United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Rhythm and blues
Rhythm and blues abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s. The term was used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, drums, one or more saxophones, sometimes background vocalists. R&B lyrical themes encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy, as well as triumphs and failures in terms of relationships and aspirations; the term "rhythm and blues" has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s, it was applied to blues records. Starting in the mid-1950s, after this style of music contributed to the development of rock and roll, the term "R&B" became used to refer to music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues, as well as gospel and soul music.
In the 1960s, several British rock bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Who and the Animals were referred to and promoted as being R&B bands. Their mix of rock and roll and R&B is now known as "British rhythm and blues". By the 1970s, the term "rhythm and blues" changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a newer style of R&B developed, becoming known as "contemporary R&B", it combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, hip hop, electronic music. Popular R&B vocalists at the end of the 20th century included Prince, R. Kelly, Stevie Wonder, Chaka Khan, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey. In the 21st century, R&B has remained a popular genre becoming more pop orientated and alternatively influenced with successful artists including Usher, Bruno Mars, Chris Brown, Justin Timberlake, The Weeknd, Frank Ocean and Khalid. Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term "rhythm and blues" as a musical term in the United States in 1948, the term was used in Billboard as early as 1943.
It replaced the term "race music", which came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world. The term "rhythm and blues" was used by Billboard in its chart listings from June 1949 until August 1969, when its "Hot Rhythm & Blues Singles" chart was renamed as "Best Selling Soul Singles". Before the "Rhythm and Blues" name was instated, various record companies had begun replacing the term "race music" with "sepia series". Writer and producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as "a catchall term referring to any music, made by and for black Americans", he has used the term "R&B" as a synonym for jump blues. However, AllMusic separates it from jump blues because of R&B's stronger gospel influences. Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that "rhythm and blues" was an umbrella term invented for industry convenience. According to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts.
Well into the 21st century, the term R&B continues in use to categorize music made by black musicians, as distinct from styles of music made by other musicians. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass and saxophone. Arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by background vocalists. Simple repetitive parts mesh, creating momentum and rhythmic interplay producing mellow and hypnotic textures while calling attention to no individual sound. While singers are engaged with the lyrics intensely so, they remain cool, in control; the bands dressed in suits, uniforms, a practice associated with the modern popular music that rhythm and blues performers aspired to dominate. Lyrics seemed fatalistic, the music followed predictable patterns of chords and structure; the migration of African Americans to the urban industrial centers of Chicago, New York City, Los Angeles and elsewhere in the 1920s and 1930s created a new market for jazz and related genres of music.
These genres of music were performed by full-time musicians, either working alone or in small groups. The precursors of rhythm and blues came from jazz and blues, which overlapped in the late-1920s and 1930s through the work of musicians such as the Harlem Hamfats, with their 1936 hit "Oh Red", as well as Lonnie Johnson, Leroy Carr, Cab Calloway, Count Basie, T-Bone Walker. There was increasing emphasis on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, as well as the piano and saxophone. In 1948, RCA Victor was marketing black music under the name "Blues and Rhythm". In that year, Louis Jordan dominated the top five listings of the R&B charts with three songs, two of the top five songs were based on the boogie-woogie rhythms that had come to prominence during the 1940s. Jordan's band, the Tympany Five, consisted of him on saxophone and vocals, along with musicians on trumpet, tenor saxophone, piano and drums. Lawrence Cohn described the music as "grittier than his boogie-era jazz-tinged blues". Robert Palmer described it as "urbane, jazz-based music with a heavy, insistent beat".
Jordan's music, along with that of Big Joe Turner, Roy Brown, Billy Wright, Wynonie Harris, is now referred to as jump blues. Paul Gayten, Roy Brown, others had had hits in the style now referred to as rhythm and blu
Gloria Naylor was an American novelist, known for novels including The Women of Brewster Place, Linden Hills and Mama Day. Naylor was born in New York on January 25, 1950, the oldest child of Roosevelt Naylor and Alberta McAlpin; the Naylors, sharecroppers in Robinsonville, had migrated to Harlem to escape life in the segregated South and seek new opportunities in New York City. Her father became a transit worker. Though Naylor's mother had little education, she loved to read, encouraged her daughter to read and keep a journal. Before her teen years, Gloria began writing prodigiously, filling many notebooks with observations and short stories. In 1963, Naylor's family moved to Queens and her mother joined the Jehovah's Witnesses. An outstanding student who read voraciously, Naylor was placed into advanced classes in high school, where she immersed herself in the work of nineteenth century British novelists, her educational aspirations, were delayed by the shock of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in her senior year.
