Thermal energy can refer to several distinct thermodynamic quantities, such as the internal energy of a system. Heat is energy transferred spontaneously from a hotter to body. Heat is not a property of any one system, or ` contained' within it. On the other hand, internal energy is a property of a system. In an ideal gas, the internal energy is the sum total of the gas particles' kinetic energy, it is this kinetic motion, the source and the effect of the transfer of heat across a system's boundary. For this reason, the term "thermal energy" is sometimes used synonymously with internal energy; the term "thermal energy" is applied to the energy carried by a heat flow, although this quantity can simply be called heat or amount of heat. In many statistical physics texts, "thermal energy" refers to k T, the product of Boltzmann's constant and the absolute temperature written as k B T. In an 1847 lecture titled "On Matter, Living Force, Heat", James Prescott Joule characterised various terms that are related to thermal energy and heat.
He identified the terms latent heat and sensible heat as forms of heat each affecting distinct physical phenomena, namely the potential and kinetic energy of particles, respectively. He described latent energy as the energy of interaction in a given configuration of particles, i.e. a form of potential energy, the sensible heat as an energy affecting temperature measured by the thermometer due to the thermal energy, which he called the living force. If the minimum temperature of a system's environment is T e and the system's entropy is S a part of the system's internal energy amounting to S ⋅ T e cannot be converted into useful work; this is the difference between the Helmholtz free energy. Heat transfer Ocean thermal energy conversion Orders of magnitude Thermal energy storage Thermal science
Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence. Thermal insulation can be achieved with specially engineered methods or processes, as well as with suitable object shapes and materials. Heat flow is an inevitable consequence of contact between objects of different temperature. Thermal insulation provides a region of insulation in which thermal conduction is reduced or thermal radiation is reflected rather than absorbed by the lower-temperature body; the insulating capability of a material is measured as the inverse of thermal conductivity. Low thermal conductivity is equivalent to high insulating capability. In thermal engineering, other important properties of insulating materials are product density and specific heat capacity. Thermal conductivity k is measured in watts-per-meter per kelvin; this is because heat transfer, measured as Power, has been found to be proportional to difference of temperature Δ T. For comparison purposes, conductivity under standard conditions is used.
For some materials, thermal conductivity may depend upon the direction of heat transfer. The act of insulation is accomplished by encasing an object with material of low thermal conductivity in high thickness. Decreasing the exposed surface area could lower heat transfer, but this quantity is fixed by the geometry of the object to be insulated. Multi-layer insulation is used where radiative loss dominates, or when the user is restricted in volume and weight of the insulation For insulated cylinders, a critical radius must be reached. Before the critical radius is reached any added insulation increases heat transfer; the convective thermal resistance is inversely proportional to the surface area and therefore the radius of the cylinder, while the thermal resistance of a cylindrical shell depends on the ratio between outside and inside radius, not on the radius itself. If the outside radius of a cylinder is increased by applying insulation, a fixed amount of conductive resistance is added. However, at the same time, the convective resistance is reduced.
This implies that adding insulation below a certain critical radius increases the heat transfer. For insulated cylinders, the critical radius is given by the equation r c r i t i c a l = k h This equation shows that the critical radius depends only on the heat transfer coefficient and the thermal conductivity of the insulation. If the radius of the insulated cylinder is smaller than the critical radius for insulation, the addition of any amount of insulation will increase heat transfer. Gases possess poor thermal conduction properties compared to liquids and solids, thus makes a good insulation material if they can be trapped. In order to further augment the effectiveness of a gas it may be disrupted into small cells which cannot transfer heat by natural convection. Convection involves a larger bulk flow of gas driven by buoyancy and temperature differences, it does not work well in small cells where there is little density difference to drive it, the high surface-to-volume ratios of the small cells retards gas flow in them by means of viscous drag.
