Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
How Do You Solve a Problem like Maria?
How Do You Solve a Problem Like Maria? is a British reality television talent show that documented the search for an undiscovered musical theatre performer to play the role of Maria von Trapp in the 2006 Andrew Lloyd Webber and David Ian stage production of The Sound of Music. The series was devised by the in-house development team at BBC Entertainment Events and was announced by the BBC in April 2006. BBC One broadcast the programme, hosted by Graham Norton, on Saturday evenings from 29 July through 16 September 2006; the title derives from a song from the first act of The Sound of Music. The lead role of Maria von Trapp in the new West End production of The Sound of Music, to be staged by Andrew Lloyd Webber and David Ian, was to be played by American actress Scarlett Johansson. Negotiations fell through, after a four-year search for an actress to fill the role, it was revealed in November 2005 that Lloyd Webber had approached the BBC to allow the public to cast the role through a Popstars-style talent search, the first time that such a format had been used.
This was the first programme to allow the public to cast a leading role in a West End show, it was criticised. However, it won International Emmy and Royal Television Society awards and became the first of a series of collaborations between the BBC and Lloyd Webber, including Any Dream Will Do, I'd Do Anything, Over the Rainbow; the series led to versions and similar series abroad. To assess and train the potential Marias and judge them during the live shows, an expert panel was chosen; the panel comprised: Andrew Lloyd Webber – musical theatre composer and producer, co-producer of the new stage production David Ian – theatre producer, co-producer of the new stage production John Barrowman – musical performer, dancer and actor Zoe Tyler – voice coach and performer, vocal coach to the finalistsLloyd Webber asked Denise van Outen to participate in the series, but she turned him down, saying that she "felt uncomfortable about being on the panel and giving my criticism". She became a judge on follow-up series, Any Dream Will Do.
Open auditions were held around the UK in April and May 2006, open to both professionals and amateurs over the age of 17. The top 200 made it through to the London callbacks where they performed for Ian and Tyler to secure one of 50 places at Lloyd Webber's "Maria School", where over four days they would receive vocal and drama training from the expert panel. Several additional performers were selected over this fifty contestant limit. A further four, whom the panel had rejected, were contacted by Lloyd Webber himself as he believed them to be potential Marias. During "Maria School", contestants were eliminated to leave twenty, who were taken to Lloyd Webber's house, where they performed for fifty people from the entertainment business. Ten finalists were chosen by the panel and taken through to the live studio finals; the series started on Saturday 29 July 2006, the first two programmes followed the audition stages of the competition before revealing the final ten at the end of the second programme.
The final ten contestants competed in the live studio finals held on Saturday nights over six weeks. Each week the contestants sang and performed during the live show, receiving comments from the judges following their performance; the public got a chance to vote for their favourite Maria, the two contestants with the fewest votes performed a sing-off in front of Lloyd Webber, who decided which Maria to keep in the contest. This was repeated with the top nine and the top eight. With the top seven and top five, two were voted off in the program, there were two different sing-offs. Lloyd Webber had no say in the final casting decision, when in the concluding edition of the series it was left to the public to choose who should play Maria out of the final two contenders, Connie Fisher and Helena Blackman. After more than 2 million votes were cast, the winning entrant was revealed as Fisher, who won a six-month contract to play Maria in the West End production, performing six out of the eight weekly shows.
The profits from the telephone votes went to a bursary for young performers. Lloyd Webber donated his fee to the bursary. Ten potential Marias were selected as finalists. Abi Finley and Aoife Mulholland auditioned together having known each other from college, both made it to the finals. One of the original 10 finalists, Emilie Alford, withdrew from the competition after deciding it was not for her, she was replaced by Siobhan Dillon, who lost a place in the final ten following a sing-off against Alford and Laura Sicurello in front of Lloyd Webber. This earned her the nickname "Second Chance Maria". *As of start of series Colour key The live shows saw the finalists eliminated one by one following both individual and group performances. Once eliminated, the leaving contestant ended the programme by leading a performance of "So Long, Farewell" from The Sound of Music with the remaining contestants. Following the first week of competition; the show performances were: Group performances: "How Do You Solve A Problem Like Maria?"
