Rabindranath Tagore known by his sobriquets Gurudev and Biswakabi, was a Bengali polymath, poet and artist from the Indian subcontinent. He reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Author of the "profoundly sensitive and beautiful verse" of Gitanjali, he became in 1913 the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Tagore's poetic songs were viewed as mercurial, he is sometimes referred to as "the Bard of Bengal". A Brhamo from Calcutta with ancestral gentry roots in Jessore, Tagore wrote poetry as an eight-year-old. At the age of sixteen, he released his first substantial poems under the pseudonym Bhānusiṃha, which were seized upon by literary authorities as long-lost classics. By 1877 he graduated to his first short stories and dramas; as a humanist, universalist and ardent anti-nationalist, he denounced the British Raj and advocated independence from Britain. As an exponent of the Bengal Renaissance, he advanced a vast canon that comprised paintings and doodles, hundreds of texts, some two thousand songs.
Tagore modernised Bengali art by resisting linguistic strictures. His novels, songs, dance-dramas, essays spoke to topics political and personal. Gitanjali and Ghare-Baire are his best-known works, his verse, short stories, novels were acclaimed—or panned—for their lyricism, colloquialism and unnatural contemplation, his compositions were chosen by two nations as national anthems: India's Jana Gana Mana and Bangladesh's Amar Shonar Bangla. The Sri Lankan national anthem was inspired by his work; the youngest of thirteen surviving children, Tagore was born on 7 May 1861 in the Jorasanko mansion in Calcutta to Debendranath Tagore and Sarada Devi. Tagore was raised by servants; the Tagore family was at the forefront of the Bengal renaissance. They hosted the publication of literary magazines. Tagore's father invited several professional Dhrupad musicians to stay in the house and teach Indian classical music to the children. Tagore's oldest brother Dwijendranath was a poet. Another brother, was the first Indian appointed to the elite and all-European Indian Civil Service.
Yet another brother, was a musician and playwright. His sister Swarnakumari became a novelist. Jyotirindranath's wife Kadambari Devi older than Tagore, was a dear friend and powerful influence, her abrupt suicide in 1884, soon after he married, left him profoundly distraught for years. Tagore avoided classroom schooling and preferred to roam the manor or nearby Bolpur and Panihati, which the family visited, his brother Hemendranath tutored and physically conditioned him—by having him swim the Ganges or trek through hills, by gymnastics, by practising judo and wrestling. He learned drawing, anatomy and history, mathematics and English—his least favourite subject. Tagore loathed formal education—his scholarly travails at the local Presidency College spanned a single day. Years he held that proper teaching does not explain things. There Tagore read biographies, studied history, modern science, Sanskrit, examined the classical poetry of Kālidāsa. During his 1-month stay at Amritsar in 1873 he was influenced by melodious gurbani and nanak bani being sung at Golden Temple for which both father and son were regular visitors.
He mentions about this in his My Reminiscences The golden temple of Amritsar comes back to me like a dream. Many a morning have I accompanied my father to this Gurudarbar of the Sikhs in the middle of the lake. There the sacred chanting resounds continually. My father, seated amidst the throng of worshippers, would sometimes add his voice to the hymn of praise, finding a stranger joining in their devotions they would wax enthusiastically cordial, we would return loaded with the sanctified offerings of sugar crystals and other sweets, he wrote 6 poems relating to Sikhism and a number of articles in Bengali child magazine about Sikhism. Tagore returned to Jorosanko and completed a set of major works by 1877, one of them a long poem in the Maithili style of Vidyapati; as a joke, he claimed that these were the lost works of newly discovered 17th-century Vaiṣṇava poet Bhānusiṃha. Regional experts accepted them as the lost works of the fictitious poet, he debuted in the short-story genre in Bengali with "Bhikharini".
Published in the same year, Sandhya Sangit includes the poem "Nirjharer Swapnabhanga". Because Debendranath wanted his son to become a barrister, Tagore enrolled at a public school in Brighton, East Sussex, England in 1878, he stayed for several months at a house that the Tagore family owned near Brighton and Hove, in Medina Villas.
Cinema of West Bengal
The cinema of West Bengal known as Tollywood, refers to the Indian Bengali language film industry based in the Tollygunge region of Kolkata, West Bengal, India. The origins of the nickname Tollywood, a portmanteau of the words Tollygunge and Hollywood, dates back to 1932, it was a important film industry, at one time the center of Indian film production. The Bengali film industry is known for producing many of Indian cinema's most critically acclaimed global Parallel Cinema and art films, with several of its filmmakers gaining prominence at the Indian National Film Awards as well as international acclaim. Since the late 20th century, the Bengali film industry has become smaller, overtaken by other regional industries such as Bollywood and South Indian cinema. Since Satyajit Ray's Pather Panchali was awarded Best Human Document at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival, Bengali films appeared in international fora and film festivals for the next several decades; this allowed Bengali filmmakers to reach a global audience.