In order to accomplish small gas cell formation in man-made thermal insulation and polymer materials can be used to trap air in a foam-like structure. This principle is used industrially in building and piping insulation such as, rock wool, polystyrene foam, urethane foam, vermiculite and cork. Trapping air is the principle in all insulating clothing materials such as wool, down feathers and fleece; the air-trapping property is the insulation principle employed by homeothermic animals to stay warm, for example down feathers, insulating hair such as natural sheep's wool. In both cases the primary insulating material is air, the polymer used for trapping the air is natural keratin protein. Maintaining acceptable temperatures in buildings uses a large proportion of global energy consumption. Building insulations commonly use the principle of small trapped air-cells as explained above, e.g. fiberglass, rock wool, polystyrene foam, urethane foam, perlite, etc. For a period of time, Asbestos was used, however, it caused health problems.
When well insulated, a building: is energy-efficient, thus saving the owner money. Provides more uniform temperatures throughout the space. There is less temperature gradient both vertically and horizontally from exterior walls and windows to the interior walls, thus producing a more comfortable occupant environment when outside temperatures are cold or hot. Has minimal recurring expense. Unlike heating and cooling equipment, ins
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration when a net force is applied. The object's mass determines the strength of its gravitational attraction to other bodies; the basic SI unit of mass is the kilogram. In physics, mass is not the same as weight though mass is determined by measuring the object's weight using a spring scale, rather than balance scale comparing it directly with known masses. An object on the Moon would weigh less than it does on Earth because of the lower gravity, but it would still have the same mass; this is because weight is a force, while mass is the property that determines the strength of this force. There are several distinct phenomena. Although some theorists have speculated that some of these phenomena could be independent of each other, current experiments have found no difference in results regardless of how it is measured: Inertial mass measures an object's resistance to being accelerated by a force. Active gravitational mass measures the gravitational force exerted by an object.
Passive gravitational mass measures the gravitational force exerted on an object in a known gravitational field. The mass of an object determines its acceleration in the presence of an applied force; the inertia and the inertial mass describe the same properties of physical bodies at the qualitative and quantitative level by other words, the mass quantitatively describes the inertia. According to Newton's second law of motion, if a body of fixed mass m is subjected to a single force F, its acceleration a is given by F/m. A body's mass determines the degree to which it generates or is affected by a gravitational field. If a first body of mass mA is placed at a distance r from a second body of mass mB, each body is subject to an attractive force Fg = GmAmB/r2, where G = 6.67×10−11 N kg−2 m2 is the "universal gravitational constant". This is sometimes referred to as gravitational mass. Repeated experiments since the 17th century have demonstrated that inertial and gravitational mass are identical.
The standard International System of Units unit of mass is the kilogram. The kilogram is 1000 grams, first defined in 1795 as one cubic decimeter of water at the melting point of ice. However, because precise measurement of a decimeter of water at the proper temperature and pressure was difficult, in 1889 the kilogram was redefined as the mass of the international prototype kilogram of cast iron, thus became independent of the meter and the properties of water. However, the mass of the international prototype and its identical national copies have been found to be drifting over time, it is expected that the re-definition of the kilogram and several other units will occur on May 20, 2019, following a final vote by the CGPM in November 2018. The new definition will use only invariant quantities of nature: the speed of light, the caesium hyperfine frequency, the Planck constant. Other units are accepted for use in SI: the tonne is equal to 1000 kg. the electronvolt is a unit of energy, but because of the mass–energy equivalence it can be converted to a unit of mass, is used like one.
In this context, the mass has units of eV/c2. The electronvolt and its multiples, such as the MeV, are used in particle physics; the atomic mass unit is 1/12 of the mass of a carbon-12 atom 1.66×10−27 kg. The atomic mass unit is convenient for expressing the masses of molecules. Outside the SI system, other units of mass include: the slug is an Imperial unit of mass; the pound is a unit of both mass and force, used in the United States. In scientific contexts where pound and pound need to be distinguished, SI units are used instead; the Planck mass is the maximum mass of point particles. It is used in particle physics; the solar mass is defined as the mass of the Sun. It is used in astronomy to compare large masses such as stars or galaxies; the mass of a small particle may be identified by its inverse Compton wavelength. The mass of a large star or black hole may be identified with its Schwarzschild radius. In physical science, one may distinguish conceptually between at least seven different aspects of mass, or seven physical notions that involve the concept of mass.
