Photography is the art and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. It is employed in many fields of science and business, as well as its more direct uses for art and video production, recreational purposes and mass communication. A lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing; the result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.
The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός, genitive of φῶς, "light" and γραφή "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light". Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834; this claim is reported but has never been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. The German newspaper Vossische Zeitung of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled Photographie, discussing several priority claims – Henry Fox Talbot's – regarding Daguerre's claim of invention; the article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print. It was signed "J. M.", believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler. The inventors Nicéphore Niépce, Henry Fox Talbot and Louis Daguerre seem not to have known or used the word "photography", but referred to their processes as "Heliography", "Photogenic Drawing"/"Talbotype"/"Calotype" and "Daguerreotype".
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, relating to seeing an image and capturing the image. The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments; the Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham invented a camera obscura and pinhole camera. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art, it is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.
The birth of photography was concerned with inventing means to capture and keep the image produced by the camera obscura. Albertus Magnus discovered silver nitrate, Georg Fabricius discovered silver chloride, the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials. Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694; the fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography. Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance, he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that "the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver."
The shadow images darkened all over. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature; because Niépce's camera photographs required an long exposure, he sought to improve his bitumen process or replace it with one, more practical. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out post-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more light-sensitive resin, but hours of exposure in the camera were still required. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent.
Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds and solvents, used to give the human body, food and living-spaces an agreeable scent. It is in liquid form and used to give a pleasant scent to a person's body. Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells unattainable from natural aromatics alone; the word perfume derives from the Latin perfumare, meaning "to smoke through". Perfumery, as the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, or maybe Ancient China, was further refined by the Romans and the Arabs; the world's first-recorded chemist is considered a woman named Tapputi, a perfume maker mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamia. She distilled flowers and calamus with other aromatics filtered and put them back in the still several times.
In India and perfumery existed in the Indus civilization. One of the earliest distillations of Ittar was mentioned in the Hindu Ayurvedic text Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. In 2003, archaeologists uncovered what are believed to be the world's oldest surviving perfumes in Pyrgos, Cyprus; the perfumes date back more than 4,000 years. They were discovered in an ancient perfumery, a 300-square-meter factory housing at least 60 stills, mixing bowls and perfume bottles. In ancient times people used herbs and spices, such as almond, myrtle, conifer resin, bergamot, as well as flowers. In May 2018, an ancient perfume “Rodo” was recreated for the Greek National Archaeological Museum's anniversary show “Countless Aspects of Beauty”, allowing visitors to approach antiquity through their olfaction receptors. In the 9th century the Arab chemist Al-Kindi wrote the Book of the Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations, which contained more than a hundred recipes for fragrant oils, aromatic waters, substitutes or imitations of costly drugs.
The book described 107 methods and recipes for perfume-making and perfume-making equipment, such as the alembic. The Persian chemist Ibn Sina introduced the process of extracting oils from flowers by means of distillation, the procedure most used today, he first experimented with the rose. Until his discovery, liquid perfumes consisted of mixtures of oil and crushed herbs or petals, which made a strong blend. Rose water was more delicate, became popular. Both the raw ingredients and the distillation technology influenced western perfumery and scientific developments chemistry; the art of perfumery was known in western Europe from 1221, taking into account the monks' recipes of Santa Maria delle Vigne or Santa Maria Novella of Florence, Italy. In the east, the Hungarians produced in 1370 a perfume made of scented oils blended in an alcohol solution – best known as Hungary Water – at the behest of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary; the art of perfumery prospered in Renaissance Italy, in the 16th century the personal perfumer to Catherine de' Medici, Rene the Florentine, took Italian refinements to France.
His laboratory was connected with her apartments by a secret passageway, so that no formulae could be stolen en route. Thanks to Rene, France became one of the European centers of perfume and cosmetics manufacture. Cultivation of flowers for their perfume essence, which had begun in the 14th century, grew into a major industry in the south of France. Between the 16th and 17th centuries, perfumes were used by the wealthy to mask body odors resulting from infrequent bathing. Due to this patronage, the perfume industry developed. In 1693, Italian barber Giovanni Paolo Feminis created a perfume water called Aqua Admirabilis, today best known as eau de cologne. By the 18th century the Grasse region of France and Calabria were growing aromatic plants to provide the growing perfume industry with raw materials. Today and France remain the center of European perfume design and trade. Perfume types reflect the concentration of aromatic compounds in a solvent, which in fine fragrance is ethanol or a mix of water and ethanol.
