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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Thermal insulation

Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence. Thermal insulation can be achieved with specially engineered methods or processes, as well as with suitable object shapes and materials. Heat flow is an inevitable consequence of contact between objects of different temperature. Thermal insulation provides a region of insulation in which thermal conduction is reduced or thermal radiation is reflected rather than absorbed by the lower-temperature body; the insulating capability of a material is measured as the inverse of thermal conductivity. Low thermal conductivity is equivalent to high insulating capability. In thermal engineering, other important properties of insulating materials are product density and specific heat capacity. Thermal conductivity k is measured in watts-per-meter per kelvin; this is because heat transfer, measured as power, has been found to be proportional to difference of temperature Δ T the surface area of thermal contact A the inverse of the thickness of the material d From this, it follows that the power of heat loss P is given by P = k A Δ T d Thermal conductivity depends on the material and for fluids, its temperature and pressure.

For comparison purposes, conductivity under standard conditions is used. For some materials, thermal conductivity may depend upon the direction of heat transfer; the act of insulation is accomplished by encasing an object in material with low thermal conductivity in high thickness. Decreasing the exposed surface area could lower heat transfer, but this quantity is fixed by the geometry of the object to be insulated. Multi-layer insulation is used where radiative loss dominates, or when the user is restricted in volume and weight of the insulation For insulated cylinders, a critical radius must be reached. Before the critical radius is reached, any added insulation increases heat transfer; the convective thermal resistance is inversely proportional to the surface area and therefore the radius of the cylinder, while the thermal resistance of a cylindrical shell depends on the ratio between outside and inside radius, not on the radius itself. If the outside radius of a cylinder is increased by applying insulation, a fixed amount of conductive resistance is added.

However, at the same time, the convective resistance is reduced. This implies that adding insulation below a certain critical radius increases the heat transfer. For insulated cylinders, the critical radius is given by the equation r c r i t i c a l = k h This equation shows that the critical radius depends only on the heat transfer coefficient and the thermal conductivity of the insulation. If the radius of the insulated cylinder is smaller than the critical radius for insulation, the addition of any amount of insulation will increase heat transfer. Gases possess poor thermal conduction properties compared to liquids and solids and thus make good insulation material if they can be trapped. In order to further augment the effectiveness of a gas, it may be disrupted into small cells, which cannot transfer heat by natural convection. Convection involves a larger bulk flow of gas driven by buoyancy and temperature differences, it does not work well in small cells where there is little density difference to drive it, the high surface-to-volume ratios of the small cells retards gas flow in them by means of viscous drag.

In order to accomplish small gas cell formation in man-made thermal insulation and polymer materials can be used to trap air in a foam-like structure. This principle is used industrially in building and piping insulation such as, rock wool, polystyrene foam, urethane foam, vermiculite and cork. Trapping air is the principle in all insulating clothing materials such as wool, down feathers and fleece; the air-trapping property is the insulation principle employed by homeothermic animals to stay warm, for example down feathers, insulating hair such as natural sheep's wool. In both cases the primary insulating material is air, the polymer used for trapping the air is natural keratin protein. Maintaining acceptable temperatures in buildings uses a large proportion of global energy consumption. Building insulations commonly use the principle of small trapped air-cells as explained above, e.g. fiberglass, rock wool, polystyrene foam, urethane foam, perlite, etc. For a period of time, Asbestos was used, however, it caused health problems.

When well insulated, a building: energy efficient provides more uniform temperatures throughout the space. There is less temperature gradient both vertically and horizontally from exterior walls and windows to the interior walls, thus producing a more comfortable occupant environment when outside temperatures are cold or hot. Cheap reduces carbon footprint. Window insulation film can be applied in weatherization applications to reduce

ECPAT International

ECPAT International End Child Prostitution and Trafficking, is a global network of civil society organisations that works to end the sexual exploitation of children. It focuses on halting the online sexual exploitation of children, the trafficking of children for sexual purposes and the sexual exploitation of children in the travel and tourism industry; the ECPAT International network consists of 104 member organisations in 93 countries. Its secretariat is based in Bangkok, providing technical support to member groups, coordinating research, managing international advocacy campaigns. In 1990, researchers and activists helped to establish ECPAT as a three-year campaign to end "sex tourism," with an initial focus on Asia. In 1996, in partnership with UNICEF and the NGO Group for the Rights of the Child, ECPAT International co-organised a global world congress against the sexual exploitation of children, in Stockholm, Sweden; the congress was hosted by the Government of Sweden, which played a major role in attracting support and participation from other governments.

