The Theatre Royal Haymarket is a West End theatre on Haymarket in the City of Westminster which dates back to 1720, making it the third-oldest London playhouse still in use. Samuel Foote acquired the lease in 1747, in 1766 he gained a royal patent to play legitimate drama in the summer months; the original building was a little further north in the same street. It has been at its current location since 1821, it is a Grade I listed building, with a seating capacity of 888. The freehold of the theatre is owned by the Crown Estate; the Haymarket has been the site of a significant innovation in theatre. In 1873, it was the venue for the first scheduled matinée performance, establishing a custom soon followed in theatres everywhere, its managers have included Benjamin Nottingham Webster, John Baldwin Buckstone, Squire Bancroft, Cyril Maude, Herbert Beerbohm Tree, John Sleeper Clarke, brother-in-law of John Wilkes Booth, who quit America after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Famous actors who débuted at the theatre included John Liston.
The First Haymarket Theatre or Little Theatre was built in 1720 by John Potter, carpenter, on the site of The King's Head Inn in the Haymarket and a shop in Suffolk Street kept by Isaac Bliburgh, a gunsmith, known by the sign of the Cannon and Musket. It was the third public theatre opened in the West End; the theatre cost £1000 to build, with a further £500 expended on decorations and costumes. It opened on 29 December 1720, with a French play La Fille a la Morte, ou le Badeaut de Paris performed by a company known as'The French Comedians of His Grace the Duke of Montague'. Potter's speculation was known as The New French Theatre; the theatre's first major success was a 1729 production of a play by Samuel Johnson of Cheshire, Hurlothrumbo, or The Supernatural, which ran for 30 nights – not as long as John Gay's The Beggar's Opera, but still a long run for the time. In 1730, the theatre was taken over by an English company, its name changed to the'Little Theatre in the Haymarket'. Among the actors who appeared there before 1737 when the theatre was closed under the Licensing Act 1737 were Aaron Hill, Theophilus Cibber, Henry Fielding.
In the eight to ten years before the Act was passed, the Haymarket was an alternative to John Rich's Theatre Royal, Covent Garden and the opera-dominated Drury Lane Theatre. Fielding himself was responsible for the instigation of the Act, having produced a play called The Historical Register that parodied prime minister Robert Walpole, as the caricature, Quidam. In particular, it was an alternative to the pantomime and special-effects dominated stages, it presented opposition satire. Henry Fielding staged his plays at the Haymarket, so did Henry Carey. Hurlothrumbo was just one of his plays in that series of anti-Walpolean satires, followed by Tom Thumb. Another, in 1734, was The Dragon of Wantley, with music by John Frederick Lampe; this work punctured the vacuous operatic conventions and pointed a satirical barb at Walpole and his taxation policies. The piece was a huge success, with a record-setting run of 69 performances in its first season; the work debuted at the Haymarket Theatre, where its coded attack on Walpole would have been clear, but its long run occurred after it moved to Covent Garden, which had a much greater capacity for staging.
The burlesque itself is brief on the page, as it relied extensively on absurd theatrics and other non-textual entertainments. The Musical Entertainer from 1739 contains engravings showing. Carey continued with others. Additionally, refugees from Drury Lane's and Covent Garden's internal struggles would show up at the Haymarket, thus Charlotte Charke would act there in a parody of her father, Colley Cibber, one of the owners and managers of Drury Lane; the Theatrical Licensing Act, put an end to the anti-ministry satires, it all but shut down the theatre. From 1741 to 1747, Charles Macklin, Samuel Foote, others sometimes produced plays there either by use of a temporary licence or by subterfuge; the conjuror's publicity claimed that, while on stage, he would place his body inside an empty wine bottle, in full view of the audience. When the advertised act failed to appear on stage, the audience gutted the theatre. Although the identity of the hoax's perpetrator is unknown, several authors consider John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu, to have been responsible.
In 1754, John Potter, rated for the theatre since its opening, was succeeded by John Whitehead. In 1758 Theophilus Cibber obtained from William Howard the Lord Chamberlain, a general licence under which Foote tried to establish the Haymarket as a regular theatre. With the aid of the Duke of York he procured a royal licence to exhibit plays during four months in each year from May to September during his lifetime, he bought the lease of the theatre from Potter's executors and, having added to the site by purchasing adjoining property, he enlarged and improved the building which he opened on 14 May 1767, as the Theatre Royal, the third patent theatre in London. Several successful seasons followed, with Foote producing numerous plays at the theatre, but Foote got himself into difficulties by his custom
Superoxide dismutase mimetics are synthetic compounds that mimic the native superoxide dismutase enzyme. SOD mimetics convert the superoxide anion, a reactive oxygen species, into hydrogen peroxide, further converted into water by catalase. Reactive oxygen species are natural byproducts of cellular respiration and cause oxidative stress and cell damage, linked to causing cancers, neurodegeneration, age-related declines in health, inflammatory diseases. SOD mimetics are a prime interest in therapeutic treatment of oxidative stress because of their smaller size, longer half-life, similarity in function to the native enzyme; the chemical structure of SOD mimetics consists of manganese, iron, or copper coordination complexes. Salen-manganese complexes contain aromatic ring structures that increase the lipid solubility and cell permeability of the entire complex. Manganese and iron complexes are used due to their high kinetic and thermodynamic stability, increasing the half-life of the mimetic. However, manganese-based SOD mimetics are found to be more therapeutically effective than their counterparts due to their low toxicity, higher catalytic activity, increased stability in vivo.
