SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Theodosius I

Theodosius I known as Theodosius the Great, was a Roman Emperor from 379 to 395, the last emperor to rule over both the Eastern and the Western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the Empire, his resources were not sufficient to destroy them or drive them out, Roman policy for centuries in dealing with invaders. By treaty, which followed his indecisive victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the Empire's borders, they were given lands and allowed to remain under their own leaders, a grave departure from Roman hegemonic ways. This turn away from traditional policies was accommodationist and had grave consequences for the Western Empire from the beginning of the century, as the Romans found themselves with the impossible task of defending the borders and dealing with unruly federates within. Theodosius I was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus in 387–388 and Eugenius in 394, though not without material cost to the power of the Empire.

He issued decrees that made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire. He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria, he dissolved the Order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius's young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves of the empire and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos's death in 480. Theodosius is considered a saint by the Armenian Apostolic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church, his feast day is on January 17.. Flavius Theodosius was born in Cauca, Hispania or in Italica, Hispania, to a senior military officer, Theodosius the Elder and his wife Thermantia. Theodosius learned his military lessons by campaigning with his father's staff in Britannia where he went to help quell the Great Conspiracy in 368.

In about 373, he became governor of Upper Moesia and oversaw hostilities against the Sarmatians and thereafter against the Alemanni. He was military commander of Moesia, a Roman province on the lower Danube, in 374, when the empire faced a formidable eruption of the Quadi and Sarmatians, the neighboring province of Illyricum being in fact overrun. Theodosius is reported to have defended his province with marked success; the death of emperor Valentinian I in 375 created political pandemonium. The sudden disgrace and execution of Theodosius' father, Theodosius the Elder, in 376 remains unexplained. At about the same time Theodosius abruptly retired to his family estates in the province of Gallaecia where he adopted the life of a provincial aristocrat; the reason for his retirement, the relationship between it and his father's death is uncertain, though probable. From 364 to 375, the Roman Empire had been governed by two co-emperors, the brothers Valentinian I and Valens. In 378, after the disastrous Battle of Adrianople where Valens was killed, Gratian invited Theodosius to take command of the Illyrian army.

As Valens had no successor, Gratian's appointment of Theodosius amounted to a de facto invitation for Theodosius to become co-Augustus of the eastern half of the Empire. After Gratian was killed in a rebellion in 383, Theodosius appointed his own elder son, Arcadius, to be his co-ruler in the East. After the death in 392 of Valentinian II, whom Theodosius had supported against a variety of usurpations, Theodosius ruled as sole Emperor, appointing his younger son Honorius Augustus as his co-ruler of the West and by defeating the usurper Eugenius on 6 September 394, at the Battle of the Frigidus he restored peace. By his first wife, the Spanish Aelia Flaccilla Augusta, he had two sons and Honorius, a daughter, Aelia Pulcheria. Both Aelia Flaccilla and Pulcheria died in 385, his second wife was Galla, daughter of the emperor Valentinian I and his second wife Justina. Theodosius and Galla had a son, born in 388 and who died young, a daughter, Aelia Galla Placidia. Placidia was the only child who survived to adulthood and became an Empress.

The Goths and their allies entrenched in the provinces of Dacia and eastern Pannonia Inferior consumed Theodosius's attention. The Gothic crisis was so dire that his co-Emperor Gratian relinquished control of the Illyrian provinces and retired to Trier in Gaul to let Theodosius operate without hindrance. A major weakness in the Roman position after the defeat at Adrianople was the recruiting of barbarians to fight against other barbarians. In order to reconstruct the Roman Army of the East, Theodosius needed to find able bodied soldiers and so he turned to the most capable men at hand: the barbarians settled in the Empire; this caused many difficulties in the battle against barbarians since the newly recruited fighters had little or no loyalty to Theodosius. It d

Khaibar-1

The Khaibar-1 known as the Khyber-1, the M-302, or the B-302 is a Syrian-made 302 mm unguided artillery rocket. It is best known for being used by Hezbollah against targets in northern Israel during the 2006 Lebanon War, has been used in the Syrian Civil War, it is a clone of the Chinese WS-1 rocket. The Khaibar-1 is significant because the rocket has a 100 km range, longer than the BM-21 Grad rockets that make up most of the Hezbollah rocket force, it uses a unique Syrian-designed launcher and a cluster munition or fragmentation warhead. The rocket is recognizable by its fixed tail fins; the rocket is misidentified as Iranian or as a variant of Iranian Fajr-3 or Fajr-5 rockets. The rocket's first use was being fired at the Israeli city of Afula during the 2006 Lebanon War. In early August 2006, Khaibar-1 rockets were reported to hit Beit Shean, about 70 km south of the Lebanese border and Haifa, Israel's third-largest city. Iran has attempted to ship the Khaibar-1 rocket to Gaza as well. Khaibar spelled Khaybar, is an oasis 95 miles east of Medina, once the largest Jewish settlement in Arabia.