Every experiment to date has shown these seven values to be proportional, in some cases equal, this proportionality gives rise to the abstract concept of mass. There are a number of ways mass can be measured or operationally defined: Inertial mass is a measure of an object's resistance to acceleration when a force is applied, it is determined by applying a force to an object and measuring the acceleration that results from that force. An object with small inertial mass will accelerate more than an object with large inertial mass when acted upon by the same force. One says. Active gravitational mass is a measure of the strength of an object's gravitational flux. Gravitational field can be measured by allowing a small "test object" to fall and measuring its free-fall acceleration. For example, an object in free fall near the Moon is subject to a smaller gravitational field, hence
An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
A phase change material is a substance with a high heat of fusion which and solidifying at a certain temperature, is capable of storing and releasing large amounts of energy. Heat is released when the material changes from solid to liquid and vice versa. Latent heat storage can be achieved through liquid→solid, solid→liquid, solid→gas and liquid→gas phase changes. However, only solid → liquid and liquid →. Although liquid–gas transitions have a higher heat of transformation than solid–liquid transitions, liquid→gas phase changes are impractical for thermal storage because large volumes or high pressures are required to store the materials in their gas phase. Solid–solid phase changes are very slow and have a low heat of transformation. Solid–liquid PCMs behave like sensible heat storage materials. Unlike conventional SHS materials, when PCMs reach the temperature at which they change phase they absorb large amounts of heat at an constant temperature; the PCM continues to absorb heat without a significant rise in temperature until all the material is transformed to the liquid phase.
When the ambient temperature around a liquid material falls, the PCM solidifies, releasing its stored latent heat. A large number of PCMs are available in any required temperature range from −5 up to 190 °C. Within the human comfort range between 20–30 °C, some PCMs are effective, they store 5 to 14 times more heat per unit volume than conventional storage materials such as water, masonry or rock. Bio-Based, or Paraffin, or carbohydrate and lipid derived. Advantages Freeze without much undercooling Ability to melt congruently Self nucleating properties Compatibility with conventional material of construction No segregation Chemically stable High heat of fusion Safe and non-reactive Recyclable Carbohydrate and lipid based PCMs can be produced from renewable sources Disadvantages Low thermal conductivity in their solid state. High heat transfer rates are required during the freezing cycle. Nano composites were found to yield an effective thermal conductivity increase up to 216%. Volumetric latent heat storage capacity can be low Flammable.
This can be alleviated by specialist containment, or by incorporating environmentally friendly fire retardants. Salt hydrates Advantages High volumetric latent heat storage capacity Availability and low cost Sharp melting point High thermal conductivity High heat of fusion Non-flammable Disadvantages Incongruous melting and phase separation upon cycling which can cause a significant loss in latent heat enthalpy. Corrosive to many other materials, such as metals. Change of volume is high Super cooling is major problem in solid–liquid transition Nucleating agents are needed and they become inoperative after repeated cycling c-inorganic, inorganic-inorganic compounds Advantages Some inorganic eutectics have sharp melting point similar to pure substance. Volumetric storage density is above organic compounds. Extra water principle can be used to avoid phase change degradation, involving dissolving the anhydrous salt during melting to result in a thickening of the liquid material so that it melts to a gel form.
Disadvantages They still have the same disadvantages as inorganic PCMs, such as reduced thermal performance upon cycling, high volume change, high supercooling. Sharp crystals may form when the salt hydrate PCM solidifies causing leaks in cases of macro-encapsulation. Limited data is available on thermo-physical properties as the use of these materials is limited compared to organic PCMs. Many natural building materials are hygroscopic, they can absorb and release water; the process is thus: Condensation ΔH<0. Vaporization ΔH>0. Whilst this process liberates a small quantity of energy, large surfaces area allows significant heating or cooling in buildings; the corresponding materials are wool insulation, earth/clay render finishes. A specialised group of PCMs that undergo a solid/solid phase transition with the associated absorption and release of large amounts of heat; these materials change their crystalline structure from one lattice configuration to another at a fixed and well-defined temperature, the transformation can involve latent heats comparable to the most effective solid/liquid PCMs.