Various sources differ in the definitions of perfume types. The intensity and longevity of a perfume is based on the concentration and longevity of the aromatic compounds, or perfume oils, used; as the percentage of aromatic compounds increases, so does the intensity and longevity of the scent. Specific terms are used to describe a fragrance's approximate concentration by the percent of perfume oil in the volume of the final product; the most widespread terms are: parfum or extrait, in English known as perfume extract, pure perfume, or perfume: 15–40% aromatic compounds.
In clothing, a suit is a set of garments made from the same cloth consisting of at least a jacket and trousers. Lounge suits, which originated in Britain as country wear, are the most common style of Western suit. Other types of suit still worn today are the dinner suit, part of black tie, which arose as a lounging alternative to dress coats in much the same way as the day lounge suit came to replace frock coats and morning coats; this article discusses elements of informal dress code. The variations in design and cloth, such as two- and three-piece, or single- and double-breasted, determine the social and work suitability of the garment. Suits are worn, as is traditional, with a collared shirt and necktie; until around the 1960s, as with all men's clothes, a hat would have been worn when the wearer was outdoors. Suits come with different numbers of pieces: a two-piece suit has a jacket and the trousers; as with most clothes, a tailor made the suit from his client's selected cloth. The suit was custom made to the measurements and style of the man.
Since the Industrial Revolution, most suits are mass-produced, and, as such, are sold as ready-to-wear garments. Suits are sold in four ways: bespoke, in which the garment is custom-made by a tailor from a pattern created from the customer's measurements, giving the best fit and free choice of fabric; the word suit derives from the French suite, meaning "following", from some Late Latin derivative form of the Latin verb sequor = "I follow", because the component garments follow each other and have the same cloth and colour and are worn together. As a suit covers all or most of the wearer's body, the term "suit" was extended to a single garment that covers all or most of the body, such as boilersuits and diving suits and spacesuits; the current styles were founded in the industrial revolution during the late 18th century that changed the elaborately embroidered and jewelled formal clothing into the simpler clothing of the British Regency period, which evolved to the stark formality of the Victorian era.
It was in the search for more comfort that the loosening of rules gave rise in the late 19th century to the modern lounge suit. Brooks Brothers is credited with first offering the "ready-to-wear" suit, a suit, sold manufactured and sized, ready to be tailored, it was Haggar Clothing that first introduced the concept of suit separates in the US, the concept of separately sold jackets and trousers, which are found in the marketplace today. There are many possible variations in the choice of the style, the garments and the details of a suit; the silhouette of a suit is its outline. Tailored balance created from a canvas fitting allows a balanced silhouette so a jacket need not be buttoned and a garment is not too tight or too loose. A proper garment is shaped from the neck to the chest and shoulders to drape without wrinkles from tension. Shape is the essential part of tailoring that takes hand work from the start; the two main cuts are 1) double-breasted suits, a conservative design with two columns of buttons, spanned by a large overlap of the left and right sides.
Good tailoring anywhere in the world is characterised by tapered sides and minimal shoulder, whereas rack suits are padded to reduce labour. More casual suits are characterised by less construction and tailoring, much like the sack suit is a loose American style. There are 3 ways to make suits: Ready made and altered "sizes" or precut shapes; the acid test of authentic tailoring standards is the wrinkle. Rumples can be pressed out. For interim fittings, "Rock Of Eye", drawing and cutting inaccuracies are overcome by the fitting. Suits are made in a variety of fabrics, but most from wool; the two main yarns produce woollens. These can be woven in a number of ways producing flannel, tweed and fresco among others; these fabrics all have different weights and feel, some fabrics have an S number describing the fineness of the fibres measured by average fibre diameter, e.g. Super 120.
Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres; the wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies.
In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe"; the city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015; the city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.
The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano; the etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French; the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar.
Alciato credits Ambrose for his account. The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan.
Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers; the monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
Haute couture is the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing. Haute couture is high-end fashion, constructed by hand from start to finish, made from high-quality, expensive unusual fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable sewers - using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. Couture translates from French as "dressmaking" but may refer to fashion, sewing, or needlework and is used as a common abbreviation of haute couture and refers to the same thing in spirit. Haute translates to "high". A haute couture garment is always made for an individual client, tailored for the wearer's measurements and body stance. Considering the amount of time and skill allotted to each completed piece, haute couture garments are described as having no price tag: budget is not relevant; the term referred to Englishman Charles Frederick Worth's work, produced in Paris in the mid-nineteenth century. The Dapifer notes that Worth would allow his clients to select colors and other details before beginning his design process, unheard of at the time.
In modern France, haute couture is a protected name that may not be used except by firms that meet certain well-defined standards. However, the term is used loosely to describe all high-fashion custom-fitted clothing whether it is produced in Paris or in other fashion capitals such as London, New York City or Tokyo. In either case, the term can refer to the fashion houses or fashion designers that create exclusive and trend-setting fashions or to the fashions created. In France, the term haute couture is protected by law and is defined by the Chambre de commerce et d'industrie de Paris based in Paris; the chambre syndicale de la haute couture is defined as "the regulating commission that determines which fashion houses are eligible to be true haute couture houses". Their rules state that only "those companies mentioned on the list drawn up each year by a commission domiciled at the Ministry for Industry are entitled to avail themselves" of the label haute couture; the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne is an association of Parisian couturiers founded in 1868 as an outgrowth of medieval guilds that regulate its members in regard to counterfeiting of styles, dates of openings for collections, number of models presented, relations with press, questions of law and taxes, promotional activities.
Formation of the organization was brought about by Charles Frederick Worth. An affiliated school was organized in 1930 called L'Ecole de la Chambre Syndicale de la Couture; the school helps bring new designers to help the "couture" houses. Since 1975, this organization has worked within the Federation Francaise, de couture, du Prêt-à-Porter des Couturiers et des Createurs de Mode. More rigorous criteria for haute couture were established in 1945. To earn the right to call itself a couture house and to use the term haute couture in its advertising and any other way, members of the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture must follow specific rules: design made-to-order for private clients, with one or more fittings; the term "haute couture" has taken on further popular meanings referring to non-dressmaking activities, such as production of fine art, etc. Haute couture can be referenced back as early as the 17th Century. Rose Bertin, the French fashion designer to Queen Marie Antoinette, can be credited for bringing fashion and haute couture to French culture.
Visitors to Paris brought back clothing, copied by local dressmakers. Stylish women ordered dresses in the latest Parisian fashion to serve as models; as railroads and steamships made European travel easier, it was common for wealthy women to travel to Paris to shop for clothing and accessories. French fitters and dressmakers were thought to be the best in Europe, real Parisian garments were considered better than local imitations. A couturier is an establishment or person involved in the clothing fashion industry who makes original garments to order for private clients. A couturier may make; such a person hires patternmakers and machinists for garment production, is either employed by exclusive boutiques or is self-employed. The couturier Charles Frederick Worth, is considered the father of haute couture as it is known today. Although born in Bourne, England, Worth made his mark in the French fashion industry. Revolutionizing how dressmaking had been perceived, Worth made it so the dressmaker became the artist of garnishment: a fashion designer.
While he created one-of-a-kind designs to please some of his titled or wealthy customers, he is best known for preparing a portfolio of designs that were shown on live models at the House of Worth. Clients selected one model, specified colors and fabrics, had a duplicate garment tailor-made in Worth's workshop. Worth combined individual tailoring with a standardization more characteristic of the ready-to-wear clothing industry, developing during this period. Following in Worth's footsteps were Callot Soeurs, Poiret, Fortuny, Chanel, Schiaparelli and Dior; some of these fashion houses still exist tod
I Am... World Tour
I Am... was the fourth concert tour by American recording artist Beyoncé launched in support of her third studio album, I Am... Sasha Fierce; the tour was announced in October 2008 embarked in March 2009 with five rehearsal shows in North America. The tour consisted of 108 shows in total, visiting the Americas, Asia and Australia. Preparations for the shows began eight months prior to the beginning of the tour with twelve-hour rehearsals for two months. Knowles described the shows as her most theatrical from all of her tours; the set list for the concerts included songs from Knowles' three studio albums as well as several covers of other artists and a Destiny's Child medley. The central theme of the tour was to showcase the difference between Knowles' dual personality. Sasha Fierce; the show featured two stages – the main one and a smaller B-stage where Knowles was transferred during the middle of the show. She was backed by female background dancers and a big LED screen. Thierry Mugler collaborated with Knowles on the costumes and had a creative advisor role further working on the choreography and production.
