Thelema is a social or spiritual philosophy developed in the early 1900s by Aleister Crowley, an English writer and ceremonial magician. The word thelema is the English transliteration of the Koine Greek noun θέλημα, "will", from the verb θέλω: "to will, want or purpose". While Thelema can be viewed as a religion, it incorporates a logic, an ethic, a physic/cosmology, a metaphysic, an aesthetic—so it might sufficiently be termed a philosophy. Crowley asserted or believed himself to be the prophet of a new age, the Æon of Horus, based upon a spiritual experience that he and his wife, Rose Edith, had in Egypt in 1904. By his account, a non-corporeal or "praeterhuman" being that called itself Aiwass contacted him and subsequently dictated a text known as The Book of the Law or Liber AL vel Legis, which outlined the principles of Thelema; the Thelemic pantheon—a collection of gods and goddesses who either exist or serve as symbolic archetypes or metaphors—includes a number of deities a trio adapted from ancient Egyptian religion, who are the three speakers of The Book of the Law: Nuit, Hadit and Ra-Hoor-Khuit.
In at least one instance, Crowley described these deities as a "literary convenience". Three statements in particular distill the practice and ethics of Thelema: "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law." "Love is the law, love under will.". "Every man and every woman is a star" Among the corpus of ideas, Thelema describes what is termed "the Æon of Horus" —as distinguished from an earlier "Æon of Isis" and "Æon of Osiris". Many adherents emphasize the practice of Magick. Crowley's writings included related commentary and hermeneutics but additional "inspired" writings that he collectively termed The Holy Books of Thelema, he associated Thelemic spiritual practice with concepts rooted in occultism and Eastern and Western mysticism the Qabalah. Aspects of Thelema and Crowley's thought in general inspired the development of Wicca and, to a certain degree, the rise of Modern Paganism as a whole, as well as chaos magick and some variations of Satanism; some scholars, such as Hugh Urban believe Thelema to have been an influence on the development of Scientology, but others, such as J. Gordon Melton, deny any such connection.
The word θέλημα is rare in Classical Greek, where it "signifies the appetitive will: desire, sometimes sexual", but it is frequent in the Septuagint. Early Christian writings use the word to refer to the human will, the will of God's created faith tester and inquisitor, the Devil, but it refers to the will of God. One well-known example is in the "Lord's Prayer", "Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, On earth as it is in heaven." It is used in the same gospel, "He went away again a second time and prayed, saying, "My Father, if this cannot pass away unless I drink it, Thy will be done." In his 5th-century Sermon, Augustine of Hippo gave a similar instruction: "Love, what thou wilt, do.". In the Renaissance, a character named "Thelemia" represents will or desire in the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili of the Dominican friar Francesco Colonna; the protagonist Poliphilo has two allegorical guides and Thelemia. When forced to choose, he chooses fulfillment of his sexual will over logic. Colonna's work was a great influence on the Franciscan friar François Rabelais, who in the 16th century, used Thélème, the French form of the word, as the name of a fictional abbey in his novels and Pantagruel.
The only rule of this Abbey was "fay çe que vouldras". In the mid-18th century, Sir Francis Dashwood inscribed the adage on a doorway of his abbey at Medmenham, where it served as the motto of the Hellfire Club. Rabelais's Abbey of Thelema has been referred to by writers Sir Walter Besant and James Rice, in their novel The Monks of Thelema, C. R. Ashbee in his utopian romance The Building of Thelema; as the forerunner of today's concept of will, the Greek boule is considered by classic philology, not thelo or'thelema'. There are, in Greek, two words for will, which are used, for example, in New Testament synonym: thelema and boule.'Boule' means'will','intention','counsel','project"Thelema' is a used word in classical Greek. There are few documents, the earliest being Antiphon the Sophist. In antiquity it was beside the divine will which a man performs, just as much for the will of sexual desire; the intention of the individual was less understood as an overall, ontological place wherever it was arranged.
The verb thelo appears early and has the meanings of "ready", "deci
"White Winter Hymnal" is the first single from Fleet Foxes' debut 2008 self-titled album. Released by European label Bella Union on July 21, 2008, the single was issued on 7" vinyl as well as digital MP3 format; the B-side is the non-album track "Isles". All songs written by Robin Pecknold. "White Winter Hymnal" – 2:27 "Isles" – 3:06 Time critic Josh Tyrangiel named this the #5 song of 2008. Pitchfork Media ranked it # 66 on their decade end list; this song was covered by ARORA by Birdy on her debut album Birdy. In 2010, the song was parodied by The Fringemunks to recap Fringe episode 2.20, "Northwest Passage". It was covered by Kina Grannis on her album Stairwells. British female vocalist Kim Wilde released a version on her 2013 Christmas album Wilde Winter Songbook, performed with her father Marty Wilde and brother Ricky Wilde. In 2014 it was covered by A Cappella group Pentatonix on their album That's Christmas to Me, it is used as the opening song to the Hulu series The Path. Phish performed an a cappella version as part of their 2017 “Baker’s Dozen” residency at Madison Square Garden.