Such materials are useful because, unlike solid/liquid PCMs, they do not require nucleation to prevent supercooling. Additionally, because it is a solid/solid phase change, there is no visible change in the appearance of the PCM, there are no problems associated with handling liquids, e.g. containment, potential leakage, etc. The temperature range of solid-solid PCM solutions spans from -50 °C up to +175 °C. Thermodynamic properties; the phase change material should possess: Melting temperature in the desired operating temperature range High latent heat of fusion per unit volume High specific heat, high density and high thermal conductivity Small volume changes on phase transformation and small vapor pressure at operating temperatures to reduce the containment problem Congruent melting Kinetic properties High nucleation rate to avoid supercooling of the liquid phase High rate of crystal growth, so that the system can meet demands of heat recovery from the storage system Chemical properties Chemical stability Complete reversible freeze/melt cycle No degradation
Ventilation is the intentional introduction of outdoor air into a space and is used to control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants. The intentional introduction of outdoor air can be categorized as either mechanical ventilation, or natural ventilation. Mechanical ventilation uses fans to drive the flow of outdoor air into a building; this may be accomplished by depressurization. Many mechanically ventilated buildings use a combination of both, with the ventilation being integrated into the HVAC system. Natural ventilation is the intentional passive flow of outdoor air into a building through planned openings. Natural ventilation does not require mechanical systems to move outdoor air, it relies on passive physical phenomena, such as diffusion, wind pressure, or the stack effect. Mixed mode ventilation systems use both natural processes; the mechanical and natural components may be used in conjunction with each other or separately at different times of day or season of the year.
Since the natural component can be affected by unpredictable environmental conditions it may not always provide an appropriate amount of ventilation. In this case, mechanical systems may be used to supplement or to regulate the driven flow. In many instances, ventilation for indoor air quality is beneficial for the control of thermal comfort. At these times, it can be useful to increase the rate of ventilation beyond the minimum required for indoor air quality. Two examples include air-side economizer strategies and ventilative pre-cooling. In other instances, ventilation for indoor air quality contributes to the need for - and energy use by - mechanical heating and cooling equipment. In hot and humid climates, dehumidification of ventilation air can be a energy intensive process. Ventilation should be considered for its relationship to "venting" for appliances and combustion equipment such as water heaters, furnaces and wood stoves. Most the design of building ventilation must be careful to avoid the backdraft of combustion products from "naturally vented" appliances into the occupied space.
This issue is of greater importance in new buildings with more air tight envelopes. To avoid the hazard, many modern combustion appliances utilize "direct venting" which draws combustion air directly from outdoors, instead of from the indoor environment. Natural ventilation can be achieved through the use of operable windows, this has been removed from most current architecture buildings due to the mechanical system continuously operating; the United States current strategy for ventilating buildings is to rely on mechanical ventilation. In Europe designers have experimented with design solutions that will allow for natural ventilation with minimal mechanical interference; these techniques include: building layout, facade construction, materials used for inside finishes. European designers have switched back to the use of operable windows to solve indoor air quality issues. "In the United States, the elimination of operable windows is one of the greatest losses in contemporary architecture." Mechanical ventilation refers to any system that uses mechanical means, such as a fan, to introduce subaerial air to a space.
This includes positive pressure ventilation, exhaust ventilation, balanced systems that use both supply and exhaust ventilation. Natural ventilation refers to intentionally designed passive methods of introducing subaerial to a space without the use of mechanical systems. Mixed mode ventilation systems use both mechanical processes. Infiltration is the uncontrolled flow of air from outdoors to indoors through leaks in a building envelope; when a building design relies on environmentally driven circumstantial infiltration to maintain indoor air quality, this flow has been referred to as adventitious ventilation. The ventilation rate, for CII buildings, is expressed by the volumetric flowrate of subaerial air, introduced to the building; the typical units used are cubic feet per liters per second. The ventilation rate can be expressed on a per person or per unit floor area basis, such as CFM/p or CFM/ft², or as air changes per hour. For residential buildings, which rely on infiltration for meeting their ventilation needs, a common ventilation rate measure is the air change rate: the hourly ventilation rate divided by the volume of the space.