"I Have Confidence" Guest performance: "Iris" Panel's verdict on, Maria John Barrowman: Connie Zoe Tyler: Leanne David Ian: ConnieSing-off: Helena Blackman and Laura Sicurello were in the sing-off, with Helena receiving the least number of viewer votes, performed "No Matter What" from the musical Whistle Down the Wind. Andrew Lloyd Webber chose to save Helena
Békéscsaba is a city in Southeast Hungary, the capital of the county Békés. Békéscsaba is located in 215 km southeast from Budapest. Highway 44, 47, Békéscsaba beltway and Budapest-Szolnok-Békéscsaba-Lökösháza high speed railway line cross the city. Highway 44 is a four-lane expressway between Gyula. According to the 2011 census, the city has a total area of 193.93 km2. Csaba is popular Hungarian given name for boys, of Turkic origin, while prefix Békés refers to the county name Békés, which means peaceful in Hungarian. Other names derived from the Hungarian one; the area has been inhabited since the ancient times. In the Iron Age the area had been conquered by the Scythians, by the Celts by the Huns. After the Hungarian Conquest, there were many small villages in the area; the medieval Hungarian village of Csaba was established in the 13th century, first mentioned in the 1330s. Besides Csaba, eight other villages stood. According to the Hungarian Royal Treasury, Békéscsaba was an ethnic Hungarian settlement in 1495.
When the Turks conquered the southern and central parts of Hungary, these territories became part of the Ottoman Empire, the town survived, but it became extinct during the fights against the Turks in the 17th century. In 1715, Csaba is mentioned as a deserted place, but only one year its name can be found in a document mentioning the tax-paying towns, it is that the new Csaba was founded by János György Harruckern, who earned distinction in the liberation fights against the Ottoman Empire and bought the area of Békés county. In 1718, Harruckern invited Slovak settlers from Upper Hungary to the deserted area. By 1847, the town was among the twenty largest towns of Hungary, with a population of 22,000. Csaba was still like a large village, with muddy streets and crowded houses. By 1858, the railway line reached the town; this brought development. Still, by the end of the 19th century the unemployment caused great tension, in 1891 a revolt was oppressed by the help of Romanian soldiers. One of the most important person in the politics of the town was András L. Áchim, who founded a peasants' party and succeeded in having Békéscsaba elevated to the rank of "city with council".
World War I brought suffering to the town. Between 1919 and 1920, Békéscsaba was under Romanian occupation. After the Treaty of Trianon, Hungary lost its most important Southern cities and Nagyvárad, Békéscsaba had to take over their roles, becoming the most important town of the area. Hungarians overtook Slovaks in the 1920s, become the majority according to the census was held in 1930. Between the two world wars the recession caused poverty and unemployment, a flood in 1925 did not help either. Battles were not fought in the area during World War II. However, several events occurred in the town in 1944: between 24 and 26 June 1944, over 3,000 Jews were sent to Auschwitz. On 21 September 1944, the British and American Air Force bombed the railway station and its surroundings, killing more than 100 people. On 6 October 1944, the Soviet army occupied Békéscsaba. During the Socialist times, Békéscsaba became the county seat of Békés and began to develop into one of the most important centres of food industry of Hungary.
After the fall of the Communism in 1989, the industry nearly collapsed and many people lost their jobs. However, today the crisis seems to be over and Békéscsaba remained one of the most important centers of the Hungarian food industry. According to the 2011 census, the total population of Békéscsaba was 62,050, 99.8% speak Hungarian, 16.3% English, 34% German, 0.3 speak Slovak According to the 2017 census, there were 95.6% Hungarians, 0.3% Slovaks, 1% Roma, 0.5% Romanians, 2.6% Germans in Békéscsaba. According to the 1869 census, Békéscsaba had 30,022 inhabitants, of whom there were 21,988 Evangelical, 5,880 Roman Catholic, 1,043 Jewish, 520 Orthodox, 436 Hungarian Reformed; the 1949 census showed 45,892 people, 25,661 Evangelical, 14,216 Roman Catholic, 4,750 Hungarian Reformed, 498 Jewish. In 2011, there were 10,694 Roman Catholic, 8,012 Evangelical, 4,408 Hungarian Reformed in Békéscsaba. 19,650 people 1,027 Atheist. According to the 2017 census, there were 40.2% Hungarian Reformed, 34.7% Evangelical, 20% Roman Catholic, 4.4% Jewish and 0.7% Atheist or irreligious.