She decided to postpone her college education, becoming a missionary for the Jehovah's Witnesses in New York, North Carolina, Florida instead. She left seven years as "things weren't getting better, but worse."From 1975 to 1981 Naylor attended Medgar Evers College and Brooklyn College while working as a telephone operator, majoring in nursing before switching to English. It was at that time that she read Toni Morrison's novel The Bluest Eye, a pivotal experience for her, she began to avidly read the work of Zora Neale Hurston, Alice Walker, other black women novelists, none of which she had been exposed to previously. She went on to earn an M. A. in African-American studies at Yale University. Naylor earned her bachelor's degree in English at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York in 1981, she obtained a master's degree in African American Studies from Yale University in 1983. She was an honorary member of Delta Sigma Theta sorority. Naylor's debut novel, The Women of Brewster Place, was published in 1982 and won the 1983 National Book Award in the category First Novel.
It was adapted as a 1989 television miniseries of the same name by Oprah Winfrey's Harpo Productions. Naylor's work is featured in such anthologies as Breaking Ice: An Anthology of Contemporary African-American Fiction, Calling the Wind: Twentieth-Century African-American Short Stories and Daughters of Africa. During her career as a professor, Naylor taught writing and literature at several universities, including George Washington University, New York University, Boston University, University of Kent, University of Pennsylvania and Cornell University. Naylor died of a heart attack on September 28, 2016, while visiting St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands, she was 66. During her studies at Brooklyn College, Naylor became immersed in the works of African-American female authors such as Zora Neale Hurston, Alice Walker, Toni Morrison. Drawing inspiration from these authors, Naylor began writing stories centered on the lives of African-American women, which resulted in her first novel, The Women of Brewster Place.
The Women of Brewster Place, ISBN 0-7868-6421-4 Linden Hills, ISBN 0-14-008829-6 The Meanings of a Word Mama Day, ISBN 0-89919-716-7 Bailey's Cafe, ISBN 0-15-110450-6 Children of the Night: The Best Short Stories by Black Writers, 1967 to the Present, ISBN 0-316-59926-3 The Men of Brewster Place, ISBN 0-7868-8405-3 1996, ISBN 0-88378-263-4 Gloria Naylor won critical and popular acclaim for her first published novel, The Women of Brewster Place. In that book, as in her successive novels, including Linden Hills, Mama Day, The Men of Brewster Place, Naylor gave an intense and vivid depiction of many social issues, including poverty, homophobia, discrimination against women, the social stratification of African Americans. Vashti Crutcher Lewis, a contributor to the Dictionary of Literary Biography, commented on the "brilliance" of Naylor's first novel, derived from "her rich prose, her lyrical portrayals of African Americans, her illumination of the meaning of being a black woman in America."
In The Women of Brewster Place and her other novels, Naylor focuses on "themes of deferred dreams of love, marriage and economic stability, while observing the recurring messages that poverty breeds violence, that true friendship and affection are not dependent on gender, that women in the black ghettos of America bear their burdens with grace and courage," stated Lewis. National Book Award for first novel, 1983 National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship, 1985 Candace Award, National Coalition of 100 Black Women, 1986 Guggenheim Fellowship, 1988 Lillian Smith Award, 1989. Prahlad, Sw. Anand. 1998. "All chickens come home to roost: The function of proverbs in Gloria Naylor's Mama Day." Proverbium, 15: 265-282. Drieling, Claudia, 2011. Constructs of "Home" in Gloria Naylor's Quartet. Würzburg, Germany: Königshausen & Neumann, 325 pp. ISBN 978-3-8260-4492-2. Biography at aalbc.com "Award Winning Author Gloria Naylor Donates Archives to SHU" Kami Fletcher, "A Tribute To Gloria Naylor: Teacher Of Black Feminism", AAIHS, November 26, 2016
Mary Alice Smith, known professionally as Mary Alice, is an African American film and stage actress. Alice has appeared in over fifty television films in her career. Alice is best known for her roles as Leticia "Lettie" Bostic on NBC's A Different World and Effie Williams in the 1976 musical drama Sparkle. Alice has performed on the stage, she received a Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play for her appearance in the 1987 production of August Wilson's Fences. Born Mary Alice Smith in Indianola, Alice is the daughter of Ozelar and Sam Smith. Alice showed an early and natural ability for acting, began her stage career in her hometown, her family moved from Mississippi to Chicago. Mary Alice graduated from Chicago Teacher's Union, now known as Chicago State University, taught at an elementary school, she returned to acting in the mid-1960s, through community theater, appeared in three Douglass Turner Ward's plays, including Days of Absence and Happy Endings. Mary Alice washed the cast's laundry for a salary of $200 a week.
