Roscoe Karns was an American actor who appeared in nearly 150 films between 1915 and 1964. He specialized in cynical, wise-cracking characters, his rapid-fire delivery enlivened many comedies and crime thrillers in the 1930s and 1940s. Though he appeared in numerous silent films, such as Wings and Beggars of Life, his career didn't take off until sound arrived. Arguably his best-known film role was the annoying bus passenger Oscar Shapeley, who tries to pick up Claudette Colbert in the Oscar-winning comedy It Happened One Night followed by one of his best performances as the boozy press agent Owen O'Malley in Howard Hawks' Twentieth Century. In 1937, Paramount teamed him with Lynne Overman as a pair of laconic private eyes in two B comedy-mysteries, Murder Goes to College and Partners in Crime. From 1950 to 1954, Karns played the title role in the popular DuMont Television Network series Rocky King, Inside Detective, his son, character actor Todd Karns appeared in that series. From 1959 to 1962, Karns was cast as Admiral Walter Shafer in seventy-three of the ninety-five episodes of the CBS military sitcom/drama series, starring Jackie Cooper in the title role of a United States Navy physician, Abby Dalton as nurse Martha Hale.
His final film was another Hawks comedy, Man's Favorite Sport?, in 1964. Works by or about Roscoe Karns at Internet Archive Roscoe Karns on IMDb Roscoe Karns at the Internet Broadway Database Roscoe Karns at Find a Grave
A loan shark is a person who offers loans at high interest rates, has strict terms of collection upon failure, operates outside off the street. The term refers to illegal activity, but may refer to predatory lending with high interest rates such as payday or title loans. An unintended consequence of poverty alleviation initiatives can be that loan sharks borrow from formal microfinance lenders and lend on to poor borrowers. Loan sharks sometimes enforce repayment by threats of violence. Many moneylenders skirted between legal and criminal activity. In the recent western world, loan sharks have been a feature of the criminal underworld. In the late 19th-century US, the low legal interest rates made small loans unprofitable, small-time lending was viewed as irresponsible by society. Banks and other major financial institutions thus stayed away from small-time lending. There were, plenty of small lenders offering loans at profitable but illegally high interest rates, they presented themselves as legitimate and operated out of offices.
They only sought customers who had a steady and respectable job, a regular income and a reputation to protect. This made them less to leave the area before they paid their debt and more to have a legitimate reason for borrowing money. Gamblers and other disreputable, unreliable types were avoided, they made the borrower fill out and sign legitimate contracts. Though these contracts were not enforceable, they at least were proof of the loan, which the lender could use to blackmail a defaulter. To force a defaulter into paying, the lender might threaten legal action; this was a bluff. The lender preyed on the borrower's ignorance of the law. Alternatively, the lender resorted to public shaming, exploiting the social stigma of being in debt to a loan shark, they were able to complain to the defaulter's employer, because many employers would fire employees who were mired in debt, because of the risk of them stealing from the employer to repay debts. They were able to send agents to stand outside the defaulter's home, loudly denouncing him vandalizing his home with graffiti or notices.
Whether out of gullibility or embarrassment, the borrower succumbed and paid. Many customers were employees such as railways or public works. Larger organizations were more to fire employees for being in debt, as their rules were more impersonal, which made blackmail easier, it was easier for lenders to learn which large organizations did this as opposed to collecting information on the multitude of smaller firms. Larger firms had more job security and the greater possibility of promotion, so employees sacrificed more to ensure they were not fired; the loan shark could bribe a large firm's paymaster to provide information on its many employees. Regular salaries and paydays made negotiating repayment plans simpler; the size of the loan and the repayment plan were tailored to suit the borrower's means. The smaller the loan, the higher the interest rate was, as the costs of tracking and pursuing a defaulter were the same whatever the size of the loan; the attitudes of lenders to defaulters varied: some were lenient and reasonable granting extensions and slow to harass, while others unscrupulously tried to milk all they could from the borrower.
Because salary lending was a disreputable trade, the owners of these firms hid from public view, hiring managers to run their offices indirectly. To further avoid attracting attention, when expanding his trade to other cities, an owner would found new firms with different names rather than expanding his existing firm into a noticeable leviathan; the penalties for being an illegal lender were mild. Illegal lending was a misdemeanor, the penalty was forfeiture of the interest and the principal as well, but these were only imposed if the borrower sued, which he could not afford to do. Opposition to salary lenders was spearheaded by social elites, such as businessmen and charity organizations. Businessmen were encouraged not to fire employees who were indebted to loan sharks, as they unwittingly supported the industry by providing lenders with a means of blackmailing their customers. Charities provided legal support to troubled borrowers; this fight culminated in the drafting of the Uniform Small Loan Law, which brought into existence a new class of licensed lender.
