A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance is dependent on temperature, more so than in standard resistors. The word is a combination of resistor. Thermistors are used as inrush current limiters, temperature sensors, self-resetting overcurrent protectors, self-regulating heating elements. Thermistors are of two opposite fundamental types: With NTC thermistors, resistance decreases as temperature rises. An NTC is used as a temperature sensor, or in series with a circuit as an inrush current limiter. With PTC thermistors, resistance increases as temperature rises. PTC thermistors are installed in series with a circuit, used to protect against overcurrent conditions, as resettable fuses. Thermistors are produced using powdered metal oxides. With vastly improved formulas and techniques over the past 20 years, NTC thermistors can now achieve accuracies over wide temperature ranges such as ±0.1 °C or ±0.2 °C from 0 °C to 70 °C with excellent long-term stability. NTC thermistor elements come in many styles such as axial-leaded glass-encapsulated, glass-coated chips, epoxy-coated with bare or insulated lead wire and surface-mount, as well as rods and discs.
The typical operating temperature range of a thermistor is −55 °C to +150 °C, though some glass-body thermistors have a maximal operating temperature of +300 °C. Thermistors differ from resistance temperature detectors in that the material used in a thermistor is a ceramic or polymer, while RTDs use pure metals; the temperature response is different. Assuming, as a first-order approximation, that the relationship between resistance and temperature is linear Δ R = k Δ T, where Δ R, change in resistance, Δ T, change in temperature, k, first-order temperature coefficient of resistance. Thermistors can be classified depending on the sign of k. If k is positive, the resistance increases with increasing temperature, the device is called a positive temperature coefficient thermistor, or posistor. If k is negative, the resistance decreases with increasing temperature, the device is called a negative temperature coefficient thermistor. Resistors that are not thermistors are designed to have a k as close to 0 as possible, so that their resistance remains nearly constant over a wide temperature range.
Instead of the temperature coefficient k, sometimes the temperature coefficient of resistance α T is used. It is defined as α T = 1 R d R d T; this α T coefficient should not be confused with the a parameter below. In practical devices, the linear approximation model is accurate only over a limited temperature range. Over wider temperature ranges, a more complex resistance–temperature transfer function provides a more faithful characterization of the performance; the Steinhart–Hart equation is a used third-order approximation: 1 T = a + b ln R + c 3, where a, b and c are called the Steinhart–Hart parameters and must be specified for each device. T is the absolute temperature, R is the resistance. To give resistance as a function of temperature, the above can be rearranged into R = exp , where y = 1 2 c, x = 3 + y 2; the error in the Steinhart–Hart equation is less than 0.02 °C in the measurement of temperature over a 200 °C range. As an example, typical values for a thermistor with a resistance of 3 kΩ at room temperature are: a = 1.40 ×
Modern Rocking is a solo album by Polish singer Agnieszka Chylińska. It is the seventh studio album in her career. In the first week of its release it made it to the OLiS list of best-selling Polish albums, was certified gold. On November 18, 2009, it was certified platinum."Nie mogę Cię zapomnieć" won the 2010 "Digital Song of the Year" in Poland for being the best selling digital single of 2009. All songs produced by Bartek Królik and Marek Piotrkowski; the following is according to the source material. Agnieszka Chylińska – vocals Bartek Królik – bass guitar, keyboard, cello Marek Piotrowski – keyboard, programmable instruments Lester Estelle Jr – percussion
Captain Billy is a one-act comic opera with a libretto by Harry Greenbank and music by François Cellier. It was first performed at the Savoy Theatre on 24 September 1891 until 16 January 1892, as a curtain raiser to The Nautch Girl, from 1 February 1892 to 18 June 1892, as a curtain raiser to The Vicar of Bray, for a total of 217 performances; the first stage production with an orchestra for over 100 years was done in May 2007 by the Chapel End Savoy Players at the Deaton Theatre, Forest School, London as a curtain raiser for their production of The Pirates of Penzance. The vocal score is in the British Library. There is no printed libretto. A copy of the libretto was filed in the Lord Chamberlain's collection in January/February 1880. A recording of an abridged version was made by a Leicester G&S Society in the 1970s; when the Gilbert and Sullivan partnership disbanded after the production of The Gondoliers in 1889, impresario Richard D'Oyly Carte needed new works to fill the Savoy Theatre. The first of these was The Nautch Girl.
The fashion in the late Victorian era was to present long evenings in the theatre, so producer Richard D'Oyly Carte preceded his Savoy operas with curtain raisers. W. J. MacQueen-Pope commented, concerning such curtain raisers: This was a one-act play, seen only by the early comers, it would play to empty boxes, half-empty upper circle, to a filling stalls and dress circle, but to an attentive and appreciative pit and gallery. These plays were little gems, they deserved much better treatment than they got. … served to give young actors and actresses a chance to win their spurs … the stalls and the boxes lost much by missing the curtain-raiser, but to them dinner was more important. To create a curtain raiser for The Nautch Girl, Carte turned to Cellier, the long-time music director of the Savoy Theatre and had produced other works for Carte. Greenbank, on the other hand, was a new writer who would go on to a productive and successful career writing lyrics for hit musicals, although he lived to the age of only 33.