As a result, ECPAT grew from a regional campaign into a global non-governmental organization. Between 2009 and 2012, ECPAT, in partnership with The Body Shop, helped run the Stop Sex Trafficking of Children and Young People campaign, which called on governments to safeguard the rights of children and adolescents to protect them from trafficking for sexual purposes. More than 7 million petition signatures were collected worldwide and presented to government officials around the world and to the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva. ECPAT International produces a variety of research and resources for use by its network members, other NGOs, UN agencies, researchers; these include regular country reports, regional reports and studies on specific forms of child sexual exploitation, such as the sexual exploitation of children in travel and tourism, the online sexual exploitation of children. ECPAT is mandated to monitor the commitments of governments around the world and their legal obligations to protect children from sexual exploitation.

ECPAT produces regular country monitoring reports that are presented to the United Nations in Geneva, to follow up implementation of the Stockholm Agenda for Action. The ECPAT network consists of 104 member organisations in 93 countries; these include independent civil society organisations, grassroots NGOs and coalitions of NGOs focused on a range of child rights violations. The Code is a set of protocols that tourism operators may sign up to, in order to ensure that their businesses do not facilitate or encourage the sexual exploitation of children by travelers and tourists; the Code was developed by ECPAT Sweden in 1996 and is promoted through the international ECPAT network. Today, more than 1,300 tour operators, hotels and other travel businesses across 42 countries have signed up. ECPAT International works with law enforcement partners, such as INTERPOL, to prevent the online sexual exploitation of children, it engages with other child rights organisations, for example, through the Internet Governance Forum and is a member of the Virtual Global Taskforce and the European Financial Coalition against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Online.

ECPAT is part of the International Telecommunication Union´s Child Online Protection initiative. ECPAT has signed agreements with the International Association of Internet Hotlines, the Internet Watch Foundation and Child Helpline International. ECPAT advocates for the ratification of international and regional legal instruments such as the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography and the Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse. ECPAT has been criticised for its lobbying for Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act, seen as an anti-sex worker law that does little to stop sexual exploitation of children. ECPAT has claimed that at least 100,000 children in the U. S. are commercially sexually exploited based on reports that used data from 1990 and have been criticised by social scientists for accuracy. ECPAT justified the 100,000 figure citing the NISMART report which claims there are 1.7 million runaway incidents a year and that their figure was conservative despite the report stating that only 1,700 children of the 1.7 million engaged in the sex trade and more than three-quarters were away from home for less than a week leaving only a small window for sex trafficking.

ECPAT has called criticism against SESTA as myths and called legal sex workers a "very small segment of society that enters sex work with their eyes wide open, in the absence of coercion". However, since the law came into effect, sex workers have come under increased threats of violence and harassment, pimps began to prey on sex workers. Online communities which provide support to sex workers, such as finding shelter or food, warnings about potential violent clients and provide know-your-rights training were shut down, putting sex workers at danger. Authorities used the platforms to track traffickers and feared that closing them may drive traffickers underground. 2017 the INTERPOL Crimes Against Children Award 2013 Conrad N. Hilton Humanitarian Prize 2012 Asia Democracy and Human Rights Award 2012 Gold Standard Award for NGO engagement for the Stop Sex Trafficking of Children campaign 1998 Thorolf Rafto Memorial Prize for Human Rights Official website Beyond Borders, representative NGO of ECPAT

Halal Science Center, Chulalongkorn University

The Halal Science Center is an instructional center and network of laboratories in Thailand dedicated to maintaining the standards of halal, an Arabic term which designates acceptable objects or actions in Islam and is used in reference to allowed foods. It is the primary network dedicated to halal science in Thailand and, according to the Malaysian Halal Journal, who gave it a Best Innovation in Halal Industry award in 2006, "the first dedicated Halal Science institution in the world." The Halal Science Center analyzes food for contaminants not compatible with the law of Islam and conducts research into new methods of food preparation and new reagents for detecting such contaminants. It provides information and training to the public and to the food service industry related to the preparation of food in accordance with Islamic law, including offering a bachelor's degree in nutrition and dietetics; the center began as the Central Laboratory and Scientific Information Center for Halal Food Development at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok on 13 August 2003, under a grant from the Cabinet of Thailand.