During the winter, ACH may range from 0.50 to 0.41 in a air-sealed house to 1.11 to 1.47 in a loosely air-sealed house. ASHRAE now recommends ventilation rates dependent upon floor area, as a revision to the 62-2001 standard, in which the minimum ACH was 0.35, but no less than 15 CFM/person. As of 2003, the standard has been changed to 3 CFM/100 sq. ft. plus 7.5 CFM/person. In the UK, ventilation rate standards are specified in Part F of the Building Regulations. Ventilation Rate Procedure is rate based on standard and prescribes the rate at which ventilation air must be delivered to a space and various means to condition that air. Air quality is assessed and ventilation rates are mathematically derived using constants. Indoor Air Quality Procedure uses one or more guidelines for the specification of acceptable concentrations of certain contaminants in indoor air but does not prescribe ventilation rates or air treatment methods; this addresses both quantitative and s
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe is the capital of the U. S. state of New Mexico. It is the seat of Santa Fe County; this area was occupied for at least several thousand years by indigenous peoples who built villages several hundred years ago, on the current site of the city. It was known by the Tewa inhabitants as Ogha Po'oge; the city of Santa Fe, founded by Spanish colonists in 1610, is the oldest state capital in the United States. Santa Fe had a population of 69,204 in 2012, it is the principal city of a Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Santa Fe County and is part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. The city's full name as founded remains La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. Before European colonization of the Americas, the area Santa Fe occupied between 900 CE and the 1500s was known to the Tewa peoples as Oghá P'o'oge and by the Navajo people as Yootó. In 1610, Juan de Oñate established the area as Santa Fe de Nuevo México–a province of New Spain.
Formal Spanish settlements were developed leading the colonial governor Pedro de Peralta to rename the area La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. The phrase "Santa Fe" is translated as "Holy Faith" in Spanish. Although more known as Santa Fe, the city's full, legal name remains to this day as La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís; the standard Spanish variety pronounces it SAHN-tah-FAY as contextualized within the city's full, Spaniard name La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Aśis. However, due to the large amounts of tourism and immigration into Santa Fe, an English pronunciation of SAN-tuh-FAY is commonly used; the area of Santa Fe was occupied by indigenous Tanoan peoples, who lived in numerous Pueblo villages along the Rio Grande. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900 CE. A group of native Tewa built a cluster of homes that centered around the site of today's Plaza and spread for half a mile to the south and west.
The river had a year-round flow until the 1700s. By the 20th century the Santa Fe River was a seasonal waterway; as of 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers. Don Juan de Oñate led the first European effort to colonize the region in 1598, establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain. Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. New Mexico's second Spanish governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, founded a new city at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1607, which he called La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi. In 1610, he designated it as the capital of the province, which it has constantly remained, making it the oldest state capital in the United States. Discontent with the colonization practices led to the Pueblo Revolt, when groups of different Native Pueblo peoples were successful in driving the Spaniards out of the area now known as New Mexico, maintaining their independence from 1680 to 1692, when the territory was reconquered by Don Diego de Vargas.
Santa Fe was Spain's provincial seat at outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. It was considered important to fur traders based in present-day Saint Missouri; when the area was still under Spanish rule, the Chouteau brothers of Saint Louis gained a monopoly on the fur trade, before the United States acquired Missouri under the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The fur trade contributed to the wealth of St. Louis; the city's status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution after Mexico achieved independence from Spain. When the Republic of Texas seceded from Mexico in 1836, it attempted to claim Santa Fe and other parts of Nuevo México as part of the western portion of Texas along the Río Grande. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition set out from Austin, intending to take control of the Santa Fe Trail. Known as the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, the force was poorly prepared and was captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico.
Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into Santa Fe to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U. S. gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled "Spain 1776" showing both the quality of communication and military support New Mexico received under Mexican rule; some American visitors at first saw little promise in the remote town. One traveller in 1849 wrote: I can hardly imagine how Santa Fe is supported; the country around it is barren. At the North stands a snow-capped mountain while the valley in which the town is situated is drab and sandy; the streets are narrow... A Mexican will walk about town all day to sell a bundle of grass worth about a dime, they are the poorest looking people I saw. They subsist principally on mutton and red pepper. In 1851, Jean Baptiste Lamy arrived, becoming bishop of New Mexico, Utah, C