Captain Billy has been absent from his native village, for many years. His relatives do not know that he has been pursuing a successful career as a pirate. A young foundling, Christopher Jolly, visits the village to examine the parish register in an attempt to find his birth certificate. Jolly falls in love with Polly, they exchange this dialogue: JOLLY: I love you. … But until that certificate is forthcoming, we can never be married. … My darling, you would not marry a man whose age you did not know? POLLY: Oh, Christopher, my precious, your personal appearance pleases me much! Why should I trouble about your age? JOLLY: … How would you feel if the certificate were found, showed that you had married a man old enough to be your grandfather? Or I might turn out to be years younger than you are. Would you like to have it said that you had entrapped a mere boy into marriage? ... I like to think. Billy is recognised by his brother Samuel Chunk. Billy is reunited with his wife, surprised to discover that she is not a widow after all, Jolly discovers that he is Billy's nephew, whom the old scoundrel had "lost" in the Sahara Desert many years before.
Billy attests to Jolly's age. Billy becomes a respectable soap salesman. No. 1 – Christopher Jolly – "Oh! it isn't nice when you fail …" No. 2 – Christopher and Polly – "When flowers blossom in the spring …" No. 3 – Quartett and dance: Widow Jackson, Polly and Chunk – "With beating heart I wait to see …" No. 4 – Captain Billy, with Samuel Chunk – "A pirate bold am I …" No. 5 – Widow Jackson – "I thought my dashing buccaneer …" No. 6 – Polly, Widow Jackson and Captain Billy – "It's unpleasant, mia cara …" No. 7 – Finale – "By fate released at last …" The original cast was as follows: Captain Billy, a pirate. Helier Lemaistre Christopher Jolly. C. R. Rose Samuel Chunk. Rudolph Lewis Widow Jackson. Rosina Brandram Polly, her daughter. Decima Moore Savoy opera Cast list and link to libretto and other information Full score published in 2015 Song list and links to Midi files Article on Savoy curtain raisers List of Savoy opera curtain raisers Article about a modern production of Captain Billy Article about Cellier List of London shows opening in 1892
Grytė Pintukaitė is a Lithuanian portrait painter, member of the Lithuanian Artists' Association, member of the Association LATGA - Lithuanian Copyright Society. Gryte was born in Kaunas into a family of artists. After the Art Gymnasium in Kaunas and the Kankaapaa School of Arts in Finland, she studied Painting in Vilnius Academy of Arts. Since 2002 she is a pedagogue of Arts and curator of exhibitions for young talents Regarding her artistic vision and style, the philosopher and art critic Algis Uždavinys wrote about an "intimate female humanism of the artist and "a meditation to feel not only the fragility of the human nature but the deep nobleness of its incarnated spiritual world, real portrayal and picture of God where she likes to submerge herself, with tender clemency, like in a fog of heady dreams, in order to create her original version of the reality and of the existence myth". Therefore, her figures are always stylized and supplemental semantic metaphors in portrait compositions, are introduced.
In choosing the subjects of her pictures, Gryte comes back to loved motives such as an image of a granny or a mother with a baby or just faces, that she loves to draw according to their real emanation, the one that she perceives. So, she could paint, for example, the Lithuanian artist Antanas Tamošaitis, that she met in his hospital bed just some time before his death at the age of 100 years old, as well as many other singers, poets, conductors, etc. that she painted during 25 years of activity. In 2000 she received the award for the best painting in the exhibition "One Picture Contest" in Vilnius. In 2004 she received the award for "The best work of the year" in the homonym exhibition in Kaunas. Gryte's training as painter was affected by other artistic disciplines theatre and music. In Kaunas she studied at the Drama Theatre, got a diploma in Expressive Reading and received "The Silver Voices" award; as singer, after private studies in Finland and Lithuania, she collaborated in the years 2001-2003 with the composer Arturas Bumšteinas and, in 2006, with the group Sel.
She works as clothes designer for fashion and theatre events and collaborates with some newspapers and art magazines as art/theatre critic From 1993 until 2016, Grytė Pintukaitė has organized 34 personal exhibitions, participated in 63 group exhibitions and in 10 international Art Symposia and Plein Airs. She took part in other international exhibitions in Finland, Belarus and Latvia; the artworks of Grytė Pintukaitė are exhibited in museums in China, Latvia as well as in private collections in USA, Italy, Finland, Iceland and Russia. List of Lithuanian artists Official website
Stephen Alan Harper is an English former professional footballer, first team coach for Newcastle United and goalkeeping coach for the Northern Ireland national team. He is best known for his time playing at Newcastle, having amassed 157 league appearances over a twenty-year period between 1993 and 2013. Although he was not always the first choice goalkeeper at Newcastle, he was the longest-serving player in the club's history. Harper was born in County Durham, he grew up in the mining village of Easington, County Durham, studied Sport at the East Durham College. He was interested in football from a young age and goalkeeper Bruce Grobbelaar was his idol. Anfield was the first football ground he went to, where he watched Liverpool win a match 2–0 in the 1982–83 season. Harper attended Easington Comprehensive School, he was offered a place at Liverpool John Moores University. In 1993, he was signed by Newcastle United for a nominal fee. Seen as back-up to first-choice goalkeeper Pavel Srníček after his arrival at Newcastle, Shaka Hislop and subsequently Shay Given.
