Governor of Maryland
The Governor of Maryland heads the executive branch of the government of the State of Maryland, and is the commander-in-chief of the states National Guard units. The Governor is the official in the state and has a broad range of appointive powers in both the State and local governments, as specified by the Maryland Constitution. Because of the extent of constitutional powers, the Governor of Maryland has been ranked as being among the most powerful Governors in the United States. The current Governor is Larry Hogan, a Republican who defeated Lt, Governor Anthony Brown on November 4,2014. Like most state chief executives in the United States, the Governor is elected by the citizens of Maryland to serve a four-year term, under the Constitution of Maryland, the Governor can run any number of times, but not more than twice in a row. This makes it possible for a governor to run for the office again after remaining out of office for at least one term. An eligible candidate for Governor must be at least 30 years old, and also a resident of, the Governor, like all statewide officials in Maryland, is elected in the even-numbered years in which the election for President of the United States does not occur. The main constitutional responsibility of the Governor of Maryland, and any other States chief executive, is to out the business of the state. The Governor also has some say in these laws, since the Governor has the ability to any bill sent to his or her desk by the Maryland General Assembly. Every year, the Governor must present a budget to the Maryland General Assembly. The Assembly may, however, increase funds for the Legislative, the Governor has the power to veto any law that is passed by the General Assembly, including a line item veto, which can be used to strike certain portions of appropriations bills. The Legislature then has the power to override a Governors veto by vote of three-fifths of the number of members in each house, the Governor also sits on the Board of Public Works, whose other two members are the Comptroller and the Treasurer. This Board has broad powers in overseeing and approving the spending of state funds and they must approve state expenditures of all general funds and capital improvement funds, excluding expenditures for the construction of state roads, bridges, and highways. The Governor appoints almost all military and civil officers of the State government, subject to advice, any officer appointed by the Governor, except a member of the General Assembly, is removable by him or her, if there is a legitimate cause for removal. Among the most prominent of the Governors appointees are the 24 secretaries and heads of departments that make up the Governors Cabinet. The Governor of Maryland is the Chairman of the Governors Executive Council which coordinates all state government functions, hunter-Cevera Adjutant General - Gen. Linda Singh Other members of the Governors Staff may be invited to Cabinet meetings as attendees. The Governor also oversees several sub-cabinets that coordinate the activities of a function of state government that involves several state departments or agencies. In times of emergency, the Governor may exercise emergency powers
William Preston Lane Jr.
William Preston Lane Jr. was the 52nd Governor of Maryland in the United States from 1947 to 1951. Lane was born in Hagerstown, Maryland on May 12,1892, to William Preston Lane and he attended public school in Hagerstown before graduating from the University of Virginia in 1915 with a law degree. He subsequently joined the law firm Lane, Bushong, and Byron in his hometown, Lane served during the Mexican Border Campaign as a captain in the Maryland National Guard. When the United States entered World War I in 1917, Lane joined the 115th Infantry Regiment as a captain and he was awarded the Silver Star for his actions at Bois-des-Consevoye, where he assisted in the evacuation of wounded after a bridge was destroyed by enemy fire. He continued service in the military after the war as Assistant Division Adjutant of the 29th Division at the rank of major, upon his return from service, Lane resumed the practice of law and began testing a career in politics. He ran for but lost the seat of Washington County States Attorney in 1919, after his defeat, he served as the president of a small newspaper company, as president of a tannery, and as a railroad executive. He married Dorothy Byron on January 17,1922 and had two daughters, Dorothy and Jean, in 1928, Lane returned to politics when he was elected to the school board of Washington County. In 1930, the Democratic candidate for Attorney General of Maryland died unexpectedly, since Lane had formed a friendship with Albert Ritchie, the Governor of Maryland, he was placed on the ticket and won the seat by a large margin over his Republican opponent. The highlight of Lanes career as Attorney General was his pursuit of a prosecution on the Eastern Shore of Maryland in 1933. A black man, George Armwood, was arrested and charged with raping a woman in Somerset County. However, a mob overran the police and kidnapped Armwood, subsequently lynching and burning his body, local police did not pursue prosecution of the lynch mob, but Lane took charge of the investigation. The Maryland State Police and militia were called out by Governor Ritchie to assist, as Attorney General, Lane also pleaded two cases before the United States Supreme Court involving the assessment of submerged lands and the states right to tax condemned federal lands. Lane chose not to seek re-election in 1934, after his tenure as Attorney General, Lane remained very active in state and national politics. From 1940 to 1950, he served as a member of the Democratic National Committee from Maryland, in 1944, Lane managed Franklin Roosevelts Maryland campaign for re-election as President of the United States. Lane also remained active in business, serving as president of an aircraft corporation and he also kept active in law as a member of the firm Lane and Mish. In 1946, Lane decided to run for governor, in the Democratic primary election, he defeated challengers J. Millard Tawes and H. Streett Baldwin, and then defeated Republican Theodore R. McKeldin in the general election 54% to 45%. As governor, Lane and his administration worked towards improving the education, mental health. Major highway improvements which had been deferred by World War II were also put in motion by Lane, the Chesapeake Bay Bridge, which now carries his name, was completed in 1952 under this plan