She did some acting in New York City during the late 1960s and early 1970s, performing in multiple productions at La MaMa Experimental Theatre Club in Manhattan's East Village between 1969 and 1973. Her first production at La MaMa was Adrienne Kennedy's A Rat's Mass in September 1969, she reprised her role as Sister Rat in the October 1969 production, again in the January 1971 production. All three productions were directed by Seth Allen. In 1970, Mary Alice performed in Ed Bullins' Street Sounds, directed by Hugh Gittens, she performed in Lamar Alford's Thoughts in December 1972 and January 1973. Mary Alice made her screen début in the 1974 film The Education of Sonny Carson, appeared in the television shows Police Woman and Sanford and Son, she played Ellie Grant Hubbard on the soap opera All My Children during the mid-1980s, co–starred in A Different World as Leticia'Lettie' Bostic from the series' start in 1987 until the end of the second season in 1989. Mary Alice won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series in 1993 for I'll Fly Away.
Her other film credits include Malcolm X, The Inkwell, Down in the Delta. In 2000, she was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame. Mary Alice replaced Gloria Foster as the Oracle in the film The Matrix Revolutions and the video game Enter The Matrix after Foster, who originated the role, died in 2001. Mary Alice at AllMovie Mary Alice on IMDb Mary Alice at the Internet Broadway Database Mary Alice at the Internet Off-Broadway Database TonyAwards.com interview with Mary Alice Mary Alice's page on La MaMa Archives Digital Collections
Leon Preston Robinson credited as Leon, is an American actor and singer, who began his professional career as a film actor in the early 1980s. Robinson is best known for his roles as David Ruffin in the TV Movie The Temptations, J. T. Matthews in the 1991 Robert Townsend film, The Five Heartbeats, Derice Bannock in the 1993 film, Cool Runnings, as Shep in the 1994 basketball drama film, Above the Rim. Robinson appeared in a 1989 episode of the NBC series Midnight Caller, in which he played an athlete who falls victim to crack cocaine, he co-starred in the 1989 ABC miniseries The Women of Brewster Place, as the boyfriend of a suburbanite. He was cast as Saint Martin de Porres in Madonna's controversial 1989 music video "Like a Prayer". Robinson's early film roles included a football teammate of Tom Cruise in All the Right Moves, as Shadow Nadeing, the Notre Dame-bound basketball playing co-worker of Matt Dillon, in The Flamingo Kid, he costarred in the Michael Mann-produced Tri-Star Pictures film Band of The Hand, as well as the "Killer Bee" in the Dennis Hopper-directed gang film Colors, starring Sean Penn and Robert Duvall.
After his exposure in the 1989 video for the song "Like a Prayer" by Madonna, he played a leading role in the 1993 Disney film Cool Runnings. That same year, he co-starred as John Lithgow's henchman in Renny Harlin's Cliffhanger and followed with a turn as a disillusioned ex-jock in New Line Cinema's Above the Rim. Robinson appeared as Lela Rochon's married lover in 1995's Waiting to Exhale directed by Forest Whitaker and starring Whitney Houston and a starring role in the Merchant/Ivory produced movie, Side Streets with Rosario Dawson, he produced as well as starred in the 1997 romantic drama The Price of Kissing with TV star Pauley Perrette. He starred in the movie Once Upon a Time When We Were Colored, directed by Tim Reid and winner of Best Picture at the NAACP Image Awards. Robinson has received critical acclaim for his portrayal of three singers: David Ruffin in the 1998 NBC miniseries The Temptations, Little Richard in the self-titled 2000 NBC movie biography, JT in the 20th Century Fox movie,The Five Heartbeats directed by Robert Townsend.
