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Thermodynamic temperature

Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic temperature is defined by the third law of thermodynamics in which the theoretically lowest temperature is the null or zero point. At this point, absolute zero, the particle constituents of matter have minimal motion and can become no colder. In the quantum-mechanical description, matter at absolute zero is in its ground state, its state of lowest energy. Thermodynamic temperature is also called absolute temperature, for two reasons: the first, proposed by Kelvin, that it does not depend on the properties of a particular material; the International System of Units specifies a particular scale for thermodynamic temperature. It uses the kelvin scale for measurement and selects the triple point of water at 273.16 K as the fundamental fixing point. Other scales have been in use historically; the Rankine scale, using the degree Fahrenheit as its unit interval, is still in use as part of the English Engineering Units in the United States in some engineering fields.

ITS-90 gives a practical means of estimating the thermodynamic temperature to a high degree of accuracy. The temperature of a body at rest is a measure of the mean of the energy of the translational and rotational motions of matter's particle constituents, such as molecules and subatomic particles; the full variety of these kinetic motions, along with potential energies of particles, occasionally certain other types of particle energy in equilibrium with these, make up the total internal energy of a substance. Internal energy is loosely called the heat energy or thermal energy in conditions when no work is done upon the substance by its surroundings, or by the substance upon the surroundings. Internal energy may be stored in a number of ways within a substance, each way constituting a "degree of freedom". At equilibrium, each degree of freedom will have on average the same energy: k B T / 2 where k B is the Boltzmann constant, unless that degree of freedom is in the quantum regime; the internal degrees of freedom may be in the quantum regime at room temperature, but the translational degrees of freedom will be in the classical regime except at low temperatures and it may be said that, for most situations, the thermodynamic temperature is specified by the average translational kinetic energy of the particles.

Temperature is a measure of the random submicroscopic motions and vibrations of the particle constituents of matter. These motions comprise the internal energy of a substance. More the thermodynamic temperature of any bulk quantity of matter is the measure of the average kinetic energy per classical degree of freedom of its constituent particles. "Translational motions" are always in the classical regime. Translational motions are ordinary, whole-body movements in three-dimensional space in which particles move about and exchange energy in collisions. Figure 1 below shows translational motion in gases. Thermodynamic temperature's null point, absolute zero, is the temperature at which the particle constituents of matter are as close as possible to complete rest. Zero kinetic energy remains in a substance at absolute zero. Throughout the scientific world where measurements are made in SI units, thermodynamic temperature is measured in kelvins. Many engineering fields in the U. S. however, measure thermodynamic temperature using the Rankine scale.

By international agreement, the unit kelvin and its scale are defined by two points: absolute zero, the triple point of Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water. Absolute zero, the lowest possible temperature, is defined as being 0 K and −273.15 °C. The triple point of water is defined as being 273.16 K and 0.01 °C. This definition does three things: It fixes the magnitude of the kelvin unit as being 1 part in 273.16 parts the difference between absolute zero and the triple point of water. Temperatures expressed in kelvins are converted to degrees Rankine by multiplying by 1.8. Temperatures expressed in degrees Rankine are converted to kelvins by dividing by 1.8. Although the kelvin and Celsius scales are defined using absolute zero and the triple point of water, it is impractical to use this definition at temperatures that are different from the triple point of water. ITS-90 is designed to represent the thermodynamic temperature as as possible throughout its range. Many different thermometer designs are required to cover the entire range.

These include helium vapor pressure thermometers, helium gas thermometers, standard platinum resistance thermometers and monochromatic radiation thermometers. For some types of thermometer the relationship between the property observed and temperature, is close to linear, so for most purposes a linear scale is sufficient, without poin

1964 Green Bay Packers season

The 1964 Green Bay Packers season was their 46th season overall and their 44th season in the National Football League. The club was led by sixth-year head coach Vince Lombardi, tied for second place in the Western Conference at 8–5–1; the Packers opened the season in Green Bay with a promising win over the rival Chicago Bears, the defending NFL champions. They lost four of six, including three home games, were 3–4 midway through the season, falling twice to the Baltimore Colts; the first three losses were by a total of five points, but the fourth on October 25, to the Los Angeles Rams in Milwaukee, was by ten and came after building a 17–0 lead. In the season's latter half, Green Bay won five of six and tied the Rams in the finale to end 3½ games behind the Colts in the West, tied for second with Minnesota. Baltimore clinched the Western title with three games remaining. Based on point differential in the season split with the Vikings, the Packers were awarded the runner-up slot in the Playoff Bowl, the consolation third place game in Miami played three weeks after the regular season, on January 3.

Green Bay had played in the previous season's Playoff Bowl and won decisively, which followed consecutive league titles in 1961 and 1962, three straight appearances in the championship game. In the 1964 season's third-place game, the St. Louis Cardinals prevailed over the unmotivated Packers, 24–17; the 1964 season was arguably the most disappointing for Lombardi as a head coach. Consecutive appearances in the consolation Playoff Bowl, the loss, keyed Lombardi and the Packers to win three consecutive NFL titles. Since the playoff era began 87 years ago in 1933, no other team was won three straight NFL titles. Hall of Fame right guard Jerry Kramer missed most of the season due to an intestinal condition. After multiple surgeries, it was rectified in May 1965 after sizable wood fragments from a teenage accident a dozen years earlier were removed; the NFL classifies the ten editions of the Playoff Bowl as exhibition games, not postseason contests. Yellow indicates a future Pro Bowl selection Monday night, Saturday Note: Tie games were not counted in the standings until 1972.