The law was enacted, first in several states in 1917, was adopted by all but a handful of states by the middle of the 20th century. The model statute mandated consumer protections and capped the interest rate on loans of $300 or less at 3.5% a month, a profitable level for small loans. Lenders had to give the customer copies of all signed documents. Additional charges such as late fees were banned; the lender could no longer receive power of confession of judgment over a customer. These licensing laws made it impossible for usurious lenders to pass themselves off as legal. Small loans started becoming more acceptable, banks and other larger institutions started offering them as well. In the 1920s and 1930s, American prosecutors began to notice the emergence of a new breed of illegal lender that used violence to enforce debts; the new small lender laws had made it impossible to intimidate customers with a veneer of legality, many customers were less vulnerable to shaming because they were either self-employed or disreputable.
Thus, violence was an important tool. These loan sharks operated more informally than salary le
Paul Hurst (actor)
Paul Causey Hurst was an American actor and director. Born in Traver and raised on a ranch, he appeared in hundreds of films during the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s. However, he got his start painting scenery as part of the backstage crew during the silent movie era. By 1911, he was active in films as an actor and director, he freelanced and worked for many of the movie studios, building a solid reputation for his work both on and off screen. Hurst is best remembered for two roles: as the Yankee deserter who trespasses at Tara and is shot by Scarlett in Gone with the Wind. However, he was most proud of his role as a crotchety, old rancher who refuses water to a Quaker family in the movie Angel and the Badman, until John Wayne's character convinces him to share the water, it was after this latter role that Republic Pictures signed him as the comic sidekick in Monte Hale's Western series. His last film was John Ford's The Sun Shines Bright. Hurst was diagnosed with terminal cancer in late 1952, committed suicide in February 1953.
He is buried in Reedley Cemetery in California. The Hazards of Helen A Woman in the Web Play Straight or Fight Battling Bunyan Rothel, David. 1984. Those Great Cowboy Sidekicks. Scarecrow Press, New Jersey. ISBN 0-8108-1707-1 Paul Hurst on IMDb Paul Hurst at Find a Grave, with wardrobe still from Gone With the Wind
Vera Lewis was an American film and stage actress, beginning in the silent film era. She appeared in 183 films between 1915 and 1947, she was married to actor Ralph Lewis. She was born in Manhattan, her film career started in 1915 with the film Hypocrites, which starred Myrtle Stedman and Courtenay Foote. From 1915 to 1929 she appeared in 63 silent films, including the film classic Intolerance where she played the "old maid" Miss Jenkins. Unlike many silent film stars, she made a smooth transition to "talking films", starting with her 1930 appearance in Wide Open, starring Patsy Ruth Miller and Edward Everett Horton. Though never what is referred to as a "premier star", she appeared in 58 films during the 1930s, another 60 during the 1940s, she retired after 1947, resided at the Motion Picture Country House in Woodland Hills, California at the time of her death on February 8, 1956. Vera and Ralph Lewis had Monica. During her marriage to Fred Johnson, Monica had four children, thus in addition to her four grandchildren and Ralph had 10 great-grandchildren.
Vera Lewis on IMDb
Film noir is a cinematic term used to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas those that emphasize cynical attitudes and sexual motivations. Hollywood's classical film noir period is regarded as extending from the early 1920s to the late 1950s. Film noir of this era is associated with a low-key, black-and-white visual style that has roots in German Expressionist cinematography. Many of the prototypical stories and much of the attitude of classic noir derive from the hardboiled school of crime fiction that emerged in the United States during the Great Depression; the term film noir, French for "black film" or "dark film", was first applied to Hollywood films by French critic Nino Frank in 1946, but was unrecognized by most American film industry professionals of that era. Cinema historians and critics defined the category retrospectively. Before the notion was adopted in the 1970s, many of the classic film noir were referred to as "melodramas". Whether film noir qualifies as a distinct genre is a matter of ongoing debate among scholars.
Film noir encompasses a range of plots: the central figure may be a private investigator, a plainclothes policeman, an aging boxer, a hapless grifter, a law-abiding citizen lured into a life of crime, or a victim of circumstance. Although film noir was associated with American productions, the term has been used to describe films from around the world. Many films released from the 1960s onward share attributes with film noirs of the classical period, treat its conventions self-referentially; some refer to such latter-day works as neo-noir. The clichés of film noir have inspired parody since the mid-1940s; the questions of what defines film noir, what sort of category it is, provoke continuing debate. "We'd be oversimplifying things in calling film noir oneiric, erotic and cruel..."—this set of attributes constitutes the first of many attempts to define film noir made by French critics Raymond Borde and Étienne Chaumeton in their 1955 book Panorama du film noir américain 1941–1953, the original and seminal extended treatment of the subject.