J. Millard Tawes
John Millard Tawes, a member of the United States Democratic Party, was the 54th Governor of Maryland in the United States from 1959 to 1967. He remains the only Marylander to be elected to the three positions of State Treasurer, Comptroller, and governor, Tawes was born to James and Alice Tawes in Crisfield, Maryland. He received his education in the Somerset County, Maryland public schools. After college, Tawes earned a living working in lumbering and canning firms that were owned by his father, which expanded into shipbuilding, baking. Tawes married Helen Avalynne Gibson on December 25,1915 and with whom he had two children, Tawes political career began in 1930 when he was elected as clerk of the court for Somerset County, Maryland, narrowly defeating his opponent Harry T. Phoebus by 72 votes. After winning re-election in 1934, Tawes pursued state office, in 1938, he was elected Comptroller of Maryland, defeating Republican rival William G. Jack by 140,000 votes. Under Tawes, the budget of Maryland nearly quadrupled in just six years. He was re-elected as Comptroller in 1942, in 1946, Tawes ran for governor of Maryland but lost to William Preston Lane, Jr. in the Democratic primary. Tawes initially retired, but was appointed by Governor Lane to serve as a State Banking Commissioner in 1947, Tawes held that position until 1950, when he was appointed Comptroller to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of James J. Lacy. He was re-elected to the office in 1950 and 1954, in 1958, polling among Marylanders showed that Tawes was quite popular. This led Tawes to announce, for the time, his candidacy for governor. He faced minor opposition in the primary, and defeated Republican James Devereux, on January 14,1959, he was sworn in for his first term. The beginning of Tawes term as governor was benefited by the overwhelming Democratic majority present in both houses of the Maryland General Assembly and he also established organizations to deal with the elderly, insurance, savings and loans, and justice. Seeking to improve the system, Tawes create the State Roads Commission that added over a thousand miles of major roads. He also worked towards reducing water pollution and saving forests from destruction, Tawes also sought to phase out slot machines in Maryland, which was completed after he left office in 1968. Tawes would later remark that the educational strides under his administration should be regarded as the greatest accomplishment, one of the major constitutional concerns during the Tawes Administration came from the reapportionment of districts within the state. Regarding the General Assembly districts, Tawes oversaw the shift of power from the areas to the urban. Ever since the American Revolution, representation in the General Assembly was divided evenly for all counties, following the series of one man, one vote decrees by the Supreme Court of the United States, a lower court in Maryland ruled the General Assembly districts unconstitutional
Philip H. Goodman
Philip H. Goodman was an American politician, 42nd Mayor of the City of Baltimore and a member of the Maryland Senate. He was Jewish of Polish descent and is buried at Har Sinai Cemetery in Owings Mills, Goodman was born in the shtetl of Kolk in what is now the Volyn Oblast of Ukraine, then part of the Volhynian Governorate of the Russian Empire. Goodman grew up in Baltimore and attended the Baltimore City College high school and he earned his law degree from the University of Baltimore School of Law. List of mayors of the largest 50 US cities
Thomas D'Alesandro III
Thomas Ludwig John DAlesandro III – known as Tommy DAlesandro – is an American attorney and former politician who was Mayor of Baltimore from 1967 to 1971. He is the brother of former Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi, DAlesandro was born in Baltimore to Annunciata and Thomas J. DAlesandro Jr. He was the oldest of six children, of whom his youngest sister Nancy would become the first female Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives and he attended Loyola College in Baltimore and studied law at the University of Maryland School of Law. He served in the US Army from 1952 to 1955, after military service, DAlesandro entered into politics, becoming president of the Baltimore City Council in 1963. He ran for mayor in 1967 as a Democrat and easily defeated Republican challenger Arthur W. Sherwood and his one term as mayor was dominated by civil unrest and budgetary troubles. The homes were demolished in 1974, with the Rouse Company creditors abandoning the project and he was unable to respond effectively to the Baltimore riot of 1968 that followed the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. and National Guard troops were called in to control the situation. He would never run for political office, choosing to go into private law practice. Years later, DAlesandro insisted that the riots were not the reason that he walked away from politics and he said that the reason was simply that he had five children and his mayoral salary was not sufficient for him to support his family
Thomas D'Alesandro Jr.