He received an Emmy nomination for his portrayal of Little Richard. During this period, Robinson joined the ensemble cast of two TV series, playing the popular Jefferson Keane on HBO's first series, Oz and as Lawrence Hill on Showtime's Resurrection Blvd. A costarring role as "Stoney" best friend of Joaquin Phoenix in Miramax' military drama Buffalo Soldiers, an uncredited role as "Joseph 13 X" in Michael Mann's award winning biopic, Ali starring Will Smith, in addition to hosting his own late-night talk show, The L-Bow Room, on BET. In 2008, Robinson starred in the 20th Century Fox thriller Cover, directed by Bill Duke, starred alongside Danny Masterson and Dominique Swain in the indie comedy The Brooklyn Heist, directed by Julian Mark Kheel. In 2009, AOL Black Voices voted Robinson one of the Sexiest Actors of All-time. Between 2013 and 2014, he appeared in four movies, the romantic comedy I Really Hate My Ex, written and directed by Troy Beyer, the southern drama Soul Ties, based on the book by Tee Austin, the indie rock/drama 37 the romantic drama, And Then There Was You with Garcelle Beauvais.
In theater, Robinson has headlined three national tours, with sold out performances at Hollywood's Kodak Theater, NYC's Beacon Theater, Detroit's Fox Theater, Washington, DC's Warner Theater and more in Friends and Lovers, based on Eric Jerome Dickey's NY Times bestselling book. In 2009 and 2010 as a soldier returning from Iraq in 3 Ways to Get A Husband co-starring Billy Dee Williams and in 2012, the revival of Why Do Good Girls Like Bad Boys. Robinson is the lead vocalist and songwriter of the band and the Peoples. In 2007, he received an International Reggae and World Music Award nomination for the band's debut CD The Road Less Traveled, winner of Best International Artist at the Joe Higgs Reggae Awards and completed a 36 city US tour with reggae greats Beres Hammond and Marcia Griffiths titled the "For The Love Of It Tour", he was 2010 North American tours. He head-lined 2013 AIDS Walk Concerts. Other performances include: 2011 Aspen Jazz Fest. 2012 Catalpa NYC Music Festival, New Orleans Music Festival, Chicago's Festival Of Life, Reggae on River, Jamaica's Rebel Salute, BET's popular 106 & Park.
Leon and The Peoples' single, Love Is A Beautiful Thing was featured on the BET/Centric TV show Culture List, which premiered on July 21, 2013. Leon & The Peoples 2nd album Love Is A Beautiful Thingwas released on the Spectra Music label on July 20th, 2018 with the title track debuting at #3 on Billboards Hot Singles Chart and the next single"beautiful charting on the same Billboard chart at #12. Sole Survivor... Gang Leader All the Right Moves... Shadow Nadeing The Flamingo Kid.. Fortune Smith Streetwalkin'... Jason Band of the Hand.. Moss The Father Clements Story... Ice The Lawless Land... Road Kill Colors... Killer Bee The Women of Brewster Place... Abshu A Mother's Courage... Michael Thomas Like a Prayer... The Five Heartbeats... J. T. Matthews Cool Runnings... Derice Bannock Cliffhanger... Kynette Bad Attitude Above the Rim... Shep Waiting to Exhale... Russell Pure Danger... Felix Once Upon a Time... When We Were Colored... Uncle Melvin Oz... Jefferson Keane/ Tizi Ouzou Spirit Lost... John B*A*P*S... Himself The Price of Kissing...