Great Lutheran Church Small Lutheran Church Saint Anthony of Padua Cathedral City hall Mihály Munkácsy Museum Mihály Munkácsy Memorial House Mór Jókai Theatre Slovak County House The current mayor of Békéscsaba is Péter Szarvas. The local Municipal Assembly has 17+1 members divided into this political parties and alliances: András L. Áchim, Hungarian politician Ján Valašťan Dolinský, Slovak composer Gyula Hegyi, politician Károly Klimó, artist Enikő Mihalik, supermodel Henrietta Ónodi, gymnast Béla Szabados, swimmer Ádám Szepesi, high jumper László Vidovszky and pianist Ágnes Késmárki and songwriter András Mengyán, Fine arti
Ellen Greene is an American singer and actress. Greene has had a long and varied career as a singer in cabaret, as an actress and singer in numerous stage productions musical theatre, as well as having performed in many films—notably Little Shop of Horrors, television series. From 2007 to 2009, she starred as Vivian Charles on the ABC series Pushing Daisies. Greene was born in New York, her mother was a guidance counselor, her father was a dentist. Greene is Jewish, she attended W. Tresper Clarke High School in New York, she spent summers at Cejwin Camps in Port Jervis, New York, where she performed in musical theatre productions, including the role of Tzeitel in a 1966 production of Fiddler on the Roof. She had a relationship with puppeteer Martin P. Robinson, her first marriage was to Tibor Hardik. She married Christian Klikovits on September 25, 2003. Greene's career began as a nightclub singer in clubs such as The Brothers and Sisters, Continental Baths, Grand Finale, Reno Sweeney's, she received rave reviews from critics such as Rex Reed, George Bell, John S. Wilson.
Around this time, she befriended the late Peter Allen. Her first starring role on Broadway was as the lead in the unsuccessful Broadway show Rachael Lily Rosenbloom, which had 7 previews in 1973 but closed before opening, she played the starring role of Chrissy in Joseph Papp's production of In the Boom Boom Room at the Off-Broadway Public Theatre in November to December 1974. Her reviews brought her to the attention of Paul Mazursky, at that time casting Next Stop, Greenwich Village, she was cast in the role of her first starring role in a film. Continuing her work with Papp's New York Shakespeare Festival, Greene next played the role of Jenny in The Three Penny Opera at the Vivian Beaumont Theater in Lincoln Center, for which she was nominated for a 1977 Tony Award, Featured Actress In A Musical. In addition to a number of other productions with the New York Shakespeare Festival and numerous other companies, Greene formed a close working relationship with the WPA Theatre, where she met Howard Ashman and Alan Menken.
Their close, long-lasting friendship led to, among other productions, the role for which she is most-widely known, that of the hapless Audrey in Little Shop of Horrors, a role she reprised in the film version opposite Rick Moranis. Greene has worked extensively in theater, such as the part of Suzanne/The Little Rose in The Little Prince and the Aviator, she has worked in films such as I'm Dancing as Fast as I Can, Léon, Talk Radio, Pump Up the Volume. She has appeared on television in, among other programs, Miami Vice, The Adventures of Pete and Pete, Law & Order, Suddenly Susan, The X-Files, Heroes. In 1983 she was the voice of Creeping Ivy in the animated TV special The Magic of Herself the Elf. Greene released an album in 2004 entitled In His Eyes, on which she was accompanied by her husband and musical director, Christian Klikovits. Other work includes the role of Vivian Charles on the television series Pushing Daisies and the voice of Dolly Gopher in the animated Out of Jimmy's Head. Greene was the voice of the Priscilla Presley type of character Goldie in the Don Bluth film Rock-a-Doodle.