It is on the soundtrack for the 2015 movie Love the Coopers. In 2017 British television presenter and singer Alexander Armstrong covered the song on his Christmas album In a Winter Light "White Winter Hymnal" music video on YouTube
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base and census-designated place just east of Dayton, Ohio, in Greene and Montgomery counties. It includes both Wright and Patterson Fields, which were Wilbur Wright Field and Fairfield Aviation General Supply Depot. Patterson Field is 16 kilometres northeast of Dayton; the host unit at Wright-Patterson AFB is the 88th Air Base Wing, assigned to the Air Force Life Cycle Management Center and Air Force Materiel Command. The 88 ABW operates the airfield, maintains all infrastructure and provides security, medical, personnel, finance, air traffic control, weather forecasting, public affairs and chaplain services for more than 60 associate units; the base's origins begin with the establishment of Wilbur Wright Field on 22 May and McCook Field in November 1917, both established by the Aviation Section, U. S. Signal Corps as World War I installations. McCook was used for aviation experiments. Wright was used as a flying field. McCook's functions were transferred to Wright Field when it was closed in October 1927.
Wright-Patterson AFB was established in 1948 as a merger of Wright Fields. In 1995, negotiations to end the Bosnian War were held at the base, resulting in the Dayton Agreement that ended the war; the 88th Air Base Wing is commanded by Col. Thomas Sherman Its Command Chief Master Sergeant is Chief Master Sergeant Steve Arbona; the base had a total of 27,406 military and contract employees in 2010. The Greene County portion of the base is a census-designated place, with a resident population of 1,821 at the 2010 census. Prehistoric Indian mounds of the Adena culture at Wright-Patterson are along P Street and, at the Wright Brothers Memorial, a hilltop mound group. Aircraft operations on land now part of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base began in 1904–1905 when Wilbur and Orville Wright used an 84-acre plot of Huffman Prairie for experimental test flights with the Wright Flyer III, their flight exhibition company and the Wright Company School of Aviation returned 1910–1916 to use the flying field.
World War I transfers of land that became WPAFB include 2,075-acre along the Mad River leased to the Army by the Miami Conservancy District, the adjacent 40 acres purchased by the Army from the District for the Fairfield Aviation General Supply Depot, a 254-acre complex for McCook Field just north of downtown Dayton between Keowee Street and the Great Miami River. In 1918, Wilbur Wright Field agreed to let McCook Field use hangar and shop space as well as its enlisted mechanics to assemble and maintain airplanes and engines under the direction of Chief of Air Service Mason Patrick. After World War I, 347 German aircraft were brought to the United States—some were incorporated into the Army Aeronautical Museum; the training school at Wilbur Wright Field was discontinued. Wilbur Wright Field and the depot merged; the Patterson family formed the Dayton Air Service Committee, Inc which held a campaign that raised $425,000 in two days and purchased 4,520.47 acres northeast of Dayton, including Wilbur Wright Field and the Huffman Prairie Flying Field.
In 1924, the Committee presented the deeds to president Calvin Coolidge for the construction of a new aviation engineering center. The entire acreage was designated Wright Field, which had units such as the Headquarters, 5th Division Air Service, its 88th Observation Squadron and 7th Photo Section. New facilities were built 1925–27 on the portion of Wright Field west of Huffman Dam to house all of the McCook Field functions being relocated. Wright Field was "formally dedicated" on 12 October 1927 when "the Materiel Division moved from McCook Field to the new site" At the time of the dedication expenditures of $5 million had been involved in the new facility after 18 months work, with the total amount expected to rise to between $7 and $8 million; the ceremonies included the John L. Mitchell Trophy Race and Orville Wright raising the flag over the new engineering center. On 1 July 1931, the portion of Wright Field east of Huffman Dam was redesignated "Patterson Field" in honor of Lieutenant Frank Stuart Patterson.
Lt. Patterson was the son of co-founder of National Cash Register. 1Lt Patterson was killed shortly before the end of World War I when his plane crashed at Wright Field when he and observer 2Lt LeRoy Swan, both of the 137th Aero Squadron, were killed in the crash of their de Havilland DH.4 after its wings collapsed during a dive while firing at ground targets with a new synchronized-through–the–propeller machine gun. Patterson's grave and memorial arch is at Woodland Aborateum in Dayton, Ohio; the area's World War II Army Air Fields had employment increase from 3,700 in December 1939 to over 50,000 at the war's peak. Wright Field grew from 30 buildings to a 2,064-acre facility with some 300 buildings and the Air Corps' first modern paved runways