In Greek mythology, Thersites was a soldier of the Greek army during the Trojan War. The Iliad does not mention his father's name, which may suggest that he should be viewed as a commoner rather than an aristocratic hero. However, a quotation from another lost epic in the Trojan cycle, the Aethiopis, names his parents as Agrius of Calydon and Dia, a daughter of King Porthaon. In some accounts, together with his five brothers including Melanippus, overthrew Oeneus from the throne of Calydon and gave the kingdom to Agrius, their father and Oeneus' brother. On, they were deposed by Diomedes who reinstated his grandfather Oeneus as king and slew all of Thersites' brothers. Homer described him in detail in the Iliad, Book II though he plays only a minor role in the story, he is said to be bow-legged and lame, to have shoulders that cave inward, a head, covered in tufts of hair and comes to a point. Vulgar and somewhat dull-witted, Thersites disrupts the rallying of the Greek army: "He got up in the assembly and attacked Agamemnon in the words of Achilles...

Odysseus stood up, delivered a sharp rebuke to Thersites, which he coupled with a threat to strip him naked, beat him on the back and shoulders with Agamemnon's sceptre. There must be a figuration of wickedness as self-evident as Thersites —the ugliest man who came to Troy— who says what everyone else is thinking."He is not mentioned elsewhere in the Iliad, but it seems that in the lost Aethiopis Achilles killed him "for having torn out the eyes of the Amazon Penthesilea that the hero had just killed in combat."In his Introduction to The Anger of Achilles, Robert Graves speculates that Homer might have made Thersites a ridiculous figure as a way of dissociating himself from him, because his remarks seem justified. This was a way of letting these remarks, along with Odysseus' brutal act of suppression, remain in the record. Thersites is mentioned in Plato's Gorgias as an example of a soul that can be cured in the afterlife. According to E. R. Dodds, "There he is not so much the typical petty criminal as the typical buffoon.

He begins as Ajax's slave, telling Ajax, "I would thou didst itch from head to foot and I had the scratching of thee. Thersites soon leaves Ajax and puts himself into the service of Achilles, who appreciates his bitter, caustic humor. Shakespeare mentions Thersites again in his play Cymbeline, when Guiderius says, "Thersites' body is as good as Ajax' / When neither are alive." Laurence Sterne writes of Thersites in the last volume of his Tristram Shandy chapter 14, declaring him to be the exemplar of abusive satire, as black as the ink it is written with. In Part Two of Goethe's Faust, Act One, during the Masquerade, Thersites appears and criticizes the goings-on, he says, "I gird at once my harness on. / Up with what's low, what's high eschew, / Call crooked straight, straight askew," The Herald, who acts as Master of Revels or Lord of Misrule, strikes Thersites with his mace, at which point he metamorphoses into an egg, from which a bat and an adder are hatched. The role of Thersites as a social critic has been advanced by several philosophers and literary critics, including Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Nietzsche, Edward Said, Thomas Woods and Kenneth Burke.

In the passage below from Language As Symbolic Action, Burke cites Hegel's coinage of the term "Thersitism," and he proceeds to describe a version of it as a process by which an author both privileges protest in a literary work but disguises or disowns it, so as not to distract from the literary form of the work, which must push on toward other effects than the protest per se: An example of this stratagem is the role of Thersites in the Iliad. For any Greeks who were to resent the stupidity of the Trojan War, the text itself provided a spokesman who voiced their resistance, and he was none other than the abominable Thersites, for whom no "right-minded" member of the Greek audience was to feel sympathy. As early as Hegel, his standard role was beginning to be questioned. Consider, for instance, these remarks in the introduction to Hegel's Lectures on the Philosophy of History: Thersites appears in the writings of Karl Marx' and those of Marxist literature in Soviet times much in the spirit of Hegel's construal.

