The Victorian Society is a UK charity, the national authority on Victorian and Edwardian architecture built between 1837 and 1914 in England and Wales. As one of the National Amenity Societies, The Victorian Society is a statutory consultee on alterations to listed buildings, by law must be notified of any work to a listed building which involves any element of demolition; the founding of the Society was proposed in November 1957 by Anne Parsons, Countess of Rosse at her remarkably-preserved Victorian home at 18 Stafford Terrace, with the intention of countering the prevalent antipathy to 19th- and early 20th-century architecture. From the 1890s into the 20th century, Victorian art had been under attack, critics writing of "the nineteenth century architectural tragedy", ridiculing "the uncompromising ugliness" of the era's buildings and attacking the "sadistic hatred of beauty" of its architects; the commonly-held view had been expressed by P. G. Wodehouse in his 1933 novel, Summer Moonshine: "Whatever may be said in favour of the Victorians, it is pretty admitted that few of them were to be trusted within reach of a trowel and a pile of bricks."The first meeting was held at Linley Sambourne House on 28 February 1958.
Among its thirty founder members were the first secretary John Betjeman, Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Nikolaus Pevsner, who became Chairman in 1964. Former Bletchley Park codebreaker, Jane Fawcett, managed the society's affairs as secretary from 1964 to 1976; the Twentieth Century Society undertakes a similar protective role for post-1914 buildings and the Georgian Group for those built between 1700 and 1840. The society has worked to save numerous landmark buildings such as St Pancras Station, Albert Dock in Liverpool, the Foreign Office and Oxford University Museum, its campaigns have not always been successful, notably its failed attempts to save the Euston Arch from demolition in 1961. As well as being a statutory consultee on works to listed buildings the Society also: Provides advice to churches and local planning authorities on how Victorian and Edwardian buildings and landscapes can be adapted to modern use, while keeping what is distinctive about them. Advises members of the public on how they can help shape the future of their local Victorian and Edwardian buildings and landscapes.
Provides information to owners of Victorian and Edwardian houses about how they can better look after their buildings. Helps people understand and enjoy the architectural heritage of the Victorian and Edwardian period through its publications and events. Examples of their work with churches include making complaints against proposals of church PCCs to use upholstered chairs during renovation, appealing against proposals to raise money by selling original features. A recent campaign of The Victorian Society has taken on the preservation of Victorian gasometers after utility companies announced plans to demolish nearly 200 of the now-outdated structures. Christopher Costelloe, director of The Victorian Society, said in regards to the group's efforts, "Gasometers, by their size and structure, cannot help but become landmarks. Are singularly dramatic structures for all their emptiness."The Society runs an annual list of the Top Ten Most Endangered Victorian or Edwardian Buildings in England and Wales.
Published three times a year since 1998 for the members of the Society, The Victorian magazine contains book reviews, society news and events, casework reports, interviews. The Victorian Society has a sister organisation in the United States, the Victorian Society in America, founded in 1966 in New York City, by such champions of historic preservation as Brendan Gill, Henry-Russell Hitchcock, Margot Gayle; as of 2017 the Victorian Society in America is based in Philadelphia with 12 registered chapters in the Eastern United States. Victorian house The Victorian Society Charity Commission; the Victorian Society, registered charity no. 1081435
VHDL is a hardware description language used in electronic design automation to describe digital and mixed-signal systems such as field-programmable gate arrays and integrated circuits. VHDL can be used as a general-purpose parallel programming language. In 1983, VHDL was developed at the behest of the U. S Department of Defense in order to document the behavior of the ASICs that supplier companies were including in equipment; the standard MIL-STD-454N in Requirement 64 in section 4.5.1 "ASIC documentation in VHDL" explicitly requires documentation of "Microelectronic Devices" in VHDL. The idea of being able to simulate the ASICs from the information in this documentation was so attractive that logic simulators were developed that could read the VHDL files; the next step was the development of logic synthesis tools that read the VHDL and output a definition of the physical implementation of the circuit. Due to the Department of Defense requiring as much of the syntax as possible to be based on Ada, in order to avoid re-inventing concepts, tested in the development of Ada, VHDL borrows from the Ada programming language in both concepts and syntax.
The initial version of VHDL, designed to IEEE standard IEEE 1076-1987, included a wide range of data types, including numerical, logical and time, plus arrays of bit called bit_vector and of character called string. A problem not solved by this edition, was "multi-valued logic", where a signal's drive strength and unknown values are considered; this required IEEE standard 1164, which defined the 9-value logic types: scalar std_logic and its vector version std_logic_vector. Being a resolved subtype of its std_Ulogic parent type, std_logic-typed signals allow multiple driving for modeling bus structures, whereby the connected resolution function handles conflicting assignments adequately; the updated IEEE 1076, in 1993, made the syntax more consistent, allowed more flexibility in naming, extended the character type to allow ISO-8859-1 printable characters, added the xnor operator, etc. Minor changes in the standard added the idea of protected types and removed some restrictions from port mapping rules.