Subsequently, Halal-CELSIC established laboratories in over ten other universities and institutions before reorganizing as the Halal Science Center. Founding Director of Halal Science Center is Assoc. Prof. Dr. Winai Dahlan. In 2006, the organization received an award for Best Innovation in the Halal Industry from Halal Journal; the award was presented by Prime Minister of Malaysia, in Kuala Lumpur. Official site

2020 Lingshui China Masters

The 2020 Lingshui China Masters is a badminton tournament which will take place from 5 to 10 May 2020 at Agile Stadium in China and has a total purse of $90,000. It was scheduled to take place from 25 February to 1 March 2020, but was postponed by the Badminton World Federation following the coronavirus outbreak in Mainland China; the 2020 Lingshui China Masters is the first Super 100 tournament of the 2020 BWF World Tour and part of the Lingshui China Masters championships, which have been held since 2001. This tournament is organized by the Chinese Badminton Association and sanctioned by the BWF; this international tournament will be held at Agile Stadium which located inside the Lingshui Culture and Sports Square in Lingshui, China. Below is the point distribution for each phase of the tournament based on the BWF points system for the BWF Tour Super 100 event; the total prize money for this tournament is US$90,000. Distribution of prize money is in accordance with BWF regulations and subject to 20% local tax.

Tournament Link

Shivaji

Shivaji Bhosale I was an Indian warrior-king and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. Shivaji carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire. In 1674, he was formally crowned as the chhatrapati of his realm at Raigad. Over the course of his life, Shivaji engaged in both alliances and hostilities with the Mughal Empire, Sultanate of Golkonda and Sultanate of Bijapur, as well as European colonial powers. Shivaji's military forces expanded the Maratha sphere of influence and building forts, forming a Maratha navy. Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil rule with well-structured administrative organisations, he revived ancient Hindu political traditions and court conventions and promoted the usage of Marathi and Sanskrit, rather than Persian language, in court and administration. Shivaji's legacy was to vary by observer and time but he began to take on increased importance with the emergence of the Indian independence movement, as many elevated him as a proto-nationalist and hero of the Hindus.

In Maharashtra, debates over his history and role have engendered great passion and sometimes violence as disparate groups have sought to characterise him and his legacy. Shivaji was born near the city of Junnar in what is now Pune district. Scholars disagree on his date of birth; the Government of Maharashtra lists 19 February as a holiday commemorating Shivaji's birth. Shivaji was named after the goddess Shivai. Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha general, his mother was Jijabai, the daughter of Lakhuji Jadhavrao of Sindhkhed, a Mughal-aligned sardar claiming descent from a Yadav royal family of Devagiri. At the time of Shivaji's birth, power in Deccan was shared by three Islamic sultanates: Bijapur and Golkonda. Shahaji changed his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, the Adilshah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always kept his jagir at Pune and his small army. Shivaji was devoted to his mother Jijabai, religious, his studies of the Hindu epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata influenced his lifelong defence of Hindu values.

He was interested in religious teachings, sought the company of Hindu saints. Shahaji, meanwhile had married Tuka Bai from the Mohite family. Having made peace with the Mughals, ceding them six forts, he went to serve the Sultanate of Bijapur, he moved Shivaji and Jijabai from Shivneri to Pune and left them in the care of his jagir administrator, Dadoji Konddeo, credited with overseeing the education and training of young Shivaji. Many of Shivaji's comrades, a number of his soldiers, came from the Maval region, including Yesaji Kank, Suryaji Kakade, Baji Pasalkar, Baji Prabhu Deshpande and Tanaji Malusare. Shivaji traveled the hills and forests of the Sahyadri range with his Maval friends, gaining skills and familiarity with the land that would prove useful in his military career. Shivaji's independent spirit and his association with the Maval youths did not sit well with Dadoji, who complained without success to Shahaji. In 1639, Shahaji was stationed at Bangalore, conquered from the nayaks who had taken control after the demise of the Vijayanagara Empire.