Heiner Müller casts Thersites in the role of Shepherd who shears his sheep reflecting the contradictions broached by Hegel. Notes References Media related to Thersites at Wikimedia Commons


ProMusa is a platform of scientists and other stakeholders to facilitate the exchange of information and knowledge on banana. It is managed by Bioversity International, through funding from the CGIAR Research Program on Roots and Bananas. Promusa was initiated in 1997 by the World Bank and INIBAP as a global program to co-ordinate and improve research on banana improvement, its aim was to increase interactions between pathologists and the world’s few banana breeders in order to maximize the outputs of breeding and accelerate the impact of banana improvement efforts. At the start, the program had five interlinked thematic working groups, coordinated by a secretariat, provided by INIBAP, it was directed by a steering committee and operated under a program support group composed of major donors and stakeholders. In 2006, the program was reorganized into three working groups. Since 2006, ProMusa provides the basic structure for the Section on Banana and Plantain of the International Society for Horticultural Science.

Membership to ProMusa is open to anyone interested in banana. ProMusa is overseen by a steering committee composed of the ProMusa coordinator, the chair and vice-chair of each of the three working groups and ISHS-SEBA, a representative of the global Musa genetic resources network MusaNet and a representative of each of four regional banana R&D networks. Bioversity International provides the Secretariat of ProMusa. In alliance with ISHS, ProMusa organizes scientific symposia, oversees the development of an online, collaboratively built and peer-reviewed compendium of knowledge on bananas, produces a newsletter that puts in context scientific breakthroughs on banana and highlights relevant news and events. ProMusa manages three databases: a repository of references on banana. Promusa website Bibliographic database Musalit Image bank Musarama

Alone in the Dark 3

Alone in the Dark 3 is the third installment of the Alone in the Dark survival horror video game series created by Infogrames. The video game was released for MS-DOS in 1994, it was ported to the PC-98 in 1995. Versions for Windows and Mac OS were released in 1996 under the name of Alone in the Dark: Ghosts in Town. It's 1925 and after Edward Carnby's success in his previous two investigations, a journalist has nicknamed him the'Supernatural Private Eye'; this time, he is called to investigate the disappearance of a film crew at a two-bit ghost town known by the name of Slaughter Gulch located in the Mojave Desert in California. Among the disappeared crew is Emily Hartwood, Jeremy Hartwood's niece from the original. Edward soon discovers that a curse has gripped the town, an evil cowboy from the Badlands named Jed Stone is the villain, responsible for the crew's disappearance. Lurking around town are many trigger-happy sharpshooters, deranged prospectors, bloodthirsty lost souls whom Edward must ward off with both his strength and his wit.

The main theme of this game is the Wild West, as Carnby is pitted against a town filled with "zombie cowboy outlaws" who attack him with revolvers and lever-action rifles. More traditionally mindless, shambling zombies begin to appear about midway through the game. Towards the end of the game, the concept of radioactive mutation plays a significant role in the story, the player ends up fighting monstrous creatures created from the radiation; this was the first game in the series not to be released on floppy disks. Rather, it was released as a CD-ROM game since the initial release, with full Red Book audio soundtrack and dialogue speech like the CD-ROM re-releases of the previous two games, it was the first game in the series to be released for several computer formats and therefore it didn't receive any official console release unlike the previous two games. Outside of Europe, the game was distributed in North America by Interplay Entertainment. In Japan, a PC-98 version of the game was developed and released in 1995 by AMT Savan Corps, a merge of the company known as Arrow Micro-Techs Corp which published the previous games for Japanese computers.

There was no FM-Towns version developed this time. In 1996, the Windows and Mac OS versions were released in Japan by Electronic Arts Victor as Alone in the Dark 3: Ghosts in Town; the official guide to the game was written by Steve Schwartz in cooperation with Infogrames. A 3DO Interactive Multiplayer version of Alone in the Dark 3 was never released. Undead Nightmare, another horror Western video game Alone in the Dark 3 on IMDb Alone in the Dark 3 at MobyGames