Chris March helped in their making. For the ballads, Knowles wore longer dresses while for the performances of the up-tempo songs, more make-up and more revealing outfits were worn; the fashion and Knowles' look and figure received praise from critics. I Am... received critical acclaim from music critics who praised Knowles' performance abilities calling her the best female performer. A concert in Malaysia was cancelled by Knowles after several Muslim groups tried to ban it although she agreed to tone down her look according to the country's standards; the tour was commercially successful grossing $86.0 million from 93 shows in total. Separate performances of several songs were broadcast on different channels and two concerts were released as live albums. Yours revue was released in a CD/DVD format in 2009 and footage of the tour was released on the titled live album in 2010. In 2006, during an interview with MTV News, Beyoncé introduced an aggressive alter ego, Sasha Fierce, which served as her stage persona.
She added that the persona is a complete opposite of her when not performing by characterizing her as "aggressive... strong... fearless." Beyoncé's third album I Am... Sasha Fierce introduced Sasha Fierce as her alter ego, she revealed that Sasha was born during the making of her single "Crazy in Love". The plans for a 2009 tour in support of the album were announced in October 2008 by Billboard magazine; the tour dates for the European leg were announced in December 2008. During an interview with Entertainment Weekly, Beyoncé confirmed that she would be backed by the all-female band which had accompanied her for her previous The Beyoncé Experience tour. Rehearsals for the tour lasted eight months during which the set list for the shows was constructed. Beyoncé further revealed that the twelve-hour rehearsals for the tour included dancing the choreography in heels for two months before it commenced. During an interview, Beyoncé emphasized how she needed to prepare to channel her alter ego for the performances.
According to Beyoncé, the shows were supposed to be a mixture of several of her musical preferences, including jazz, hip-hop and fashion. The tour kicked off in late-March 2009 with five rehearsal shows in North America, it commenced in late April 2009, at Arena Zagreb in Croatia visiting six continents, namely the Americas, Asia and Australia. The six-week North American leg of the I Am... tour kicked off on June 21 with a show at Madison Square Garden in New York and finished with a four-night residency at Encore in the Wynn Las Vegas from July 30, 2009 to August 2, 2009. The tour finished with a concert at Queen's Park Savannah in Port of Spain and Tobago, with 108 shows in total. Beyoncé and her organization, The Survivor Foundation, became the spokesperson for General Mills' Hamburger Helper campaign entitled, "Show Your Helping Hand"; the campaign's mission was to provide more than 3.5 million meals to local food banks in North America. Knowles encouraged spectators to bring non-perishable foods to her North American concerts to be donated to the campaign.
According to the campaign's official website, nearly three millions meals and over $50,000 have been donated. Beyoncé revealed that the hardest aspect of coming up with the tour's set list was managing to fit her decade-long song catalogue in a two-hour show. According to her, the tour was supposed to be more emotional than The Beyoncé Experience in order to reflect the "real raw and more sensitive" nature of the I Am... portion of the double album. Beyoncé expressed frustration that snippets of the show appeared online after the first shows on the opening leg, thus "ruining" the surprise factor of the concert experience. French designer Thierry Mugler served as the creative advisor while being responsible for Beyoncé's wardrobe, he contributed in the design of lighting, choreography and directed three sequences for the concert. According to his creative vision, the shows were intended to represent mise-en-scène by incorporating technical aspects with fashion in order to capture the emotions behind the songs.
He added, "There will be a lot of dramatization and metamorphosis on stage. Some strong effects have been inspired directly by Beyoncé, only she cou