Similar to the native enzyme’s mechanism, the manganese complexes undergo a reversible oxidation/reduction cycle. In the first half reaction manganese covalently coordinates to the superoxide anion on its oxygen binding site, through inner-sphere electron transfer. Is reduced by superoxide, yielding molecular oxygen and a reduced form of manganese; the metal is regenerated to its former oxidation state by reducing a second superoxide molecule to hydrogen peroxide. 1. Mn + O−2 → Mn-1 + O2 2. Mn-1 + O−2 + 2H+ → Mn + H2O2 Net: Mn + 2O−2 + 2H+ → Mn + O2 + H2O2The metal complex must be electron deficient in nature, allowing it to accept electrons from the superoxide; this is accomplished by coordinating electron-withdrawing ligands around the metal center. Since the mechanism of SOD mimetics involves a redox cycle, the catalytic activity of the SOD mimetic is dependent on the reduction potential of the metal center. Coordinated ligands of SOD mimetics fine-tune the chemical properties of the complex and are designed to match the 300mV reduction potential of the native enzyme.
The most prominent SOD mimetics are: manganese porphyrin complexes, manganese penta-azamacrocyclic complexes, manganese salen complexes. Porphyrin SOD mimetics consist of manganese centers coordinated by a single porphyrin ring. Although both complexes are effective porphyrin-based superoxide dismutases, MnTBAP was shown to better protect the cells from oxidative damages compared to ZnTBAP in vivo. Researchers found MnTBAP induced faster wound healing in diabetic mice. MnTBAP has the ability to prevent formation of cytotoxic peroxynitrite, a hazardous byproduct of superoxide reacting with nitric oxide, induces healing process of wounds. MnTMPyP, another porphyrin molecule, was found effective in relieving oxidative stress caused by peroxynitrite in intracellular and extracellular conditions. Manganese-porphyrin complexes reduced the damaging effects of radiation treatment in mice. M40403 and M40401 are Manganese Penta-Azamacrocyclic complexes with SOD mimetic properties. Mn complexes are found to be more stable in vivo and have high specificity for the superoxide anion, preventing unwanted interactions with biologically important molecules.
They are characterized as having a small size, high stability, higher catalytic efficiency than superoxide dismutase in more acidic environments. M40403 was found effective in reducing oxidative tissue damage induced by total body irradiation. M40401 is similar in structure to M40403, but it has two additional methyl groups, causing a one hundredfold increase in catalytic activity in treatment of ischemia-reperfusion injuries. M40401 was found to protect against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Mn Salen complexes are found to be more stable than other iron or manganese mimics of superoxide dismutase. In certain synthesized forms, aromatic rings are coordinated with the manganese center, increasing the lipid solubility of the entire complex, allowing it to pass the cellular membrane. Treatment of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans with superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics has been reported to extend life-span. Mice with deficient SOD2 die prematurely, exhibiting severe mitochondrial defects. Treatment of such mice with SOD/catalase mimetics extended their life-span by as much as three-fold.
Treatment of wild-type mice with a carboxyfullerene SOD mimetic not only reduced age-associated oxidative stress and mitochondrial radical production, but extended life-span. This treatment rescued age-related cognitive impairment; these findings suggest that oxidative stress is an important determinant of life-span
The Old Capitol Building is a building in Olympia, Washington. Designed by Willis A. Ritchie, it was built from 1890 to 1892 as the Thurston County Courthouse, served from 1905 until 1928 as the state capitol, seat of the legislature of Washington, it is now the office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. The building has survived several disasters. A fire in 1928 resulted in the loss of a central tower. After the 1949 Olympia earthquake, the building was evacuated and suffered severe damage to its masonry exterior that had to be repaired over the following few months at a cost of $1.1 million. 10 of the 12 towers were lost in the earthquake, along with a rotunda, the House chamber, several galleries in the East Wing. National Register of Historic Places listings in Thurston County, Washington About us, Superintendent of Public Instruction: Information on the Old State Capitol Building