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Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy, associated with chemical reactions and/or physical transformations. A reaction may release or absorb energy, a phase change may do the same, such as in melting and boiling. Thermochemistry focuses on these energy changes on the system's energy exchange with its a surroundings. Thermochemistry is useful in predicting reactant and product quantities throughout the course of a given reaction. In combination with entropy determinations, it is used to predict whether a reaction is spontaneous or non-spontaneous, favorable or unfavorable. Endothermic reactions absorb heat. Thermochemistry coalesces the concepts of thermodynamics with the concept of energy in the form of chemical bonds; the subject includes calculations of such quantities as heat capacity, heat of combustion, heat of formation, entropy, free energy, calories. Thermochemistry rests on two generalizations. Stated in modern terms, they are as follows: Lavoisier and Laplace's law: The energy change accompanying any transformation is equal and opposite to energy change accompanying the reverse process.

Hess' law: The energy change accompanying any transformation is the same whether the process occurs in one step or many. These statements helped in its formulation. Lavoisier and Hess investigated specific heat and latent heat, although it was Joseph Black who made the most important contributions to the development of latent energy changes. Gustav Kirchhoff showed in 1858 that the variation of the heat of reaction is given by the difference in heat capacity between products and reactants: dΔH / dT = ΔCp. Integration of this equation permits the evaluation of the heat of reaction at one temperature from measurements at another temperature; the measurement of heat changes is performed using calorimetry an enclosed chamber within which the change to be examined occurs. The temperature of the chamber is monitored either using a thermometer or thermocouple, the temperature plotted against time to give a graph from which fundamental quantities can be calculated. Modern calorimeters are supplied with automatic devices to provide a quick read-out of information, one example being the differential scanning calorimeter.

Several thermodynamic definitions are useful in thermochemistry. A system is the specific portion of the universe, being studied. Everything outside the system is considered environment. A system may be: a isolated system which can exchange neither energy nor matter with the surroundings, such as an insulated bomb calorimeter a thermally isolated system which can exchange mechanical work but not heat or matter, such as an insulated closed piston or balloon a mechanically isolated system which can exchange heat but not mechanical work or matter, such as an uninsulated bomb calorimeter a closed system which can exchange energy but not matter, such as an uninsulated closed piston or balloon an open system which it can exchange both matter and energy with the surroundings,such as a pot of boiling water A system undergoes a process when one or more of its properties changes. A process relates to the change of state. An isothermal process occurs. An isobaric process occurs. A process is adiabatic. Differential scanning calorimetry Important publications in thermochemistry Isodesmic reaction Principle of maximum work Reaction Calorimeter Thomsen-Berthelot principle Julius Thomsen Thermodynamic databases for pure substances Calorimetry Photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy Thermodynamics Cryochemistry Chemical kinetics "Thermochemistry".

Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. 1911. Pp. 804–808

Doraemon: Nobita and the Birth of Japan

Doraemon: Nobita and the Birth of Japan is a feature-length Doraemon film which premiered in Japan on 11 March 1989, based on the ninth volume of the same name of the Doraemon Long Stories series. This was the first Heisei-era Doraemon movie. It's the 10th Doraemon film. In 2016, the movie was remake as Doraemon: Nobita and the Birth of Japan 2016; the movie starts with a boy who belongs to prehistoric time hunting a fish, gets captured in a time vortex and reaches to the 20th century. In the 20th century, Nobita Nobi wants to run away from his home; as a result of failing to find an ideal home, Nobita decides to make a makeshift place to live. However, he still cannot find a place to live due to land property ownership laws. At the same time, Shizuka Minamoto, Takeshi "Gian" Goda, Suneo Honekawa and Doraemon want to run away from their homes. Nobita suggests; the group agree with him and thus, they go to prehistoric Japan, 70,000 years in the past. When they reach Japan, Doraemon assigns everyone a ministry.

Shizuka is given the ministry of gardening, Gian gets the ministry of development, Suneo receives the ministry of landscape and Nobita receives the ministry of animals, with Doraemon overseeing all ministries. Nobita mixes the genes of different animal and creates a dragon and pegasus; when Doraemon comes, he hides them from him. At night, the group decide to return home and visit there another day. On the next day, the boy from the start of the movie secretly moves into Nobita's room and hides inside the closet; when Gian and Suneo come, Gian fights with him and, due to weakness, the boy faints. On the arrival of Nobita and Doraemon, the group again moves to the past, they take the boy into their cave and when he regains consciousness, Shizuka gives him food. Meanwhile, Doraemon searches with a signal through time and learns that the boy hails from somewhere in present-day Nanjing, inhabited by humans since more than 70,000 years ago. Doraemon further uses a translation tool, he tells them that he belongs to the light tribe and his tribe got attacked by dark tribe who took all of his people.