They emphasize that not every film noir embodies all five attributes in equal measure—one might be more dreamlike. The authors' caveats and repeated efforts at alternative definition have been echoed in subsequent scholarship: in the more than five decades since, there have been innumerable further attempts at definition, yet in the words of cinema historian Mark Bould, film noir remains an "elusive phenomenon... always just out of reach". Though film noir is identified with a visual style, unconventional within a Hollywood context, that emphasizes low-key lighting and unbalanced compositions, films identified as noir evidence a variety of visual approaches, including ones that fit comfortably within the Hollywood mainstream. Film noir embraces a variety of genres, from the gangster film to the police procedural to the gothic romance to the social problem picture—any example of which from the 1940s and 1950s, now seen as noir's classical era, was to be described as a melodrama at the time.
While many critics refer to film noir as a genre itself, others argue. Foster Hirsch defines a genre as determined by "conventions of narrative structure, characterization and visual design". Hirsch, as one who has taken the position that film noir is a genre, argues that these elements are present "in abundance". Hirsch notes that there are unifying features of tone, visual style and narrative sufficient to classify noir as a distinct genre. Others argue. Film noir is associated with an urban setting, but many classic noirs take place in small towns, rural areas, or on the open road. While the private eye and the femme fatale are character types conventionally identified with noir, the majority of film noirs feature neither. Nor does film noir rely on anything as evident as the monstrous or supernatural elements of the horror film, the speculative leaps of the science fiction film, or the song-and-dance routines of the musical. An analogous case is that of the screwball comedy accepted by film historians as constituting a "genre": the screwball is defined not by a fundamental attribute, but by a general disposition and a group of elements, some—but and never all—of which are found in each of the genre's films.
Because of the diversity of noir, certain scholars in the field, such as film historian Thomas Schatz, treat it as not a genre but a "style". Alain Silver, the most published American critic specializing in film noir studies, refers to film noir as a "cycle" and a "phenomenon" as he argues that it has—like certain genres—a consistent set of visual and thematic codes. Other critics treat film noir as a "mood", characterize it as a "series", or address a chosen set of films they regard as belonging to the noir "canon". There is no consensus on the matter; the aesthetics of film noir are influenced by German Expressionism, an artistic movement of the 1910s and 1920s that involved theater, painting and architecture, as well as cinema. The opportunities offered by the booming Hollywood film industry and the threat of Nazism, led to the emigration of many film artists working in Germany, involved in the Expressionist movement or studied wit
Howard Charles Hickman was an American actor and writer. He was an accomplished stage leading man, who entered films through the auspices of producer Thomas H. Ince. Hickman directed 19 films and co-starred with his wife, actress Bessie Barriscale, in several productions before returning to the theatre. With the rise of the sound film, Hickman returned to the film business but received small roles as an authoritarian figure. Hickman made a brief appearance as plantation owner John Wilkes, father of Ashley Wilkes, in Gone with the Wind, he ended his film career after more than 270 films. Hickman died of myocardial infarction in San Anselmo, is buried at the Mount Tamalpais Cemetery, San Rafael, California Kitty Kelly, M. D. Nobody's Kid Howard Hickman on IMDb Howard Hickman at the Internet Broadway Database Howard Hickman at Find a Grave
Gale Page was an American singer and actress. Page was the daughter of R. L. and Isabel Rutter of Spokane. Her aunt and uncle were Elizabeth Gale Page and Miles Poindexter, a U. S. senator from Washington and U. S. Ambassador to Peru, she was the great-granddaughter of Joseph Gale, the first governor of Oregon. Page was a radio actress and singer before being signed to a Hollywood film contract by Warner Brothers in 1938, she sang on a Spokane station before getting a job on KYW radio in Chicago, subsequently moving to NBC, where her network activities included singing on Fibber McGee and Molly. Page was cast as blues singer Gertrude Lamont in the 1935 soap opera Masquerade. Beginning on May 27, 1936, she played Gloria Marsh on the soap opera Today's Children. In the summer of 1939, she co-starred with Jim Ameche on Hollywood Playhouse, she made her film debut in Crime School with Humphrey Bogart and appeared in The Amazing Dr. Clitterhouse before winning the role of the fourth daughter in Four Daughters.
She co-starred in this with the Lane Sisters and was the only film "daughter" not played by one of the Lanes. She appeared in three other films with the Lane sisters: Daughters Courageous and the two "Four Daughters" sequels: Four Wives and Four Mothers. Page appeared in only 16 films during her career, including Heart of the North, You Can't Get Away with Murder, Naughty but Nice, They Drive by Night, Knute Rockne, All American, The Time of Your Life, Anna Lucasta. Page was a semi-regular performer on the television series Robert Montgomery Presents from 1954 until 1957. Page was first married to Frederick M. Tritschler, they divorced in October 20, 1939. On August 17, 1942, Page married a pianist and composer. In 1943, they had Marina Francesca and Lucchino Giovanni. By this marriage the actress acquired the title Countess Solìto de Solis. Page died in Santa Monica, aged 72, from lung cancer. Gale Page on IMDb Gale Page at Find a Grave