The most influential among them was Satyajit Ray, whose films became successful among European and Asian audiences. His work subsequently had a worldwide impact, with filmmakers such as Martin Scorsese, James Ivory, Abbas Kiarostami, Elia Kazan, François Truffaut, Carlos Saura, Isao Takahata, Wes Anderson and Danny Boyle being influenced by his cinematic style, many others such as Akira Kurosawa praising his work; the "youthful coming-of-age dramas that have flooded art houses since the mid-fifties owe a tremendous debt to the Apu trilogy". Kanchenjungha introduced a narrative structure that resembles hyperlink cinema. Ray's 1967 script for a film to be called The Alien, cancelled, is believed to have been the inspiration for Steven Spielberg's E. T.. Ira Sachs' Forty Shades of Blue was a loose remake of Charulata, in Gregory Navas My Family, the final scene is duplicated from the final scene of The World of Apu. Similar references to Ray films are found in recent works such as Sacred Evil, the Elements trilogy of Deepa Mehta, in films of Jean-Luc Godard.
Another prominent Bengali filmmaker is Mrinal Sen, whose films have been well known for their Marxist views. During his career, Mrinal Sen's films have received awards from major film festivals, including Cannes, Venice, Karlovy Vary, Montreal and Cairo. Retrospectives of his films have been shown in major cities of the world. Another Bengali filmmaker, Ritwik Ghatak, began reaching a global audience long after his death; some of his films have strong similarities to famous international films, such as Ajantrik resembling the Herbie films and Bari Theke Paliye resembling François Truffaut's The 400 Blows. The cinematographer Subrata Mitra, who made his debut with Ray's The Apu Trilogy had an important influence on cinematography across the world. One of his most important techniques was bounce lighting, to recreate the effect of daylight on sets, he pioneered the technique while the second part of The Apu Trilogy. Some of the experimental techniques which Satyajit Ray pioneered include photo-negative flashbacks and X-ray digressions while filming Pratidwandi.
Tollywood was the first Hollywood-inspired name, dating back to a 1932 article in the American Cinematographer by Wilford E. Deming, an American engineer, involved in the production of the first Indian sound film, he gave the industry the name Tollywood because the Tollygunge district in which it was based rhymed with "Hollywood", because Tollygunge was the center of the cinema of India as a whole at the time much like Hollywood was in the cinema of the United States. In that same March 1932 article, Deming was considering the name "Hollygunge" but decided to go with "Tollywood" as the nickname for the Tollygunge area due to "Tolly being a proper name and Gunge meaning locality" in the Bengali language, it was this "chance juxtaposition of two pairs of rhyming syllables," Holly and Tolly, that led to the name "Tollywood" being coined. The name "Tollywood" went on to be used as a nickname for the Bengali film industry by the popular Kolkata-based Junior Statesman youth magazine, establishing a precedent for other film industries to use similar-sounding names.
Tollywood went on to inspire the name "Bollywood", which in turn inspired many other similar names. The history of cinema in Bengal dates to the 1920s, when the first "bioscopes" were shown in theaters in Calcutta. Within a decade, the first seeds of the industry were sown by Hiralal Sen, considered a stalwart of Victorian era cinema when he set up the Royal Bioscope Company, producing scenes from the stage productions of a number of popular shows at the Star Theatre, Minerva Theatre, Classic Theatre. Following a long gap after Sen's works, Dhirendra Nath Ganguly established the Indo British Film Co, the first Bengali-owned production company, in 1918. However, the first Bengali feature film, was produced in 1919, under the banner of Madan Theatre. Bilat Ferat was the IBFC's first production in 1921; the Madan Theatre production of Jamai Shashthi was the first Bengali talkie. A long history has been traversed since with stalwarts such as Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen and Ritwik Ghatak and others earning international acclaim and securing their place in the movie history.