Larry Runaway Car... Officer Isaiah'Beau' Beaufort The Temptations... David Ruffin Side Streets
Cicely L. Tyson is an American actress and former fashion model whose acting career has spanned more than six decades. Tyson is the recipient of three Primetime Emmy Awards, four Black Reel Awards, one Screen Actor Guild Award, one Tony Award and an honorary Academy Award. Having appeared in minor film and television roles early in her career, Tyson garnered widespread attention and critical acclaim for her performance as Rebecca Morgan in Sounder. Tyson's portrayal of the title role in the 1974 television film The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman won her further praise. Tyson has continued to act on television in the 21st century. In 2011, she played the role of Constantine Jefferson in the award-winning film The Help, she has played the role of Ophelia Harkness in American Broadcasting Company's legal drama How to Get Away With Murder since the show's inception in 2014. In addition to her screen career, Tyson has appeared in various theater productions, she received a Drama Desk Award in 1962 for her Off-Broadway performance in Moon on a Rainbow Shawl.
Tyson starred as Carrie Watts in the Broadway play The Trip to Bountiful, winning the Tony Award, the Outer Critics Award, the Drama Desk Award for Best Actress in a Play in 2013. Tyson was named a Kennedy Center honoree in 2015. In November 2016, Tyson received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United States. Tyson was born in Harlem on December 19, 1924, the daughter of Frederica Tyson, a domestic worker, William Augustine Tyson, who worked as a carpenter, at any other jobs he could find, her parents were immigrants from Nevis in the West Indies. Her father arrived in New York City at age 21 and was processed at Ellis Island on August 4, 1919. Tyson became a popular fashion model, her first acting role was on the NBC series Frontiers of Faith in 1951. Tyson played her first stage role in 1950 and her first film role in Carib Gold in 1956, but she went on to do more television work, such as the celebrated series East Side/West Side, in which she became the first African American to star in a television drama, the soap opera The Guiding Light.
In 1961, Tyson appeared in the original cast of French playwright Jean Genet's The Blacks, the longest running off-Broadway non-musical of the decade, running for 1,408 performances. On March 25, 1963, Tyson appeared on the game show To Tell The Truth as a decoy contestant for Shirley Abicair, she appeared with Sammy Davis Jr. in the film A Man Called Adam and starred in the film version of Graham Greene's The Comedians. Tyson had a featured role in The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter, appeared in a segment of Roots. In 1972, Tyson played the role of Rebecca Morgan in the critically acclaimed film Sounder, she was nominated for both the Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Actress for her work in Sounder, won the NSFC Best Actress and NBR Best Actress Awards. In 1974, Tyson played the title role in the television film The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. Tyson's portrayal of a young African-American slave won her a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress – Miniseries or a Movie and an Emmy Award for Actress of the Year – Special.
Tyson was nominated for a BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role for her work in this television film. Tyson's acclaimed television roles include: Binta in the 1977 miniseries Roots, for which she was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress – Miniseries or a Movie. In 1991, Tyson appeared in Fried Green Tomatoes as Sipsey. In the 1994–95 television series Sweet Justice, Tyson portrayed a civil rights activist and attorney named Carrie Grace Battle, a character she shaped by consulting with noted Washington, D. C. civil rights and criminal defense lawyer Dovey Johnson Roundtree. Other notable film roles include the dramas Hoodlum and Diary of a Mad Black Woman, the television films Oldest Living Confederate Widow Tells All and A Lesson Before Dying. In 2005, Tyson co-starred in Because of Winn-Dixie. In 2010, Tyson appeared in Why Did I Get Married Too? and narrated the Paul Robeson Award-winning documentary, Up from the Bottoms: The Search for the American Dream.
In 2011, Tyson appeared in her first music video in Willow Smith's 21st Century Girl. That same year, she played Constantine Jefferson, a maid in Jackson, Mississippi, in the critically acclaimed period drama The Help. Set in the backdrop of the Civil Rights Movement, the film won the Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Acting Ensemble and the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture. At the 67th Tony Awards on June 9, 2013, Tyson won the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for her performance as Miss Carrie Watts in The Trip to Bou
David Lee Shire is an American songwriter and composer of stage musicals and television scores. The soundtracks to The Taking of Pelham One Two Three, The Conversation and All the President's Men, parts of the Saturday Night Fever soundtrack such as "Manhattan Skyline", are some of his best-known works, his other work includes the score of the 1985 film Return to Oz, the stage musical scores of Baby, Closer Than Ever, Starting Here, Starting Now. Shire is married to actress Didi Conn. Shire was born in Buffalo, New York, to Esther Miriam and Buffalo society band leader and piano teacher Irving Daniel Shire, his family was Jewish. His secondary education was at the Nichols School, he met his long-time theater collaborator lyricist/director Richard Maltby, Jr. at Yale University, where they wrote two musicals and Grand Tour, which were produced by the Yale Dramatic Association. Shire co-fronted a jazz group at school, the Shire-Fogg Quintet, was a Phi Beta Kappa honors student, with a double major in English and music.