The name was chosen as a reminder of the Battle of Khaybar, a battle that took place in 629 between Muhammed and his followers against the Jewish people who inhabited the settlement. The name of the rocket was first revealed on July 28, 2006 by Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah in a speech on Al-Manar television station. 2006 Lebanon War Weishi Rockets on which the Khaibar-1 is based

William H. Natcher Federal Building and United States Courthouse

The William H. Natcher Federal Building and United States Courthouse is a courthouse of the United States District Court for the Western District of Kentucky located in Bowling Green, Kentucky. Built in 1912, the building was renamed for U. S. Representative William Huston Natcher in 1994, it is located at 241 East Main Street. The building is an example of Renaissance Revival architecture, symmetrical in form and with all four facades treated in the same manner, it sits on a rusticated base, has a crowning cornice and trabeated apertures. Horizontality of detail is exhibited in the parapet, it is of local significance because the limestone was quarried locally by the Bowling Green Quarries Company. The interior spaces of the stairwell and courtroom are examples of outstanding craftsmanship; the curved marble staircase is original to the 1912 building and is the dominant feature of the building. The lobby retains features of both the 1912 and 1941 periods of construction; the courtroom was designed as a simple, yet elegant, space with paneled plaster walls.

The building was constructed in 1912 as a U. S. Post Office and Courthouse; as the community grew and the post office expanded, there arose a need for additional postal service space. A one-story addition was built at the west facade in 1941. In the 1960s the postal service moved out and the courts and other federal agencies have occupied the space since that time; the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977 as part of the Downtown Commercial District. It is significant to the district as an example of Renaissance Revival architecture and as a symbol of the federal presence in the community, it was renamed for Kentucky Congressional Representative William H. Natcher, who served from 1953 to 1994; the William H. Natcher Federal Building and U. S. Courthouse in Bowling Green, Kentucky, is a three-story Renaissance Revival white limestone building with a rusticated base. Squared limestone pilasters of minimum projection define the bays. Two bands of molding separate the rusticated base from the rest of the building.

Below the limestone parapet is a denticulated cornice. The frieze is unembellished except for simple limestone panels at the cap of each projected pilaster; the central door opening at the original east elevation entry is more ornate including a transom, detailed with high relief carvings of an American spread Eagle resting on a bracketed cartouche. The entry is set within a recessed limestone surround, surmounted by a radiating voussoir with keystone. Windows on the east elevation are divided into five bays; the central bay contains monumental windows at the second and third floor levels, lighting the grand staircase. First and second floor windows are two over two with a two-light transom, third floor windows are two over two as well; the wood windows are recessed within a limestone surround with a projected keystone and appear to be original. The south elevation has the secondary entry to the building; the two central first floor apertures of the 1912 building are set within recessed limestone surrounds with radiating voussoirs and keystones.

The easternmost of these apertures contains the Center Street entry door. Cast iron lamp posts on granite bases flank the entry door; the remainder of the south elevation is the same as the east, except where the 1941 addition carves through the molded band of glyphs above the first floor level, the simple molded band which forms the cornice of the addition. The north elevation is the same as the south, with the projecting addition to the west; the lobby and main staircase are significant original interior features. Though the lobby has been altered, it retains the plaster panel ceiling, marble wainscot, a mural on the south wall; the mural entitled "The Longhunters Discover Daniel Boone" was painted in 1942. The courtroom is nearly original in appearance, retaining the oak paneling and original judge's bench and desks; the most distinctive feature of the building, however, is the main staircase. The curved marble stair is at the center of the east side of the building, it begins as a double return stairway leading to a mezzanine landing where it winds into one central stairwell at the second floor level.

The staircase winds into a side stairwell leading to the third floor level. The marble wainscot matches the curvature of the staircase walls; the grand stair lobby is further enhanced by monumental windows. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services Administration