first British representative to greet the People’s Republic of China after its establishment in 1949. Ramelson wrote The Petticoat Rebellion: a century of struggle for women's rights concerning the suffrage movement published in 1967. Marian Jessop was born in 1908 in Leeds, to parents Thomas Austin Jessop, an engine fitter, Ethel Jessop, née Wilson, her father was a socialist and trade unionist, served as a Leeds city councillor and was lord mayor in 1956. He supported women's suffrage, his activism influenced Ramelson in her own political views, she joined the Communist Party of Great Britain in 1932, was active in the Leeds Communist Party. This followed an long involvement in trade union activities and membership of the Labour Party, she joined CPGB after her father's experience of long spells of unemployment, she served as vice-president of the local trades council in 1934 to 1935, at this time was secretary of Leeds May Day committee.

In 1935 she attended the International Lenin School in Moscow, an official training school for key political workers operated by the Communist International, in the final British enrollment. Following the two year course, she became the Party's first woman district organizer, for West Riding. In 1938 she was promoted to the party’s central committee. Ramelson's career in the Party was inhibited because of gender politics, it was in the Communist Party that she met her husband Bert Ramelson, to whom she gave guidance and support when he was a new member, the couple married in 1939. Ramelson was the first British representative to greet the new People’s Republic of China in Beijing, established in 1949 by the Chinese Communist Party following the Chinese Civil War, recognised by Britain in 1950, she arrived in China in December 1949 for an Asian Women's conference. In 1950 she described China in the Daily Worker; that fact lights up the East as a blazing sun". After meeting her at communist historians' gatherings, the historian Eric Hobsbawm described Ramelson as "marvellous and remarkable".

Ramelson is the author of The Petticoat Rebellion: a century of struggle for women's rights, a socialist, feminist history of the suffrage movement published in 1967. She died in 1967 from cancer, following a long illness

Fencing at the 2016 Summer Olympics – Qualification

This article details the qualifying phase for fencing at the 2016 Summer Olympics. Qualification was based on the FIE Official Ranking as of April 4, 2016, with further individual places available at 4 zonal qualifying tournaments. For the team events, 8 teams qualified in each event; each team must be composed of 3 fencers. The top 4 ranked teams qualified; the next best ranked team from each zone qualified as long as it was ranked in the top 16. If a zone had no teams ranked between 5th and 16th, the best placed nation not qualified would be selected regardless of zone. For individual events with corresponding team events, the 3 fencers from the team event qualified for individual competition automatically. 7 more places were awarded based on the rankings: the top 2 fencers from each of Europe, Asia-Oceania, the Americas, the top 1 fencer from Africa, qualified. 4 more places were awarded through zone qualifying tournaments. For individual events without corresponding team events, the top 14 fencers in the rankings qualified.

The next 2 best ranked fencers from each zone qualified. 10 spots were allocated through zone qualifying tournaments. The host country was guaranteed a minimum of 8 quota spots


Nebularia is a genus of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks within the family of Mitridae. This name was proposed as a subgenus of the genus Mitra; the type species of this genus is Nebularia contracta Swainson, 1820. In 1991, Cernohorsky considered. In 2001, Thorsson and Salisbury used the tern Nebularia as a group, for species related to the type species Mitra coronata; the genus Nebularia contains the following species: Species brought into synonymy Nebularia ambigua: synonym of Strigatella ambigua Nebularia aurantia: synonym of Strigatella aurantia Nebularia aurora: synonym of Strigatella aurora Nebularia coffea: synonym of Strigatella coffea Nebularia coronata: synonym of Strigatella coronata Nebularia fulvescens: synonym of Strigatella fulvescens Nebularia imperialis: synonym of Strigatella imperialis Nebularia luctuosa: synonym of Strigatella luctuosa Nebularia rutila: synonym of Pseudonebularia rutila Nebularia vultuosa: synonym of Strigatella vultuosa Nebularia yaekoae Habe & Kosuge, 1966: synonym of Scabricola yaekoae Swainson W.

A treatise on malacology or shells and shell-fish. London, Longman. Viii + 419 pp Pease W. H.. Descriptions of new genera and species of marine shells from the islands of the Central Pacific. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London.: 512-517 Swainson W. A treatise on malacology or shells and shell-fish. London, Longman. Viii + 419 pp Philippi R. A.. Beschreibung zweier neuer Conchyliengeschlechter, Dibaphus und Amphichaena, nebst einigen Bemerkungen über Cyamium, Ervilia und Entodesma. Archiv für Natugeschichte. 13: 61-66 Fedosov A. Puillandre N. Herrmann M. Kantor Yu. Oliverio M. Dgebuadze P. Modica M. V. & Bouchet P.. The collapse of Mitra: molecular systematics and morphology of the Mitridae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 183: 253-337]