Mabel's Strange Predicament
Mabel's Strange Predicament is a 1914 American film starring Mabel Normand and Charles Chaplin, notable for being the first film for which Chaplin donned The Tramp costume. In a hotel lobby a drunk tramp runs into an elegant lady, who gets tied up in her dog's leash, falls down, he runs into her in the hotel corridor, locked out of her room. They run through various rooms. Mabel ends up in the room of an elderly husband. Enter the jealous wife, who soon attacks Mabel, her husband, Mabel's lover, not to mention the staggeringly drunken tramp. Charles Chaplin as The Tramp Mabel Normand as Mabel Chester Conklin as Husband Alice Davenport as Wife Harry McCoy as Lover Hank Mann as Hotel Guest Al St. John as Bellboy A reviewer for Exhibitors' Mail saw the genius of Chaplin in just his third film and predicted great things for the former English stage comedian, he wrote, "The Keystone Company never made a better contract than. Chaplin, the Karno performer, it is not every variety artiste. Chaplin not only shows that talent, he shows it in a degree which raises him at once to the status of star performer.
We do not indulge in prophecy, but we do not think we are taking a great risk in prophesying that in six months Chaplin will rank as one of the most popular screen performers in the world. There has never been before quite so successful a first appearance." The Tramp was first presented to the public in Chaplin's second film Kid Auto Races at Venice though Mabel's Strange Predicament, his third film in order of release, was produced a few days before. It was for this film that Chaplin played the Tramp; as Chaplin recalled in his autobiography: I had no idea. I did not like my get-up as the press reporter; however on the way to the wardrobe I thought I would dress in baggy pants, big shoes, a cane and a derby hat. I wanted everything to be a contradiction: the pants baggy, the coat tight, the hat small and the shoes large. I was undecided whether to look old or young, but remembering Sennett had expected me to be a much older man, I added a small mustache, which I reasoned, would add age without hiding my expression.
I had no idea of the character. But the moment I was dressed, the clothes and the makeup made. I began to know him, by the time I walked on stage he was born. Mabel's Strange Predicament is one of more than a dozen early films that writer/director/comedian Mabel Normand made with Chaplin. Chaplin's Tramp is shown swigging from a flask toward the beginning of the film and subsequently becoming so drunk that he staggers when he walks and falls down near the end, his portrayal of drunkenness remains convincingly realistic. The Tramp keeps his derby cocked throughout the proceedings, a touch that Chaplin abandoned in his career. Charlie Chaplin filmography List of American films of 1914 The short film Mabel's Strange Predicament is available for free download at the Internet Archive Mabel's Strange Predicament on IMDb Mabel's Strange Predicament on YouTube
Red flag (politics)
In politics, a red flag is predominantly a symbol of socialism, Marxism, trade unions, left-wing politics, of anarchism. Socialists adopted the symbol during the Revolutions of 1848 and it became a symbol of communism as a result of its use by the Paris Commune of 1871; the flags of several communist states, including China and the Soviet Union, are explicitly based on the original red flag. The red flag is used as a symbol by some democratic socialists and social democrats, for example the League of Social Democrats of Hong Kong, French Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party of Germany; the Labour Party in Britain used it until the late 1980s. It was the inspiration for The Red Flag. In the Middle Ages, ships in combat flew a long red streamer, called the Baucans, to signify a fight to the death. In one petition, a group of English sailors asserted that the Crown had no right to a share of the prize money earned from a Norman ship captured in 1293 because it had raised the Baucans. By the 17th century, the Baucans had evolved into a red flag, or "flag of defiance."