In July and August 2009, Greene starred as Miss Adelaide in a concert version of the musical Guys and Dolls, which had a 3-day engagement at the Hollywood Bowl in Los Angeles, California. Her co-stars included Scott Bakula as Nathan Detroit, Brian Stokes Mitchell as Sky Masterson, Jessica Biel as Sarah Brown. In 2011, she appeared in five episodes on the soap opera The Young and the Restless as Primrose DeVille. Greene performed in the musical Betwixt! at the Trafalgar Studios in London's West End from July 26 to August 20, 2011. She appeared in two episodes of the new ABC Family show Bunheads, alongside Sutton Foster and Kelly Bishop, she portrayed Doctor Gale Macones in The Walking Dead Webisodes: The Oath. In 2015, she reprised her signature role as Audrey in Little Shop of Horrors in the staged concert at the New York City Center as part of their Encores! Off-Center Series. Greene performed in the 2016 Democratic National Convention's "Fight Song" video. Sources: Internet Off-Broadway Database.
Little Shop of Horrors Official website Ellen Greene on IMDb Ellen Greene at the Internet Broadway Database Ellen Greene at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
Diana Canova is an American actress and professor. Canova was born Diane Canova Rivero in West Palm Beach, Florida, to actress and singer Judy Canova and Cuban musician Filberto Rivero, she was raised in the Greater Los Angeles Area. Canova studied acting at Los Angeles City College. Canova made her television acting debut in a 1974 episode of Happy Days portraying a taller date of Richie, she guest-starred on episodes of Chico and the Man and Starsky and Hutch and appeared in television films. She landed the role of the promiscuous Corinne Tate on Soap in 1977 opposite Katherine Helmond as her mother, she remained with the series until 1980. Diana was known for her beautiful singing and exhibited this during Perry Como's Early American Christmas program in 1978; this show was filmed in Williamsburg and featured John Wayne. Numerous musical numbers are woven throughout their storytelling. In 1979, she made an appearance on Barney Miller as nude dancer/prostitute/graduate student Stephanie Wolf. In 1980, ABC executives offered Canova her own television series starring alongside Danny Thomas in I'm a Big Girl Now.
The show lasted just one season. She co-starred on the short-lived CBS sitcom Foot in the Door in 1983. A few years she was cast as Sandy Beatty on Throb, a sitcom, broadcast in syndication from 1986 to 1988. Between 1984 and 1996 she appeared in three episodes of the long-running TV show Murder, She Wrote, including being featured as Maggie McCauley in 1990's "Murder: According to Maggie." In 1993, Canova co-starred in the ABC sitcom Home Free. Since the mid 1990s, she has done voice work for cartoons in video shorts. In 1995, she played "Jenny" in a revival of Stephen Sondheim's musical Company. Canova works as an adjunct professor of voice at Manhattanville College in Purchase, New York, teaches private lessons, she has been working with the school systems of Easton and Redding, where she directs musicals and short plays as well as a high school improv troupe that performs at local charity events. Under her leadership, Joel Barlow High School's theater program has won several awards from the Connecticut Drama Association and has set the record for winning first place two years in a row in multiple categories.
Canova is married to record producer Elliot Scheiner. The couple have two children, she wa married to Geoff Levin from 1976 to until their divorce in 1979. Before marrying Scheiner and Steve Landesberg had a dating relationship. Canova spent a number of years as a member of the Church of Scientology, an organization she criticized, she found the Scientologists straightforward in their desire for money, declaring in 1993 in a Premiere magazine interview, "The first time I walked in those doors, they said,'Just give us all the money in your bank account'". She criticized the Church's counseling practice, called auditing, when she said, "They're telling you,'Don't spend $100 an hour on a shrink's couch, it'll ruin your mind.' Auditing is so much better?" Diana Canova on IMDb
Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. is an American film studio, production company and film distributor, a member of the Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group, a division of Sony Entertainment's Sony Pictures subsidiary of the Japanese multinational conglomerate Sony Corporation. What would become Columbia Pictures, CBC Film Sales Corporation, was founded on June 19, 1918 by Harry Cohn, his brother Jack Cohn, Joe Brandt, it went public two years later. In its early years, it was a minor player in Hollywood, but began to grow in the late 1920s, spurred by a successful association with director Frank Capra. With Capra and others, Columbia became one of the primary homes of the screwball comedy. In the 1930s, Columbia's major contract stars were Cary Grant. In the 1940s, Rita Hayworth became the studio's premier star and propelled their fortunes into the late 1950s. Rosalind Russell, Glenn Ford, William Holden became major stars at the studio, it is one of the leading film studios in the world and is a member of the "Big Five" major American film studios.