He was a member of the Pundits and Elihu and he graduated magna cum laude in 1959. After a semester of graduate work at Brandeis University and six months in the National Guard infantry, Shire took up residence in New York City, working as a dance class pianist, theater rehearsal and pit pianist, society band musician while working with Maltby on musicals, their first off-Broadway show, The Sap of Life, was produced in 1961 at One Sheridan Square Theater in Greenwich Village. He co-wrote The Village Stompers' "Washington Square" with Bob Goldstein in 1963. Shire began scoring for television in the 1960s and made the leap to scoring feature films in the early 1970s, he was married to actress Talia Shire, for whose brother Francis Ford Coppola he scored The Conversation his best known score, in 1974. Additional screen credits include Two People, The Taking of Pelham One Two Three, The Hindenburg, Farewell, My Lovely, All The President's Men, The Big Bus, 2010, Return to Oz, Short Circuit, Max Dugan Returns, Zodiac.
He composed original music for Saturday Night Fever, worked on several disco adaptations including "Night on Disco Mountain." He won the Academy Award for Best Song in 1979 for his and Norman Gimbel's theme song for Norma Rae, "It Goes Like It Goes." He was nominated the same year in the same category for "I'll Never Say Goodbye," from the motion picture The Promise, with lyrics jointly written by Marilyn and Alan Bergman. In 1979 his song "With You I'm Born Again," recorded by Billy Preston and Syreeta, was a top five international hit and stayed on the pop charts for 26 weeks; the Conversation featured a score for piano. On some cues, Shire took the taped sounds of the piano and distorted them in different ways to create alternative sonic textures to round out the score; the music is intended to capture the paranoia of protagonist Harry Caul. The score was released on CD by Intrada Records. For the "Main Title" of The Taking of Pelham One Two Three, Shire set a jazz-funk groove in B-flat minor, made the lead melodies and chords out of atonal twelve-tone rows in short bursts of variously shaped motives.
The soundtrack album was the first-ever CD release by Film Score Monthly. The end titles contain a more expansive arrangement of the theme. Shire's television scores have earned five Emmy nominations, his hundreds of scores for television include: Killer Bees. He composed themes for the television series Alice and McCloud and the 1976-1977 Danny Thomas situation comedy The Practice. Shire's film and television scoring style is compared to his late counterpart and contemporary Jerry Fielding; as a pit pianist, Shire played for the original productions of both The Fantasticks and Funny Girl serving as Barbra Streisand’s accompanist for several years. He intermittently conducted and arranged for her, over a period of several years she recorded five of his songs. Shire's musical theatre work, always in collaboration with lyricist Richard Maltby, Jr. includes the two off-Broadway revues Starting Here, Starting Now and Closer Than Ever and the two Broadway shows Baby and Big. All of these shows have had hundreds of regional and stock productions worldwide.
A new musical entitled Take Flight premiered in London at the Menier Chocolate Factory in July 2007, with a separate production in Tokyo in November 2007. Concert versions were performed in Australia and Russia. A Stream of Voices, a one-act opera, with libretto by Gene Scheer, for the Colorado Children's Chorale, premiered in June 2008 in Denver. On October 27, 2012, the Broadway-style musical Loving the Silent Tears premiered in Los Angeles, including some songs composed by Shire. Shire has conducted many orchestras, either for film scores or for pop concerts, including the London Symphony Orchestra, The Los Angeles Philharmonic, the San Francisco Opera Orchestra, the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra and the Munich Symphony. Shire wrote and composed many songs for the hit PBS children's TV series Shining Time Station, which starred his wife Didi Conn along with comedian George Carlin. Shire serves on the council of the Dramat