It was raised in castles under siege to indicate that they would not surrender. "The red flag is a signal of battle," according to Chambers Cyclopedia. The red cap was a symbol of popular revolt in France going back to the Jacquerie of 1358; the color red become associated with patriotism early in the French Revolution due to the popularity of the Tricolour cockade, introduced in July 1789, the Phrygian cap, introduced in May 1790. A red flag was raised over the Champ-de-Mars in Paris on July 17, 1791 by Lafayette, commander of the National Guard, as a symbol of martial law, warning rioters to disperse; as many as fifty anti-royalist protesters were killed in the fighting. Inverting the original symbolism, the Jacobins protested this action by flying a red flag to honor the "martyrs' blood" of those, killed, they created their own red flags to declare "the martial law of the people against the revolt of the court." The Jacobin Club ruled France during the Reign of Terror and made the red flag an unofficial national emblem.
However, the earlier Tricolor regained popularity under Napoleon. British sailors mutinied near the mouth of the River Thames in 1797 and hoisted a red flag on several ships. Two red flags soaked in calf's blood were flown by marchers in South Wales during the Merthyr Rising of 1831, it is claimed to be the first time. Along with the Newport Rising eight years it was one of the most serious violent outbreaks witnessed on mainland Britain; the red flags of Merthyr became a potent relic following the execution of early trade unionist Dic Penderyn in August 1831, despite a public campaign to pardon him. During the Mexican siege of the Alamo in March 1836, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana displayed a plain red flag from the highest church tower in Bejar; the meaning of this flag was not socialism: its meaning - directed to the Alamo defenders - meant "no surrender. At much the same time, the Liberal "Colorados" in the Uruguayan Civil War used red flags; this prolonged struggle at the time got considerable attention and sympathy from Liberals and revolutionaries in Europe and it was in this war that Garibaldi first made a name for himself and that he was inspired to have his troops wear the famous Red Shirts.
During the 1848 Revolution in France and radical republicans demanded that the red flag be adopted as France's national flag. Led by poet-politician Alphonse de Lamartine, the government rejected the crowd's demand: "he red flag that you have brought back here has done nothing but being trailed around the Champ-de-Mars in the people's blood in 91 and 93, whereas the Tricolore flag went round the world along with the name, the glory and the liberty of the homeland!" The banner of the Paris Commune of 1871 was red and it was at this time that the red flag became a symbol of communism. The flag was flown by anarchists at a May Day rally for an eight-hour workday in Chicago in 1886. A bomb blast killed five were executed; this event, considered the beginning of the international labor movement, is still commemorated annually in many countries The red flag gained great popularity during the Russian Revolution of 1917. The Soviet flag, with a hammer, a sickle and a star on a red background, was adopted in 1923.
Various Communist and socialist newspapers have used the name The Red Flag. In China, both the Nationalist Party-led Republic of China and the Communist Party-led People's Republic of China use a red field for their flags, a reference to their revolutionary origins. In more recent times, social democratic parties have gravitated away from the Red Flag as a symbol. However, several European parties retain a "red square" symbol, including Germany's SPD and the Party of European Socialists; the building to have had a red flag flying for the longest period of time and to still have one is the Victorian Trades Hall in Melbourne, Australia. The flag has been flying for over a century. Anarchists, as part of the socialist movement used red flag in the 19th Century - it was one of the first anarchist symbols. Usage of the red flag by anarchists disappeared after the October Revolution, when red flags started to be associated only with communist parties and bureaucratic and authoritarian
The Holocaust known as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by local collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews—around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe—between 1941 and 1945. Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event during the Holocaust era, in which Germany and its collaborators persecuted and murdered other groups, including Slavs, the Roma, the "incurably sick", political and religious dissenters such as communists and Jehovah's Witnesses, gay men. Taking into account all the victims of Nazi persecution, the death toll rises to over 17 million. Germany implemented the persecution of the Jews in stages. Following Adolf Hitler's appointment as German Chancellor in January 1933, the regime built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and those deemed "undesirable", starting with Dachau on 22 March 1933. After the passing of the Enabling Act on 24 March, which gave Hitler plenary powers, the government began isolating Jews from civil society, which included a boycott of Jewish businesses in April 1933 and enacting the Nuremberg Laws in September 1935.