It was one of the so-called "Little Three" among the eight major film studios of Hollywood's Golden Age. Today, it has become the world's fifth largest major film studio; the studio was founded on June 19, 1918 as Cohn-Brandt-Cohn Film Sales by brothers Jack and Harry Cohn and Jack's best friend Joe Brandt, released its first feature film in August 1922. Brandt was president of CBC Film Sales, handling sales and distribution from New York along with Jack Cohn, while Harry Cohn ran production in Hollywood; the studio's early productions were low-budget short subjects: "Screen Snapshots", the "Hall Room Boys", the Chaplin imitator Billy West. The start-up CBC leased space in a Poverty Row studio on Hollywood's famously low-rent Gower Street. Among Hollywood's elite, the studio's small-time reputation led some to joke that "CBC" stood for "Corned Beef and Cabbage". Brandt tired of dealing with the Cohn brothers, in 1932 sold his one-third stake to Harry Cohn, who took over as president. In an effort to improve its image, the Cohn brothers renamed the company Columbia Pictures Corporation on January 10, 1924.
Cohn remained head of production as well. He would run one of the longest tenures of any studio chief. In an industry rife with nepotism, Columbia was notorious for having a number of Harry and Jack's relatives in high positions. Humorist Robert Benchley called it the Pine Tree Studio, "because it has so many Cohns". Columbia's product line consisted of moderately budgeted features and short subjects including comedies, sports films, various serials, cartoons. Columbia moved into the production of higher-budget fare joining the second tier of Hollywood studios along with United Artists and Universal. Like United Artists and Universal, Columbia was a horizontally integrated company, it controlled distribution. Helping Columbia's climb was the arrival of Frank Capra. Between 1927 and 1939, Capra pushed Cohn for better material and bigger budgets. A string of hits he directed in the early and mid 1930s solidified Columbia's status as a major studio. In particular, It Happened; until Columbia's existence had depended on theater owners willing to take its films, since as mentioned above it didn't have a theater network of its own.
Other Capra-directed hits followed, including the original version of Lost Horizon, with Ronald Colman, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, which made James Stewart a major star. In 1933, Columbia hired Robert Kalloch to be women's costume designer, he was the first contract costume designer hired by the studio, he established the studio's wardrobe department. Kalloch's employment, in turn, convinced leading actresses that Columbia Pictures intended to invest in their careers. In 1938, the addition of B. B. Kahane as Vice President would produce Charles Vidor's Those High Gray Walls, The Lady in Question, the first joint film of Rita Hayworth and Glenn Ford. Kahane would become the President of Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1959, until his death a year later. Columbia could not afford to keep a huge roster of contract stars, so Cohn borrowed them from other studios. At Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, the industry's most prestigious studio, Columbia was nicknamed "Siberia", as Louis B. Mayer would use the loan out to Columbia as a way to punish his less-obedient signings.
In the 1930s, Columbia signed Jean Arthur to a long-term contract, after The Whole Town's Talking, Arthur became a major comedy star. Ann Sothern's career was launched when Columbia signed her to a contract in 1936. Cary Grant signed a contract in 1937 and soon after it was altered to a non-exclusive contract shared with RKO. Many theaters relied on westerns to attract big weekend audiences, Columbia always recognized this market, its first cowboy star was Buck Jones, who signed with Columbia in 1930 for a fraction of his former big-studio salary. Over the next two decades Columbia released scores of outdoor adventures with Jones, Tim McCoy, Ken Maynard, Jack Luden, Bob Allen, Russell Hayden, Tex Ritter, Ken Curtis, Gene Autry. Columbia's most popular cowboy was Charles Starrett, who signed with Columbia in 193
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were