The group decide to help him. They trace the dark tribe on Pegasus and Griffin for four days. On the fourth day, they fight with them; however their shaman proves to be strong and gives them a strong challenge only to be defeated by Doraemon's gadgets. Unknown to them, the shaman possesses the power to restore; the group take the whole tribe to Japan to give them a peaceful place to live. At night, they return home. Next day Doraemon tells everybody that the shaman can restore itself and the light tribe is still in danger, so they again go back in time, they arrive too late, as the dark tribe had taken the light tribe. Again, the group trace the dark tribe with Doraemon's human train gadget, but Nobita gets lost and is separated from the group during a harsh snowstorm. Except for Nobita, the rest of the group continue to move and they find the light tribe. Doraemon fights with Gigazombie, the king of spirits. Doraemon reveals him to be a time criminal, creating his own world, he defeats Doraemon and the others.

On the other hand, Nobita finds a box near him and sees a hologram that tells him that if he needs help he should just press the button. Nobita's pet animals Pegasus and Griffin return and they rescue his friend; however Gigazombie shuts them to a lone place. Nobita uses the helper is revealed to be a time patrol who captures Gigazombie. At the end, Pegasus and Griffin are taken to the future as they could not survive in the current era; the groups leaves for home. An English version produced and released in Malaysia by Speedy Video, features an unknown voice cast. Doraemon: Nobita and the Birth of Japan on IMDb

Petra László incident

The Petra László incident took place in Röszke, Hungary, on September 8, 2015 during the European migrant crisis, when Hungarian camerawoman Petra László was recorded kicking migrants who were fleeing police. László was fired after footage of the incident spread in the online. In September 2016 László was indicted on charges of breach of peace. In 2018, the Hungarian Highest Court cleared Petra László of disorderly conduct charges. On September 8, 2015, Petra László was working as a camerawoman at a holding camp near the border between Hungary and Serbia, documenting the ongoing migrant crisis when hundreds of migrants including Syrians and Afghans fled police at a makeshift relocation camp in Roske, just a few hundred yards from Hungary's border with Serbia. A video was posted on Twitter by German reporter Stephan Richter, showing a woman, identified as László "kicking a girl and tripping up the man carrying a child"; the video attracted widespread media attention. In response to the video, László's employer, N1TV issued a statement saying, "An employee of N1TV today showed unacceptable behaviour at the Röszke collection point," N1TV said.

"We have terminated the contract of the camera woman with immediate effect today."László wrote to Hungarian newspaper, Magyar Nemzet, that she was frightened by the rush of people and panicked, thinking she was going to be attacked. She issued a public apology September 11, 2015: I am sorry for the incident, as a mother I am sorry for the fact that fate pushed a child in my way. I did not see that at that moment. I started to panic and as I re-watch the film, it seems as it was not me, she characterized the public reaction as a witch-hunt including smears and death threats which she did not feel she deserved. In September 2016, Hungarian prosecutors indicted László and charged her with breaching the peace, defined under Hungarian law as "antisocial, violent behavior capable of inciting indignation or alarm." The charge carries a maximum sentence of two years. Zsolt Kopasz, Chief Prosecutor, said in a press release that: The violent actions of the accused did not inflict injury, however her behaviour was capable of provoking indignation and outcry in the members of the public present at the scenes The press release stated that László kicked a young man and minor girl, "towards a migrant, running with a child in his arms with the intention to trip him," but that her leg did not reach him.

Kopasz continued that there has been no evidence uncovered to indicate that the actions were motivated by the migrant status or ethnicity of the victims. The trial was set to be held -and was held- in the city of Szeged. On October 21, 2015, László stated she was considering moving to Russia following her trial in Hungary, that she planned to file two lawsuits, the first against Osama Abdul Mohsen, the man whom she attempted to trip in the video, for changing his testimony, Facebook for refusing to remove threatening groups on their website. László said "My husband wants to prove my innocence. For him, it is now a matter of honour."In an interview with Russia’s Izvestia László stated she was only "trying to help police," as Mohsen had not obeyed orders. "I pushed him. I did not see. I’m sorry that it turned out this way," she told the newspaper. László said her life was never the same since the incident and she was dubbed a "heartless, children-kicking camerawoman," fired from her job, threatened by haters following the scandal.

"I can say that my life is ruined. It’s unlikely that I will be able to find a job and do what I like the most," she told the paper. Mohsen, commented on László's apology, "I tell her, be sure you Hungarian journalist that karma will get back to you, God will not leave this be." He stated in 2015 that he planned to sue both László and N1TV. Mohsen settled in Spain when he was offered a job by a Spanish sports organization. In November 2015, Mohsen declared that he wants to leave Spain and settle down in Austria or in Germany, to organize a football team, recruited from Syrian refugees. In December 2015, in an interview, Mohsen reported that though he asked permission from prime minister Mariano Rajoy, the Spanish authorities refused his demand for family reunion, so his family must stay in Turkey. On 15 October 2016, the Spanish journal El Confidencial reported that the Escuela Nacional de Entrenadores de Fútbol decided not to renew the contract of Mr. Mohsen, because he had "difficulties learning Spanish".