Thomas Ludwig John DAlesandro Jr. was an American politician who was a U. S. Representative from Marylands 3rd congressional district and subsequently the mayor of Baltimore and he was the father of former House Speaker and current House Minority leader Nancy Pelosi. DAlesandro was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of Maria Petronilla and Tommaso G. DAlesandro and he was married to Annunciata M. Lombardi. The couple had six children, five sons and a daughter, DAlesandro attended Calvert Business College in Baltimore. Before beginning his career, he worked as a broker and in insurance. A Democrat, DAlesandro served as a member of the Maryland State House of Delegates from 1926 to 1933, after serving in Annapolis, DAlesandro was then appointed as General Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue, a post in which he served during 1933–1934. He then was elected to serve on the Baltimore City Council from 1935 to 1938, DAlesandro was then elected to the 76th Congress and to the four succeeding Congresses, serving from January 3,1939, until he resigned on May 16,1947. Following his service in Congress he was Mayor of Baltimore for 12 years from May 1947 to May 1959 and he was defeated for renomination by the Democrats in the March 1959 primary election. He was also a candidate for the United States Senate in 1958. DAlesandro was a delegate to every Democratic National Convention from 1944 to 1968, DAlesandro lived in Baltimore until his death there in 1987. He was buried at New Cathedral Cemetery, Baltimore, dAlesandros son, Thomas L. J. DAlesandro III, also served as Mayor of Baltimore from 1967 to 1971. Thomas DAlesandro Stadium United States Congress, Thomas DAlesandro Jr. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Thomas DAlesandro Jr. at Find a Grave T. DAlesandro Jr. a Baltimore Mayor, Dies
Baltimore is the largest city in the U. S. state of Maryland, and the 29th-most populous city in the country. It was established by the Constitution of Maryland and is not part of any county, thus, it is the largest independent city in the United States, with a population of 621,849 as of 2015. As of 2010, the population of the Baltimore Metropolitan Area was 2.7 million, founded in 1729, Baltimore is the second largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic. Baltimores Inner Harbor was once the leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a city of neighborhoods, in the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote The Star-Spangled Banner, later the American national anthem, in Baltimore. More than 65,000 properties, or roughly one in three buildings in the city, are listed on the National Register, more than any city in the nation. The city has 289 properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives. The city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, of the Irish House of Lords, Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, in 1608, Captain John Smith traveled 210 miles from Jamestown to the uppermost Chesapeake Bay, leading the first European expedition to the Patapsco River. The name Patapsco is derived from pota-psk-ut, which translates to backwater or tide covered with froth in Algonquian dialect, a quarter century after John Smiths voyage, English colonists began to settle in Maryland. The area constituting the modern City of Baltimore and its area was first settled by David Jones in 1661. He claimed the area today as Harbor East on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was populated, if at all. The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, one Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. During the Late Woodland period, the culture that is called the Potomac Creek complex resided in the area from Baltimore to the Rappahannock River in Virginia. It was located on the Bush River on land that in 1773 became part of Harford County, in 1674, the General Assembly passed An Act for erecting a Court-house and Prison in each County within this Province. The site of the house and jail for Baltimore County was evidently Old Baltimore near the Bush River. In 1683, the General Assembly passed An Act for Advancement of Trade to establish towns, ports, one of the towns established by the act in Baltimore County was on Bush River, on Town Land, near the Court-House
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party, commonly referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party. The party is named after republicanism, the dominant value during the American Revolution and it was founded by anti-slavery activists, modernists, ex-Whigs, and ex-Free Soilers in 1854. The Republicans dominated politics nationally and in the majority of northern States for most of the period between 1860 and 1932, there have been 19 Republican presidents, the most from any one party. The Republican Partys current ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats more progressive platform, further, its platform involves support for free market capitalism, free enterprise, fiscal conservatism, a strong national defense, deregulation, and restrictions on labor unions. In addition to advocating for economic policies, the Republican Party is socially conservative. As of 2017, the GOP is documented as being at its strongest position politically since 1928, in addition to holding the Presidency, the Republicans control the 115th United States Congress, having majorities in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. The party also holds a majority of governorships and state legislatures, the main cause was opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise by which slavery was kept out of Kansas. The Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil, the first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement where the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party was held on March 20,1854, in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin. The name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jeffersons Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 6,1854, in Jackson and it oversaw the preserving of the union, the end of slavery, and the provision of equal rights to all men in the American Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861–1877. The Republicans initial base was in the Northeast and the upper Midwest, with the realignment of parties and voters in the Third Party System, the strong run of John C. Fremont in the 1856 United States presidential election demonstrated it dominated most northern states, early Republican ideology was reflected in the 1856 slogan free labor, free land, free men, which had been coined by Salmon P. Chase, a Senator from Ohio. Free labor referred to the Republican opposition to labor and belief in independent artisans. Free land referred to Republican opposition to the system whereby slaveowners could buy up all the good farm land. The Party strove to contain the expansion of slavery, which would cause the collapse of the slave power, Lincoln, representing the fast-growing western states, won the Republican nomination in 1860 and subsequently won the presidency. The party took on the mission of preserving the Union, and destroying slavery during the American Civil War, in the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. The partys success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s and those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished and was continued mostly to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant ran Horace Greeley for the presidency. The Stalwarts defended Grant and the system, the Half-Breeds led by Chester A. Arthur pushed for reform of the civil service in 1883