On 9–10 November 1938, during Kristallnacht, Jewish businesses and other buildings were ransacked, smashed or set on fire throughout Germany and Austria, which Germany had annexed in March that year. After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, triggering World War II, the regime set up ghettos to segregate Jews. Thousands of camps and other detention sites were established across German-occupied Europe; the deportation of Jews to the ghettos culminated in the policy of extermination the Nazis called the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question", discussed by senior Nazi officials at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January 1942. As German forces captured territories in the East, all anti-Jewish measures were radicalized. Under the coordination of the SS, with directions from the highest leadership of the Nazi Party, killings were committed within Germany itself, throughout occupied Europe, across all territories controlled by the Axis powers. Paramilitary death squads called Einsatzgruppen, in cooperation with Wehrmacht police battalions and local collaborators, murdered around 1.3 million Jews in mass shootings between 1941 and 1945.
By mid-1942, victims were being deported from the ghettos in sealed freight trains to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, they were killed in gas chambers. The killing continued until the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945; the term holocaust, first used in 1895 to describe the massacre of Armenians, comes from the Greek: ὁλόκαυστος, translit. Holókaustos; the Century Dictionary defined it in 1904 as "a sacrifice or offering consumed by fire, in use among the Jews and some pagan nations". The biblical term shoah, meaning "destruction", became the standard Hebrew term for the murder of the European Jews, first used in a pamphlet in 1940, Sho'at Yehudei Polin, published by the United Aid Committee for the Jews in Poland. On 3 October 1941 the cover of the magazine The American Hebrew used the phrase "before the Holocaust" to refer to the situation in France, in May 1943 The New York Times, discussing the Bermuda Conference, referred to the "hundreds of thousands of European Jews still surviving the Nazi Holocaust".
In 1968 the Library of Congress created a new category, "Holocaust, Jewish". The term was popularized in the United States by the NBC mini-series Holocaust, about a fictional family of German Jews, in November 1978 the President's Commission on the Holocaust was established; as non-Jewish groups began to include themselves as Holocaust victims too, many Jews chose to use the terms Shoah or Churban instead. The Nazis used the phrase "Final Solution to the Jewish Question". Most Holocaust historians define the Holocaust as the enactment, between 1941 and 1945, of the German state policy to exterminate the European Jews. In Teaching the Holocaust, Michael Gray, a specialist in Holocaust education, offers three definitions: "the persecution and murder of Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators between 1933 and 1945", which views the events of Kristallnacht in Germany in 1938 as an early phase of the Holocaust; the third definition fails, Gray writes, to acknowledge that only the Jewish people were singled out for annihilation.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum defines the Holocaust as the "systematic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators", distinguishing between the Holocaust and the targeting of other groups during "the era of the Holocaust". According to Yad Vashem, Israel's Holocaust memorial, most historians regard the start of the "Holocaust era" as January 1933, when Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany. Other victims of the Holocaust era include. Hitler came to see the Jews as "uniquely dangerous to Germany", according to Peter Hayes, "and therefore uniquely destined t
Vagrancy is the condition of a person who wanders from place to place homeless and without regular employment or income. A person who experiences this condition may be referred to as a vagrant, rogue, tramp or drifter. Vagrants live in poverty and support themselves by begging, temporary work, petty theft, garbage scraping or, where available, welfare. Vagrancy in Western societies was associated with petty crime and lawlessness, punishable by law by imprisonment, forced labor, forced military service, or confinement to dedicated labor houses; the word vagrant is conflated with the term homeless person, which does not include the wandering component. In modern societies, anti-homelessness legislation aims to both help and re-house homeless people on one side, criminalize homelessness and begging on the other. Both vagrant and vagabond derive from the Latin word vagari, meaning "wander"; the term vagabond is derived from Latin vagabundus. In Middle English, vagabond denoted a criminal. In settled, ordered communities, vagrants have been characterised as outsiders, embodiments of otherness, objects of scorn or mistrust, or worthy recipients of help and charity.