He was asked to settle the area. Shivaji was taken to Bangalore where he, his elder brother Sambhaji, his half brother Ekoji I were further formally trained, he married Saibai from the prominent Nimbalkar family in 1640. As early as 1645, the teenage Shivaji expressed his concept in a letter. In 1645, the 15-year-old Shivaji bribed or persuaded Inayat Khan, the Bijapuri commander of the Torna Fort, to hand over possession of the fort to him; the Maratha Firangoji Narsala, who held the Chakan fort, professed his loyalty to Shivaji, the fort of Kondana was acquired by bribing the Bijapuri governor. On 25 July 1648, Shahaji was imprisoned by Baji Ghorpade under the orders of Bijapuri ruler Mohammed Adilshah, in a bid to contain Shivaji. According to Sarkar, Shahaji was released in 1649 after the capture of Jinji secured Adilshah's position in Karnataka. During these developments, from 1649–1655 Shivaji paused in his conquests and consolidated his gains. After his release, Shahaji retired from public life, died around 1664–1665 in a hunting accident.

Following his father's release, Shivaji resumed raiding, in 1656, under controversial circumstances, killed Chandrarao More, a fellow Maratha feudatory of Bijapur, seized the valley of Javali, near present day Mahabaleshwar, from him. Adilshah was displeased at his losses to Shivaji's forces. Having ended his conflict with the Mughals and having a greater ability to respond, in 1657 Adilshah sent Afzal Khan, a veteran general, to arrest Shivaji. Before engaging him, the Bijapuri forces desecrated the Tulja Bhavani Temple, holy to Shivaji's family, the Vithoba temple at Pandharpur, a major pilgrimage site for the Hindus. Pursued by Bijapuri forces, Shivaji retreated to Pratapgad fort, where many of his colleagues pressed him to surrender; the two forces found themselves at a stalemate, with Shivaji unable to break the siege, while Afzal Khan, having a powerful cavalry but lacking siege equipment, was unable to take the fort. After two months, Afzal Khan sent an envoy to Shivaji suggesting the two leaders meet in private outside the fort to parley.

The two met in a hut at the foothills of Pratapgad fort on 10 November 1659. The arrangements had dictated that each come armed only with a sword, attended by one follower. Shivaji, either

HMS Integrity

Several ships have served the Royal Navy under the name HMS Integrity. Integrity was a cutter built at New South Wales for the colonial government and lost without trace in 1805. Admiralty records suggest that she was purchased or built in 1805, incorrect, that she was listed until 1810. Integrity was launched 28 March 1942 by Levingston Shipbuilding Co. Orange, under contract from General Motors, she was completed and delivered to Great Britain under Lend-Lease 15 July 1942. She served as an ocean rescue tug with the Royal Navy, which returned her to the United States Navy at Subic Bay, Philippine Islands, on 19 February 1946. Stricken from the U. S. Navy List on 12 April 1946; the United States Navy turned her over to the State Department Foreign Liquidation Commission and she was subsequently sold to T. Y. Fong. In addition, the National Maritime Museum database lists three other vessels named Integrity Integrity - drifter 86/07, hired for service between 1915 and 1919. Integrity - drifter 67/03, hired for service between 1916 and 1919.

Naval drifters were boats either purpose-built for naval use or commercial fishing drifters requisitioned from private owners. The Royal Navy used them to maintain and patrol anti-submarine nets. Lastly, Integrity was a dockyard tug, the ex-Empire Cutit, that in March 1947 the Ministry of Transport transferred to the Royal Navy, which renamed her. Citations References Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. DANFS - Integrity:This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. This article includes data released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported UK: England & Wales Licence, by the National Maritime Museum, as part of the Warship Histories project