Hiralal Sen, India is credited as one of Bengal's, India's first directors
Sight & Sound
Sight & Sound is a British monthly film magazine published by the British Film Institute. Sight & Sound was first published in 1932 and in 1934 management of the magazine was handed to the nascent BFI, which still publishes the magazine today. Sight & Sound was published quarterly for most of its history until the early 1990s, apart from a brief run as a monthly publication in the early 1950s, but in 1991 it merged with another BFI publication, the Monthly Film Bulletin, started to appear monthly; the journal was edited by Gavin Lambert from 1949 to 1955, from 1956 to 1990 by Penelope Houston. The relaunch editor was Philip Dodd, it is edited by Nick James. The magazine reviews all film releases each month, including those with a limited release, as opposed to most film magazines which concentrate on those films with a general release. Sight & Sound features a full cast and crew credit list for each reviewed film, as well as the entire plot of said film; every decade, Sight & Sound asks an international group of film professionals to vote for their ten greatest films of all time.
Until 1992, the votes of the invited critics and directors were compiled to make one list. However, since 1992, directors have been invited to participate in a separate poll; the individual results are eclectic. The top-of-the-list consensus has its limits. In 2002, both the critics and the directors selected Stanley Kubrick films in their top ten; the Sight & Sound accolade has come to be regarded as one of the most important of the "greatest film" polls. Roger Ebert described it as "by far the most respected of the countless polls of great movies—the only one most serious movie people take seriously." The first poll, in 1952, was topped by Bicycle Thieves. The five subsequent polls were won by Citizen Kane, while Vertigo received the most votes in 2012. Only La Règle du jeu has appeared in all seven of the magazine's decennial polls. Among the directors that participated in 2012 are Quentin Tarantino, Martin Scorsese, Ken Loach and Francis Ford Coppola. Sight & Sound has in the past been the subject of criticism, notably from Raymond Durgnat, who accused it of elitism and snobbery, although he did write for it in the 1950s, again in the 1990s.
The magazine's American counterpart is Film Comment, a magazine published by the Film Society of Lincoln Center in New York City. It has been accused of populism in recent years. Bicycle Thieves City Lights The Gold Rush Battleship Potemkin Intolerance Louisiana Story Greed Le Jour Se Lève The Passion of Joan of Arc Brief Encounter The Rules of the Game Le Million Closest runners-up: Citizen Kane, La Grande Illusion, The Grapes of Wrath. Citizen Kane L'Avventura The Rules of the Game Greed Ugetsu Battleship Potemkin Bicycle Thieves Ivan the Terrible La Terra Trema L'Atalante Closest runners-up: Hiroshima mon amour, Pather Panchali and Zero for Conduct. Citizen Kane The Rules of the Game Battleship Potemkin 8½ L'Avventura Persona The Passion of Joan of Arc The General The Magnificent Ambersons Ugetsu Wild Strawberries Closest runners-up: The Gold Rush, Hiroshima mon amour, Ivan the Terrible, Pierrot le Fou, Vertigo. Citizen Kane The Rules of the Game Seven Samurai Singin' in the Rain 8½ Battleship Potemkin L'Avventura The Magnificent Ambersons Vertigo The General The Searchers Closest runners-up: 2001: A Space Odyssey and Andrei Rublev.
Citizen Kane The Rules of the Game Tokyo Story Vertigo The Searchers L'Atalante The Passion of Joan of Arc Pather Panchali Battleship Potemkin 2001: A Space Odyssey Closest runners-up: Bicycle Thieves and Singin' in the Rain. Citizen Kane Vertigo The Rules of the Game The Godfather and The Godfather Part II Tokyo Story 2001: A Space Odyssey Battleship Potemkin Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans 8½ Singin' in the Rain Closest runners-up: Seven Samurai and The Searchers. A new rule was imposed for this ballot: related films that are considered part of a larger whole were to be treated as separate films for voting purposes. For the 2012 poll, Sight & Sound listened to decades of criticism about the lack of diversity of its poll participants and made a huge effort to invite a much wider variety of critics and filmmakers from around the world to participate, taking into account gender, race, geographical region, socioeconomic status, other kinds of underrepresentation. Vertigo Citizen Kane Tokyo Story The Rules of the Gam
Bengalis rendered as the Bengali people and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group native to the Bengal region in South Asia in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, presently divided between Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Assam's Barak Valley, who speak Bengali, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family. The term "Bangalee" is used to denote people of Bangladesh as a nation. Bengalis are the third largest ethnic group in the world, after Han Chinese and Arabs. Apart from Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Assam's Barak Valley, Bengali-majority populations reside in India's union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands as well as Bangladesh's Chittagong Hill Tracts, with significant populations in Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Uttarakhand; the global Bengali diaspora have well-established communities in Pakistan, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Middle East, South Korea, Malaysia and Italy. They have four major religious subgroups: Bengali Muslims, Bengali Hindus, Bengali Christians, Bengali Buddhists.