Some ancient sources show vagrants as passive objects of pity, who deserve generosity and the gift of alms. Others show them as subversives, or outlaws, who make a parasitical living through theft and threat; some fairy tales of medieval Europe have beggars cast curses on anyone, insulting or stingy towards them. In Tudor England, some of those who begged door-to-door for "milk, drink, pottage" were thought to be witches. Many world religions, both in history and today, have vagrant traditions or make reference to vagrants. In Christianity, Jesus is seen in the Bible shown having compassion for beggars and the disenfranchised; the Catholic church teaches compassion for people living in vagrancy. Vagrant lifestyles are seen in Christian movements in notable figures such as St. Paul. Many still exist in places like Europe and the Near East, as preserved by Gnosticism and various esoteric practices. In some East Asian and South Asian countries, the condition of vagrancy has long been associated with the religious life, as described in the religious literature of Hindu, Buddhist and Muslim Sufi traditions.
Examples include sadhus, dervishes and the sramanic traditions generally. From 27 November 1891, a vagabond could be jailed. Vagabonds and procurers were imprisoned in vagrancy prisons: Hoogstraten. There, the prisoners had to work for their living by working in the prison workhouse. If the prisoners had earned enough money they could leave the “colony”. On 12 January 1993, the Belgian vagrancy law was repealed. At that time, 260 vagabonds still lived in the Wortel colony. In premodern Finland and Sweden, vagrancy was a crime, which could result in a sentence of forced labor or forced military service. There was a "legal protection" obligation: those not part of the estates of the realm were obliged to be employed, or otherwise, they could be charged with vagrancy. Legal protection was mandatory in medieval Swedish law, but Gustav I of Sweden began enforcing this provision, applying it when work was available. In Finland, the legal protection provision was repealed in 1883. In 1936, a new law moved the emphasis from criminalization into social assistance.
Forced labor sentences were abolished in 1971 and anti-vagrancy laws were repealed in 1987. In Germany, according to the 1871 Penal Code, vagabondage was among the grounds to confine a person to a labor house. In the Weimar Republic, the law against vagrancy was relaxed, but it became much more stringent in Nazi Germany, where vagrancy, together with begging, "work-shyness", was classified "asocial behavior" as punishable by confinement to concentration camps. In the Russian Empire, the legal term "vagrancy" was defined in another way than corresponding terms in Western Europe. Russian law recognized one as a vagrant if he could not prove his own standing, or if he changed his residence without a permission from authorities, rather than punishing loitering or absence of livelihood. Foreigners, twice expatriated with prohibition of return to the Russian Empire and were arrested in Russia again were recognized as vagrants. Punishments were harsh: According to Ulozhenie, the set of empowered laws, a vagrant who could not elaborate on his kinship, standing, or permanent residence, or gave false evidence, was sentenced to 4-year imprisonment and subsequent exile to Siberia or another far-off province.
In the Criminal Code of the RSFSR, which came into force on 1 January 1961, systematic vagrancy was punishable by up to two years' imprisonment. This continued until 5 December 1991, when Section 209 was repealed and vagrancy ceased to be a criminal offence. At present, vagrancy is not a criminal offence in Russia, but it is an offence for someone over 18 to induce a juvenile to vagrancy, according to Chapter 20, Section 151 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation; the note, introduced by the Federal Law No. 162 of 8 December 2003, provides that the section does not apply, if such act is performed by a parent of the juvenile under harsh
The Bank (1915 film)
The Bank was Charlie Chaplin's tenth film for Essanay Films. Released in 1915, it is a slight departure from the tramp character, as Charlie Chaplin plays a janitor to a bank. Edna Purviance plays the secretary on whom Charlie has a crush and dreams that she has fallen in love with him. Filmed at the Majestic Studio in Los Angeles. There doesn't appear to be any evidence that this film was received any differently from the bulk of Chaplin's early work, but today this film is considered one of his best efforts during his Essanay period. Charlie, feeling important, enters the bank where he works, he works its combination with great panache and opens the door. Charlie hangs his coat inside the vault and brings out his mop and bucket signifying he is the bank's janitor, he causes typical havoc with his mop and with his broom. Charlie discovers a package with a note attached to it written by the bank's stenographer, it is addressed "To Charles with love from Edna." Charlie jumps to the wrong conclusion that Edna is in love with him, not realizing the package is intended for another Charles--the cashier.
