Themis is an ancient Greek Titaness. She is described as " of good counsel", is the personification of divine order, law, natural law, custom, her symbols are the Scales of Justice, tools used to remain balanced and pragmatic. Themis means "divine law" rather than human ordinance "that, put in place", from the Greek verb títhēmi, meaning "to put". To the ancient Greeks she was the organizer of the "communal affairs of humans assemblies". Moses Finley remarked of themis, as the word was used by Homer in the 8th century BCE, to evoke the social order of the 10th- and 9th-century Greek Dark Ages: Themis is untranslatable. A gift of the gods and a mark of civilized existence, sometimes it means right custom, proper procedure, social order, sometimes the will of the gods with little of the idea of right. Finley adds, "There was themis—custom, folk-ways, whatever we may call it, the enormous power of'it is done'; the world of Odysseus had a developed sense of what was fitting and proper." The personification of abstract concepts is characteristic of the Greeks.
The ability of the goddess Themis to foresee the future enabled her to become one of the Oracles of Delphi, which in turn led to her establishment as the goddess of divine justice. Some classical representations of Themis showed her holding a sword, believed to represent her ability to cut fact from fiction. Themis was herself oracular. According to another legend, Themis received the Oracle at Delphi from Gaia and gave it to Phoebe; when Themis is disregarded, Nemesis brings just and wrathful retribution. Themis is not wrathful: she, "of the lovely cheeks", was the first to offer Hera a cup when she returned to Olympus distraught over threats from Zeus. Themis presided over the proper relation between man and woman, the basis of the rightly ordered family, judges were referred to as "themistopóloi"; such was the basis for order upon Olympus. Hera addressed her as "Lady Themis"; the name of Themis might be substituted for Adrasteia in telling of the birth of Zeus on Crete. Themis was present at Delos to witness the birth of Apollo.
According to Ovid, it was Themis rather than Zeus who told Deucalion to throw the bones of "his Mother" over his shoulder to create a new race of humankind after the deluge. Themis occurred in Hesiod's Theogony as the first recorded appearance of Justice as a divine personage. Drawing not only on the socio-religious consciousness of his time but on many of the earlier cult-religions, Hesiod described the forces of the universe as cosmic divinities. Hesiod portrayed Dike, as the daughter of Zeus and Themis. Dike executed the law of judgments and sentencing and, together with her mother Themis, she carried out the final decisions of Moirai. For Hesiod, Justice is at the center of religious and moral life who, independently of Zeus, is the embodiment of divine will; this personification of Dike stands in contrast to justice viewed as custom or law and as retribution or sentence. In the play Prometheus Bound, traditionally attributed to Aeschylus, Themis is the mother of Prometheus, gave him foreknowledge of what was to come.
It is said by Prometheus. In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions six daughters of Gaia and Uranus. Among these Titans of primordial myth, few were venerated at specific sanctuaries in classical times; the only consort for Themis mentioned in the sources below is Zeus. One of her few children was called the Greek goddess of the forest. With Zeus she more bore the Horae, those embodiments of the right moment – the rightness of order unfolding in time – and Astraea. First generation: Auxo Carpo Thallo Second generation: Dike Eirene Eunomia Followers of Zeus claimed that it was with him that Themis produced the Moirai, three Fates. A fragment of Pindar, tells that the Moirai were present at the nuptials of Zeus and Themis. To compliment Pindar, Hesiod tells us in the Theogony that the Moirai were bore from Nyx who lay with no one. Clotho Lachesis Atropos Themis had several temples in Greece, though they are not described in any great detail by ancient authors, she had temples at the oracular shrine of Zeus at Dodona, at Tanagra, in Athens, a Temple of Themis Ikhnaia in Phthiotis, Thessalia.
Pausanias describe her sanctuary in Thebes in somewhat more detail than what was the case and it may therefore have been of more importance: "Along the road from the Neistan gate are three sanctuaries. There is a sanctuary of Themis, with an image of white marble. Themis was sometimes depicted in the sanctuaries of other gods and may have shared temples with them and she is mentioned to have shared a temple with Aphrodite in Epidauros: "Within the grove [of the sanctuary of Asklepios (Asclepi
Spinal cord injury research seeks new ways to cure or treat spinal cord injury in order to lessen the debilitating effects of the injury in the short or long term. There is no cure for SCI, current treatments are focused on spinal cord injury rehabilitation and management of the secondary effects of the condition. Two major areas of research include neuroprotection, ways to prevent damage to cells caused by biological processes that take place in the body after the insult, neuroregeneration, regrowing or replacing damaged neural circuits. Secondary injury takes place minutes to weeks after the initial insult and includes a number of cascading processes that further harm tissues damaged by the primary injury, it results in formation of a glial scar. Animals used as SCI model organisms in research include mice, cats, dogs and non-human primates. Special devices exist to deliver blows of specific, monitored force to the spinal cord of an experimental animal. Epidural cooling saddles, surgically placed over acutely traumatized spinal cord tissue, have been used to evaluate beneficial effects of localized hypothermia and without concomitant glucocorticoids.