At this point Harper achieved the rare feat of making an appearance in each of the top five divisions of the English game. Harper came close to dislodging Given on numerous occasions, most notably in the 1998–99 season. Harper played in the 1999 FA Cup Final. Then-manager Ruud Gullit appeared to see Harper worthy of playing over Given. However, at the start of the 1999–2000 season, Gullit resigned and Harper again became second choice goalkeeper, although he did enjoy another brief period of first team action for part of the season when Given was injured; when Given returned from injury, Harper was once again used as the back-up goalkeeper. In 2002, he made several appearances in the UEFA Champions League, most notably against Juventus; the match was played at St James' Park and Harper managed to keep a clean sheet during a 1–0 win over the Italian champions. The victory helped. Harper has handed in a transfer request in his time with Newcastle, citing lack of regular first team football as his reason.
He has been linked with moves to West Bromwich Albion, Watford and Liverpool in his time with Newcastle, though none of these purported moves came to fruition. He again expressed his desire to achieve first team football in June 2006, an act which saw manager Glenn Roeder attempt to persuade Harper to remain with the club; this appeared to work as he signed a new contract to keep him at St. James' Park until June 2009. An injury to Given early in the 2006–07 season gave Harper another chance to prove his worth in the first team. However, he did not have the best start to first team action, as Newcastle lost 2–0 to Liverpool on 20 September 2006, in what was Harper's first league start for 15 months; the second goal, a 65-yard lob from Xabi Alonso, saw Harper slip whilst backpedaling to reach it, although he did still attempt to get up and stop it. Despite this setback Harper gave some excellent performances in the season. One particular moment was his wonderful save against Manchester City in early November.
Harper received another run in the first team after a third injury to Given that season, the highlight of this would be keeping a clean sheet against Chelsea, a feat only matched by two other keepers that season. This was the first season Harper played consecutive league matches since 2001. On 26 July 2007, Harper came on as a substitute against Celtic in a friendly match and played as a striker – something which has continually come up throughout his career. Harper continued as Newcastle's goalkeeper at the beginning of the 2007–08 season under the new boss Sam Allardyce. With Given struggling with a groin injury and rookie Tim Krul on loan at Falkirk, Harper was able to start the first six league games, keeping two clean sheets; however he lost his place again when Given was fit, though another injury to Given in the season allowed Harper to gain more first team appearances under the new boss, the manager who first brought him to Newcastle, Kevin Keegan. After a series of good performances, Harper was once again linked with a transfer away from Newcastle.
Liverpool expressed an interest in signing him as backup to first-choice goalkeeper Pepe Reina. Keegan reacted to this by stating his intentions to keep Harper, acknowledging his record of conceding just once in seven and a half hours of play. Harper signed a new contract in January 2009, keeping him at Newcastle until 2012, his nineteenth year at the club. During the transfer window of the same month, Given moved to Manchester City, elevating Harper's position within the club and so after nearly 16 years, Harper was first-choice goalkeeper at 33 years old. Harper repaid the management's faith in him by putting in some fine match performances including several world-class saves and was the best goalkeeper in the Championship, keeping a club record 21 clean sheets in 37 matches and conceding 35 goals at less than a goal a game. Harper made his 50th consecutive league start for Newcastle on 6 March 2010, in the 6–1 win over Barnsley; this was his longest run of consecutive starts he had made in his entire career.
On 23 March 2010, Harper recorded his nineteenth clean sheet of the season after Newcastle beat Doncaster Rovers 1–0 at the Keepmoat Stadium, thus breaking the club's clean sheet record which had stood since Newcastle were last promoted in t
The 7th National Board of Review Awards were announced on 16 December 1935. The Informer Alice Adams Anna Karenina David Copperfield The Gilded Lily Les Misérables The Lives of a Bengal Lancer Mutiny on the Bounty Ruggles of Red Gap Who Killed Cock Robin? Chapayev Crime and Punishment Le Dernier Milliardaire The Man Who Knew Too Much Maria Chapdelaine La Maternelle The New Gulliver Peasants Thunder in the East The Youth of Maxim Best American Film: The Informer Best Foreign Film: Chapayev, U. S. S. R. National Board of Review of Motion Pictures:: Awards for 1935