Charlie places them lovingly on Edna's desk. When Edna realizes they are from the janitor, she coldly tosses them into the wastebasket. Charlie is heartbroken. Charlie has a dream in which he heroically thwarts a bank robbery, rescuing Edna in the process, he turns to kiss the now-adoring Edna--but he wakes up. Charlie is kissing his mop --. Charles Chaplin - Charlie, a Janitor Edna Purviance - Edna, a Secretary Carl Stockdale - Charles, a Cashier Charles Inslee - President of the bank Leo White - Clerk Billy Armstrong - Another Janitor Fred Goodwins - Bald Cashier/Bank Robber with Derby John Rand - Bank Robber and salesman Lloyd Bacon - Bank Robber Frank J. Coleman - Bank Robber Paddy McGuire - Cashier in White Coat Wesley Ruggles - Bank Customer Carrie Clark Ward - Bank Customer Lawrence A. Bowes - Bond Salesman The Bank on IMDb
Lew Bloom was an American vaudeville performer and stage actor who popularized the comical tramp character. After retiring from the stage in the 1910s, he became a prolific art collector and dealer and painted his own original works. Decades after his death, art conservators discovered that Bloom was the perpetrator of an art forgery involving an oil portrait that he claimed depicted the wife of President Abraham Lincoln, First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln. Bloom was born Ludwig Pflum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Louisa Pflum, his parents, who immigrated from Germany, had six other children: Susannah, Susan Deborah, Charles and Adolph. Bloom's father worked as a cooper; the family moved to Reading, Pennsylvania where Bloom attended Poplar Street School. Around 1871, the family moved to Williamsburg. In 1873, he joined the Potter Hart Colossus Circus where he performed a "bounding jockey act" in which he rode horses and performed acrobatics. During his time at the circus, "Ludwig Pflum" changed his name to "Lew Bloom" and would use that name for the remainder of his performing career.
Bloom spent several years touring in variety shows with his jockey act before relocating to Dover, Delaware where he competed in horse match races. He returned to Reading where he and a friend opened the Drovers' Hotel; the establishment was the first to introduce cabaret to Reading. Bloom performed song and dance acts at the hotel and began competing as a lightweight boxer. Bloom became the stage manager for his friend's second establishment, The General Taylor Hotel, he left after two years to work as a clown in Pullman & Hamilton Circus. After a year, Bloom returned to Reading; the duo performed song and dance numbers and comedy skits in blackface until Bloom left the duo and went to New York to perform comedy as a solo act. In 1885, Bloom was cast in the play Nobody's Claim, followed by a role in The Red Spider in 1888, it was his role in the latter production. Bloom's "Society Tramp" character was a philosophical, shabbily dressed homeless man who drank and was treated poorly by other characters.
Despite his lowly status, the tramp would make light of his predicament and maintained a positive and comicial outlook. Tramp characters like Bloom's included slapstick comedy routines as well as dancing or pantomime. One of Bloom's tramp character's jokes was. I can't, they have to close up some time."Bloom's tramp character became a big hit with audiences and was copied by hundreds of other performers of the era including Nat M. Wills and Charles R. Sweet. Charlie Chaplin and W. C. Fields established long and successful stage and film careers portraying their version of the tramp persona. Bloom would insist he originated the character and that he was "the first stage tramp in the business". Bloom's stage career peaked in the 1890s. Throughout the decade, he continued to portray tramps in various stage productions by Charles Hale Hoyt including A Black Sheep, On the Bowery, A Milk White Flag, A Day and a Night and A Society Tramp. After leaving Hoyt in 1892, Bloom and his wife, known as "Miss Jane Cooper", toured the vaudeville circuit with their comedy act "A Picture of Life".