In modern usage, "Bengali" or "Bangali" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Bengal. Their ethnonym is derived from Bangla; the exact origin of the word Bangla is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang/Banga that settled in the area around the year 2500 BCE. Other accounts speculate that the name is derived from Venga, which came from the Austric word "Bonga" meaning the Sun-god. According to the Mahabharata, the Puranas and the Harivamsha, Vanga was one of the adopted sons of King Vali who founded the Vanga Kingdom, it was either under Kalinga Rules except few years under Pals. The Muslim accounts refer that a son of Hind colonised the area for the first time; the earliest reference to "Vangala" has been traced in the Nesari plates of Rashtrakuta Govinda III which speak of Dharmapala as the king of Vangala. The records of Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty, who invaded Bengal in the 11th century, speak of Govindachandra as the ruler of Vangaladesa.
Shams-ud-din Ilyas Shah took the title "Shah-e-Bangla" and united the whole region under one government. An interesting theory of the origin of the name is provided by Abu'l-Fazl in his Ain-i-Akbari. According to him, "The original name of Bengal was Bung, the suffix "al" came to be added to it from the fact that the ancient rajahs of this land raised mounds of earth 10 feet high and 20 in breadth in lowlands at the foot of the hills which were called "al". From this suffix added to the Bung, the name Bengal arose and gained currency". Archaeologists have discovered remnants of a 4,000-year-old Chalcolithic civilisation in the greater Bengal region, believe the finds are one of the earliest signs of settlement in the region. However, evidence of much older Palaeolithic human habitations were found in the form of a stone implement and a hand axe in Rangamati and Feni districts of Bangladesh; the origin of the word Bangla ~ Bengal is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from a tribe called Bang that settled in the area around the year 1000 BCE.
Kingdoms of Pundra and Vanga were formed in Bengal and were first described in the Atharvaveda around 1000 BCE as well as in Hindu epic Mahabharata. Anga and Magadha expanded to include most of the Bihar and Bengal regions, it was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of Buddha and was one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas. Under the Maurya Empire founded by Chandragupta Maurya, Magadha extended over nearly all of South Asia, including parts of Balochistan and Afghanistan, reaching its greatest extent under the Buddhist emperor Ashoka the Great in the 3rd century BCE. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is the mention of a land ruled by the king Xandrammes named Gangaridai by the Greeks around 100 BCE; the word is speculated to have come from Gangahrd in reference to an area in Bengal. From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire. One of the first recorded independent kings of Bengal was Shashanka, reigning around the early 7th century.
After a period of anarchy, Gopala came to power in 750. He founded the Bengali Buddhist Pala Empire which ruled the region for four hundred years, expanded across much of Southern Asia: from Assam in the northeast, to Kabul in the west, to Andhra Pradesh in the south. Atisha was a renowned Bengali Buddhist teacher, instrumental in the revival of Buddhism in Tibet and held the position of Abbot at the Vikramshila university. Tilopa was from the Bengal region; the Pala Empire enjoyed relations with the Srivijaya Empire, the Tibetan Empire, the Arab Abbasid Caliphate. Islam first appeared in Bengal during Pala rule, as a result of increased trade between Bengal and the Middle East; the Pala dynasty was followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena Empire. Islam was introduced to Bengal in the twelfth century by Sufi missionaries. Subsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region. Bakhtiar Khalji, a Turkic general of the Slave dynasty of Delhi Sultanate, defeated Lakshman Sen of the Sena dynasty and conquered large parts of Bengal.
The region was ruled by dynasties of sultans and feudal lords under the Bengal Sultanate for the next few hundred years. Islam was introduced to the Sylhet region by the Muslim saint Shah Jalal in the early 14th century
Satyajit Ray was an Indian filmmaker, music composer, graphic artist and author regarded as one of the greatest filmmakers of the 20th century. Ray was born in Calcutta into a Bengali Kayastha family, prominent in the field of arts and literature. Starting his career as a commercial artist, Ray was drawn into independent filmmaking after meeting French filmmaker Jean Renoir and viewing Vittorio De Sica's Italian neorealist film Bicycle Thieves during a visit to London. Ray directed 36 films, including feature films and shorts, he was a fiction writer, illustrator, music composer, graphic designer and film critic. He authored several short stories and novels, meant for young children and teenagers. Feluda, the sleuth, Professor Shonku, the scientist in his science fiction stories, are popular fictional characters created by him, he was awarded an honorary degree by Oxford University. Ray's first film, Pather Panchali, won eleven international prizes, including the inaugural Best Human Document award at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival.