In addition to IEEE standard 1164, several child standards were introduced to extend functionality of the language. IEEE standard 1076.2 added better handling of complex data types. IEEE standard 1076.3 introduced signed and unsigned types to facilitate arithmetical operations on vectors. IEEE standard 1076.1 provided mixed-signal circuit design extensions. Some other standards support wider use of VHDL, notably VITAL and microwave circuit design extensions. In June 2006, the VHDL Technical Committee of Accellera approved so called Draft 3.0 of VHDL-2006. While maintaining full compatibility with older versions, this proposed standard provides numerous extensions that make writing and managing VHDL code easier. Key changes include incorporation of child standards into the main 1076 standard, an extended set of operators, more flexible syntax of case and generate statements, incorporation of VHPI and a subset of PSL; these changes should improve quality of synthesizable VHDL code, make testbenches more flexible, allow wider use of VHDL for system-level descriptions.
In February 2008, Accellera approved VHDL 4.0 informally known as VHDL 2008, which addressed more than 90 issues discovered during the trial period for version 3.0 and includes enhanced generic types. In 2008, Accellera released VHDL 4.0 to the IEEE for balloting for inclusion in IEEE 1076-2008. The VHDL standard IEEE 1076-2008 was published in January 2009; the IEEE Standard 1076 defines the VHSIC Hardware Description Language, or VHDL. It was developed under contract F33615-83-C-1003 from the United States Air Force awarded in 1983 to a team of Intermetrics, Inc. as language experts and prime contractor, Texas Instruments as chip design experts and IBM as computer-system design experts. The language has undergone numerous revisions and has a variety of sub-standards associated with it that augment or extend it in important ways. 1076 continues to be a milestone in the design of electronic systems. IEEE 1076-1987 First standardized revision of ver 7.2 of the language from the United States Air Force.
IEEE 1076-1993. Significant improvements resulting from several years of feedback; the most used version with the greatest vendor tool support. IEEE 1076-2000. Minor revision. Introduces the use of protected types. IEEE 1076-2002. Minor revision of 1076-2000. Rules with regard to buffer ports are relaxed. IEC 61691-1-1:2004. IEC adoption of IEEE 1076-2002. IEEE 1076-2008. Major revision released on 2009-01-26. Among other changes, this standard incorporates a basic subset of PSL, allows for generics on packages and subprograms and introduces the use of external names. IEC 61691-1-1:2011. IEC adoption of IEEE 1076-2008. IEEE 1076.1 VHDL Analog and Mixed-Signal IEEE 1076.1.1 VHDL-AMS Standard Packages IEEE 1076.2 VHDL Math Package IEEE 1076.3 VHDL Synthesis Package IEEE 1076.3 VHDL Synthesis Package – Floating Point IEEE 1076.4 Timing IEEE 1076.6 VHDL Synthesis Interoperability IEEE 1164 VHDL Multivalue Logic (std_l
The disappearance of Lisa Renée Irwin was reported after it was found that she was missing from her home in Kansas City, Missouri, in the early morning hours of October 4, 2011. Deborah Bradley, Lisa's mother, said that Lisa's father, Jeremy Irwin, discovered her missing around 4:00 a.m. on Tuesday, October 4. According to Deborah, Lisa had been in her bed when she checked on her at 6:40 p.m. or at 10:40 p.m. Monday night, but when Jeremy came home from his late night job on Tuesday, he discovered "many of the home's lights were on, a window was open and the front door was unlocked". Debbie changed her story multiple times during the investigation; the family told police that several cellphones were missing. During the subsequent investigation, two witnesses were discovered who claimed to have seen a man walking down the street with a baby. Police were able to find and question a man matching the description of one witness, but the other witness claimed that his photo did not match the man they saw.
On October 19, 2011, a search was performed of the Irwin home, court documents showed that a cadaver dog turned up a scent of a dead body that might have been Lisa, near the mother's bed. Items removed from the home at the time the warrant was executed include a multicolor comforter, purple shorts, a multicolor Disney character shirt, a Glo Worm toy, a "Cars"-themed blanket, rolls of tape and a tape dispenser. During an interview with the Associated Press, Deborah said the police had accused her of being involved in Lisa's disappearance, telling her "You did it. You did it, and we have nothing", claimed that she had failed a lie detector test. Deborah and Jeremy announced the following week that they were organizing a reward in hopes that it would result in new information. Jeremy Irwin appeared on the Today Show for an interview regarding the events, saying "We just want to make sure that we tell everybody that we're still cooperating. We're still talking to the police. We're doing everything we can to try to find Lisa and bring her home."
Bradley was on the broadcast. In October, the Irwin family reported that an anonymous benefactor had hired a private investigator, issued a $100,000 reward for Lisa's return. In October 2011, Cyndy Short stopped representing the Irwin family, saying that she was unable to work with the family's other attorney, Joe Tacopina. Lisa's brothers had been scheduled for interviews and to collect DNA samples regarding the case, but their parents cancelled the night before, according to Tacopina, the family's attorney, have denied investigators access to the boys; the boys had a second interview on November 10, 2011. A police request for a warrant claims that inconsistent stories from people involved may have hampered early stages of the investigation. In May 2012, Deborah Bradley and Jeremy Irwin reported that their debit card had been fraudulently used on a website that provides false birth certificates; the Today Show and America Live both confirmed. Their attorney confirmed that he visited the website.
Police have said they are continuing their investigation and they believe Irwin may still be alive. In October 2013, a girl thought to be Lisa. Authorities determined. List of people who disappeared Lisa Irwin at the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children Lisa Irwin at NamUs