Bloom played his usual tramp role while his wife played the comic foil - a "New England spinster" or a "city maiden."By 1909, Bloom's tramp persona had run its course and his career began to wane. At least one critic during that time said that Bloom had become "the worst act on the bill" of vaudeville shows. After retiring from performing in the late 1910s, Bloom lived in Mount Penn, Pennsylvania where he spent his time painting in his studio and collecting and dealing art, he began purchasing artwork during his stage career. Between 1889 and 1892, he purchased thirty to forty paintings from artist Ralph Albert Blakelock. Upon his sister Susan's death in 1910, he inherited her art collection. In April 1907, Bloom exhibited seven pieces of his original works at the Reinhard Rieger Gallery in Mount Penn; the exhibition included a copy of The Brooklet In the Meadow, by Herman Rheudesela that Bloom painted. Bloom moved to New York and returned to his hometown of Reading to spend time with his family and attend Elks Club meetings.
He trained horses for Metropolitan Race Clubs in the New York and Pennsylvania area and in Cuba. On December 10, 1929, Bloom was admitted to Bellevue Hospital in New York City, he died there two days of "complication of diseases" at the age of 70. Bloom's funeral was held at the Seidel Funeral Chapel in Reading on December 16, he was buried at Charles Evans Cemetery the following morning. In early 1929, Bloom made news when he announced that he had acquired a unknown oil portrait of former First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln, the widow of slain president Abraham Lincoln. Bloom claimed shortly before President Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865, Mary Lincoln commissioned painter Francis Bicknell Carpenter to paint a portrait of her as gift to her husband. After the President's death, Bloom claimed that Mary Lincoln was unable to pay Carpenter for the painting and asked him to destroy it. According to Bloom, Carpenter kept the painting and sold it to a wealthy Philadelphia shipbuilder named Jacob G. Neafie, a great fan of President Lincoln's
Olga Edna Purviance was an American actress during the silent movie era. She was the leading lady in many of Charlie Chaplin's early films and in a span of eight years, she appeared in over 30 films with him. Purviance was born in Paradise Valley, Nevada, to English immigrant Louisa Wright Davey and American vintner to the western mining camps Madison Gates Purviance; when she was three, the family moved to Lovelock, where they assumed ownership of a hotel. Her parents divorced in 1902, her mother married Robert Nurnberger, a German plumber. Growing up, Purviance was a talented pianist, she left Lovelock in 1913, moved in with her married sister Bessie while attending business college in San Francisco. In 1915, Purviance was working as a secretary in San Francisco when actor and director Charlie Chaplin was working on his second film with Essanay Studios, working out of Niles, California, 28 miles southeast of San Francisco, in Southern Alameda County, he was looking for a leading lady for A Night Out.
One of his associates noticed Purviance at a Tate's Café in San Francisco and thought she should be cast in the role. Chaplin arranged a meeting with her and, although he was concerned that she might be too serious for comedic roles, she won the job. Chaplin and Purviance were romantically involved during the making of his Essanay and First National films of 1915 to 1917. Purviance appeared including the 1921 classic The Kid, her last credited appearance in a Chaplin film, A Woman of Paris, was her first lead role. The film was not a success and ended Purviance's career, she went on to appear in two more films: The Sea Gull known as A Woman of the Sea and Éducation de Prince, a French film released in 1927, just before she retired from acting. Romantically involved with Charlie Chaplin for several years, Purviance married John Squire, a Pan-American Airlines pilot, in 1938, they remained married until his death in 1945. On January 13, 1958, Purviance died from throat cancer at the Motion Picture Country Hospital in Hollywood.
Her remains are interred at Grand View Memorial Park Cemetery in California. She was portrayed by Penelope Ann Miller in the film Chaplin and by Katie Maguire in the film Madcap Mabel. Edna Purviance on IMDb Edna Purviance—tribute and research site Edna Purviance at Then & NowEdna Purviance at Find a Grave