Surgery is used to provide stability to the injured spinal column or to relieve pressure from the spinal cord. How soon after injury to perform decompressive surgery is a controversial topic, it has been difficult to prove that earlier surgery provides better outcomes in human trials; some argue that early surgery might further deprive an injured spinal cord of oxygen, but most studies show no difference in outcomes between early and late surgery, some show a benefit to earlier surgery. Neuroprotection aims to prevent the harm. One example is to target the protein calpain. Iron from blood damages the spinal cord through oxidative stress, so one option is to use a chelation agent to bind the iron. Free radical damage by reactive oxygen species is another therapeutic target that has shown improvement when targeted in animals. One antibiotic, minocycline, is under investigation in human trials for its ability to reduce free radical damage, disruption of mitochondrial function, apoptosis. Riluzole, an anticonvulsant, is being investigated in clinical trials for its ability to block sodium channels in neurons, which could prevent damage by excitotoxicity.
Other neuroprotective agents under investigation in clinical trials include cethrin and dalfampridine. One experimental treatment, therapeutic hypothermia, is used in treatment but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes; some experimental treatments, including systemic hypothermia, have been performed in isolated cases in order to draw attention to the need for further preclinical and clinical studies to help clarify the role of hypothermia in acute spinal cord injury. Despite limited funding, a number of experimental treatments such as local spine cooling and oscillating field stimulation have reached controlled human trials. Inflammation and glial scar are considered important inhibitory factors to neuroregeneration after SCI. However, aside from methylprednisolone, none of these developments have reached limited use in the clinical care of human spinal cord injury in the US. Methylprednisolone can be given shortly after the injury but evidence for harmful side effects outweighs that for a benefit.
Research is being done into more efficient delivery mechanisms for methylprednisolone that would reduce its harmful effects. Neuroregeneration aims to reconnect the broken circuits in the spinal cord to allow function to return. One way is to regrow axons. However, myelin in the central nervous system contains molecules. One such molecule is a protein associated with myelin; when this protein is targeted with inhibitory antibodies in animal models, axons grow better and functional recovery is improved. Stem cells are cells; the hope is that stem cells transplanted into an injured area of the spinal cord will allow neuroregeneration. Types of cells being researched for use in SCI include embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, Schwann cells, activated macrophages, induced pluripotent stem cells; when stem cells are injected in the area of damage in the spinal cord, they secrete neurotrophic factors, these factors help neurons and blood vessels to grow, thus helping repair the damage.
It is necessary to recreate an environment in which stem cells will grow. An ongoing Phase 2 trial in 2016 presented data showing that after 90 days of treatment with oligodendrocyte progenitor cells derived from embryonic stem cells, 4 out of 4 subjects with complete cervical injuries had improved motor levels, with 2 of 4 improving two motor levels; the trial's original endpoint had been 2/5 patients improving two levels on one side within 6–12 months. All 8 cervical subjects in this Phase 1–2 trial had exhibited improved upper extremity motor scores relative to baseline with no serious adverse side effects, a 2010 Phase 1 trial in 5 thoracic patients has found no safety issues after 5–6 years of fol
Mathew Martyn Baldwin, CM is a Canadian curler from Edmonton, Alberta. Baldwin is a three-time Brier champion, having skipped his rink to the Canadian men's championship in 1954, 1957 and 1958. In 1954, Baldwin and his team of Glenn Gray, Pete Ferry and Jim Collins finished with a 9-1 record to claim their first Brier. At age 27, Baldwin was the youngest skip to win a Brier, in an era when teams were led by men decades older, he is remembered for pleasing a cheering Edmonton hometown crowd by sliding halfway down the sheet of ice when throwing his final rock of the event, a move, legal under the curling rules of the time. The age record has since been broken; as of the 2013 event Baldwin is the oldest surviving Brier champion skip. In 1956, Baldwin his team of Gord Haynes. Art Kleinmeyer and Bill Henning finished with a 5-5 record. In 1957, Baldwin and his team of Gord Haynes, Art Kleinmeyer and new lead Bill Price finished the round robin undefeated, giving Baldwin his second Brier. In 1958, Jack Geddes was inserted into the lineup to play third, replacing Haynes, bumped back to second, who replaced the departing Kleinmayer.
The team finished the round robin with an 8-2 record, had to defeat Terry Braunstein's Manitoba rink to claim the title. Baldwin did not return to the Brier until 1971, where his team of Tom Kroeger, Rich Cust and Reg Van Wassenhove finished with a record of 5-5. In 1973 Baldwin became one of the original inductees into the Canadian Curling Hall of Fame. Baldwin served as a director of the Edmonton Eskimos football team for five years and is recognized on the University of Alberta's Wall of Honour. Baldwin was named to the Order of Canada in December 2019. Once the youngest curler to win the Brier, as of the appointment he is the oldest living Brier champion. Baldwin was a petroleum engineer, one of the early graduates from the University of Alberta's Petroleum Engineering program that launched in 1948 after the Leduc No. 1 discovery ignited the postwar oil boom in Alberta. He and classmate George Knoll formed Baldwin and Knoll, a well servicing company that became Canada's largest service rig company for three decades.
He was a founding director of Alberta Energy Company, serving for 25 years, in 2000 named a member of the Canadian Petroleum Hall of Fame. Canada's Sports Hall of Fame profile