Source: Bart Starr, NFL Leader, Passing Yards, Sportsencyclopedia.com PackersHistory.net – 1964 season

Monica Brown (author)

Mónica Brown is a Peruvian-American academic and author of children's literature. Known for her Lola Levine and Sarai chapter book series, as well as numerous biographies covering such Latin American luminaries as Tito Puente, Celia Cruz, Dolores Huerta, Cesar Chavez, she writes relatable characters that highlight the nuance and diversity of the Latinx experience and girl empowerment. Brown writes characters that highlight the nuance and diversity of the Latinx experience such as the bicultural red-headed Peruvian-Scottish-American Marisol McDonald, her motivation is to show that bicultural children are not made up of cultural fractions but whole people with a rich and vibrant cultural heritage. Brown is an English professor at Northern Arizona University. Brown was born on October 24, 1969 in Mountain View, California, to Isabel Maria Vexler Valdivieso from Piura and Daniel Doronda Brown from San Francisco. Monica is Mestiza and Romanian Jewish on her Mother’s side and Hungarian Jewish and Italian on her father’s side.

Brown was converted to Judaism as an adult. Throughout her childhood, Brown took numerous vacations to visit her mother’s family in Peru, her diverse upbringing influences her work most notably in the character Lola Levine whose Jewish-Peruvian-American ancestry mirrors Brown's. Brown earned a B. A. in English from the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1991, an M. A. in English from Boston College in 1994, a Ph. D. in English from Ohio State University in 1998. She is a tenured professor at Northern Arizona University, where she teaches courses on Chicano, African American, Multi-ethnic literature. Giving birth to her daughters motivated Brown to begin writing children's books that reflected the significant contributions of the people of the Americas. Brown published her first children's book, My Name is Celia: the Life of Celia Cruz, published bilingually in English and Spanish in 2004, for which she won the Américas Award for Children's Literature. Brown finds inspiration in her Peruvian and Jewish heritage and a commitment to bring diverse stories to children In the book Waiting for the Biblioburro, Brown works to showcase the power of literacy and education by telling the story of a Colombian educator who reaches remote communities in Colombia with a donkey powered library.

Brown's book Frida Kahlo and her Animalitos was selected by the New York Times as the best illustrated book of 2017. In 2018, Brown launched a chapter-book series Sarai, co-authored with child actress and internet sensation Sarai Gonzalez; the series is inspired by events in Sarai's life. Brown's books are published as dual language editions, she has had one translated into Quechua an indigenous language of the Andes. Entire body of work Valle del Sol Award Victoria Foundation’s Professor Alberto Rios Outstanding Latino/a in the Literary Arts Award Judy Goddard Award Most Significant Creative or Artistic Achievement Award—Northern Arizona UniversityWaiting for the Biblioburro International Latino Book Awards: Best Children’s Fiction Picture Book – Bilingual Christopher Award for Literature for Young PeopleMarisol McDonald and the Clash Bash Tejas Star Book Award International Latino Book Awards: Best Children’s Fiction Book School Library Journal’s “Top 10 Latino-themed Books of 2013"Tito Puente, Mambo King/Tito Puente, rey del mambo American Library Association for Library Service to Children Notable Children’s Books Tejas Star Book Finalist School Library Journal’s “Top 10 Latino-themed Books of 2013 Best Multicultural Books of 2013, Center for the Study of Multicultural Children’s LiteratureMarisol McDonald Doesn’t Match/Marisol McDonald no combina Maryland Black-Eyed Susan Book Award Nominee — Picture Book Tejas Star Book Award Notable Book Award Pura Belpré Honor International Latino Book Award, Best Bilingual Book Kirkus –Starred Review Junior Library Guild Premier SelectionPablo Neruda: Poet of the People Américas Award for Children’s Literature Orbis Pictus Award Honor for Outstanding Nonfiction Honor for Outstanding Nonfiction Kirkus –Starred ReviewSide by Side: The Story of Dolores Huerta and Cesar Chavez/Lado a lado: La historia de Dolores Huerta y Cesar Chavez NAACP Image Award Nominee Smithsonian Institution’s Notable Book for ChildrenChavela and the Magic Bubble Charlotte Zolotow Award- Commended bookPelé King of Soccer Kirkus –Starred ReviewMy Name is Gabito: The Life of Gabriel Garcia Márquez School Library Journal- Starred Review Best Books of 2007— Críticas Junior Library Guild— Premier SelectionMy Name is Gabriela: The Life of Gabriela Mistral/Me llamo Gabriela: la vida de Gabriela Mistral Críticas—Starred ReviewMy Name is Celia: The Life of Celia Cruz/Me llamo Celia: la vida de Celia Cruz Américas Book Award Peruvian Americans List of Peruvian women writers Official website Monica Brown on Where Text Meets Art: Reflections on the Author Illustrator Relationship, March 3, 2013 Meet Monica Brown, Reading Rockets, August 30, 2016 Picture Perfect How Diverse is your Classroom Library?, Teaching Tolerance, Issue 46, Spring 2014