This film, along with Apur Sansar, form The Apu Trilogy. Ray did the scripting, casting and editing, designed his own credit titles and publicity material. Ray received many major awards in his career, including 32 Indian National Film Awards, a Golden Lion, a Golden Bear, 2 Silver Bears, a number of additional awards at international film festivals and award ceremonies, an Academy Honorary Award in 1992; the Government of India honored him with the Bharat Ratna, its highest civilian award, in 1992. Ray gained a prestigious position over his life time. In 2004, Ray was ranked number 13 in BBC's poll of the Greatest Bengali of all time. Satyajit Ray's ancestry can be traced back for at least ten generations. Ray's grandfather, Upendrakishore Ray was a writer, philosopher, amateur astronomer and a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, a religious and social movement in nineteenth century Bengal, he set up a printing press by the name of U. Ray and Sons, which formed a crucial backdrop to Satyajit's life. Sukumar Ray, Upendrakishore's son and father of Satyajit, was a pioneering Bengali writer of nonsense rhyme and children's literature, an illustrator and a critic.
Ray was born to Suprabha Ray in Calcutta. Satyajit Ray's family had acquired the name'Ray' from the Mughals. Although they were Bengali Kayasthas, the Rays were'Vaishnavas' as against majority Bengali Kayasthas who were'Shaktos'. Sukumar Ray died when Satyajit was three, the family survived on Suprabha Ray's meager income. Ray studied at Ballygunge Government High School and completed his BA in economics at Presidency College, Calcutta affiliated with the University of Calcutta,though his interest was always in fine arts. In 1940, his mother insisted that he studied at the Visva-Bharati University at Santiniketan, founded by Rabindranath Tagore. Ray was reluctant due to his love of Calcutta, the low opinion of the intellectual life at Santiniketan, his mother's persuasion and his respect for Tagore convinced him to try. In Santiniketan, Ray came to appreciate Oriental art, he admitted that he learned much from the famous painters Nandalal Bose and Benode Behari Mukherjee. He produced a documentary film, The Inner Eye, about Mukherjee.
His visits to Ajanta and Elephanta stimulated his admiration for Indian art. In 1943, Ray started work at D. J. Keymer, a British-run advertising agency, as a "junior visualiser," earning eighty rupees a month. Although he liked visual design and he was treated well, there was tension between the British and Indian employees of the firm; the British were better paid, Ray felt that "the clients were stupid." Ray worked for Signet Press, a new publishing house started by D. K. Gupta. Gupta asked Ray to create cover designs for books to be published by Signet Press and gave him complete artistic freedom. Ray designed covers for many books, including Jibanananda Das's Banalata Sen, Rupasi Bangla, Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay's Chander Pahar, Jim Corbett's Maneaters of Kumaon, Jawaharlal Nehru's Discovery of India, he worked on a children's version of Pather Panchali, a classic Bengali novel by Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay, renamed as Aam Antir Bhepu. Designing the cover and illustrating the book, Ray was influenced by the work.
He used it as the subject of his first film, featured his illustrations as shots in his ground-breaking film. Along with Chidananda Dasgupta and others, Ray founded the Calcutta Film Society in 1947, they screened many foreign films, many of which Ray watched and studied. He befriended the American GIs stationed in Calcutta during World War II, who kept him informed about the latest American films showing in the city, he came to know a RAF employee, Norman Clare, who shared Ray's passion for films and western classical music. In 1949, Ray married his first cousin and long-time sweetheart; the couple had a son, now a film director. In the same year, French director Jean Renoir came to Calcutta to shoot his film The River. Ray helped him to find locations in the countryside. Ray told Renoir about his idea of filming Pather Panchali, which had long been on his mind, Renoir encouraged him in the project. In 1950, D. J. Keymer sent Ray to London to work at its headquarters office. During his three months in London, Ray watched 99 films.
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Cinemaya is an influential film magazine established in 1988 devoted to coverage of Asian film. It is published in New Delhi and distributed internationally; the present editor-in-chief of Cinemaya is Aruna Vasudev, noted film journalist. Its goals are to promote Asian filmmaking internationally and to help Asian national cinemas gain wider international recognition. In 1990, in collaboration with UNESCO it founded the Network for the Promotion of Asian Cinema, an association of film professionals based in Singapore which presents annual awards for greatest Asian achievements in filmmaking at selected film festivals around the world. Cinefan or Cinemaya Festival of Asian Cinema, now known as Osian's Cinefan Festival of Asian and Arab Cinema, began in 1999 as an outgrowth of Cinemaya, was taken over by the Osian Foundation of Neville Tuli Cinemaya official website