On 12 January 2017, László was sentenced to three years of probation for disorderly conduct by Szeged District Court. The judge said that her behavior "ran counter to societal norms" and said the facts of the case did not support her self-defence claim. October 30, 2018, The Kuria "found that the first and second-instance courts that handed down verdicts in the case had violated the rules of criminal material law when they found the defendant guilty and sentenced her to probation; the court ruled that the camerawoman’s actions did not constitute anti-social behaviour, therefore could not be classified as disorderly conduct. At the same time, the Kuria declared her actions to be unlawful and “morally disapprovable”, adding that they constituted rowdy behaviour, which counts as a misdemeanor; the Kuria, ruled to close the case, noting that the statute of limitations on the misdemeanor had expired." Syrian Civil War CNN Petra László tripping incident video on YouTube Petra László on IMDb Osama Abdul Mohsen on IMDb

Supriya Sule

Supriya Sule is an Indian politician from the Nationalist Congress Party and a Member of Parliament in the 17th Lok Sabha representing Baramati. In 2011, she launched a statewide campaign against female foeticide, she has been honored with Mumbai Women of the Decade Achievers Award by ALL Ladies League for her outstanding contribution to social service. Born to Sharad and Pratibhatai Sharadchandra Pawar on 30 June 1969 in Poona, she was educated at Jai Hind College in Mumbai, earning a B. Sc. degree in Microbiology. She married Sadanand Bhalchandra Sule on 4 March 1991, she is the mother of Revati. Both her children attended John Connon School in Mumbai. After marriage she spent some time in California. Subsequently, she moved to Indonesia and Singapore and returned to Mumbai. Sule was elected to the Rajya Sabha in the September 2006 intake from Maharashtra and is a trustee of the Nehru Centre in Bombay, she led the state level campaign against female foeticide. The campaign included college events, competitions etc..

In 2012, under the leadership of Supriya Sule the wing named Rashtravadi Yuvati Congress is formed to give platform to young girls in politics. For past several months the several rallies has been organised all over Maharashtra which focused on female foetus abortion, dowry system and women empowerment in general. In April 2010, Sule denied allegations of financial links between her family and IPL, when reports on IPL irregularities in its ownership and functioning surfaced and led India's Minister of State for External Affairs to resign. However, there were reports that her husband owned 10% of a firm that had exclusive multi-year broadcasting rights IPL matches. In June 2010, Economic Times, India's largest business newspaper, reported that Sharad Pawar and Supriya Sule owned 16.22 percent of a firm that had bid for the Pune franchise of IPL. She had stated, "I say with full conviction that my husband or my family has nothing to do with these issues... We always stay miles away from it. Yes, we are avid cricket watchers, my husband, my kids, my family and that's where the buck stops."

When challenged on this, she said she was just a minority shareholder and cannot be responsible for the firm's actions. Profile on Rajya Sabha website

Tomb of the Unknown Love

"Tomb of the Unknown Love" is a song written by Micheal Smotherman and recorded by American country music artist Kenny Rogers. It was released in February 1986 as the second and final single from the album, The Heart of the Matter; the song was Rogers' thirteenth number one single on the country chart. The single spent a total of fourteen weeks on the country chart; the narrator of the song, traveling during the winter season across the country to meet a woman, stops at a diner in a small mining town near Taos, New Mexico, hears a haunting sound in the cold wind. He asks the waitress about the sound; the narrator reads the stone, which talks about a young man, hanged after killing a woman who had cheated on him. The second verse mentions that the narrator visits the woman for the same reason – to kill her for ending their relationship, he makes no effort to elude law enforcement, in the end will be hanged, only wondering if someday he will be buried in the same manner. Thus, it is ambiguous whether the narrator saw a grave, or a precursor to his own fatal end.

Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Kate Gaze

Kate Gaze is an Australian professional basketball player. She plays for the Townsville Fire in the WNBL. From 2009 -- 2014, Gaze played for the Saint Mary's Gaels located in California. Participating in the NCAA's Division I and in the West Coast Conference. After a successful college career in the United States, Gaze returned home to Australia and reignited her professional career with the Townsville Fire, she has since won two WNBL Championships, led by Cayla George. She has been re-signed for the 2017–18 season with the Capitals. From January through March 2018 she played professionally overseas for the BVUK. Sharks Wuerzburg in Germany's 2. Division. Gaze, comes from an athletic background, her father Mark represented Australia in basketball at the 1982 FIBA World Championship and played 182 National Basketball League games from 1983–1991. Her mother Michelle O'Connor was a WNBL champion with the Sydney Flames, her grandfather Tony Gaze was a former Australian Opals coach, she is related to Australian basketball legends Andrew Gaze and his father Lindsay Gaze