The Third Crusade was an attempt by the leaders of the three most powerful states of Western Christianity to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan Saladin in 1187. It was successful, recapturing the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, reversing most of Saladin's conquests, but it failed to recapture Jerusalem, the major aim of the Crusade and its religious focus. After the failure of the Second Crusade of 1147–1149, the Zengid dynasty controlled a unified Syria and engaged in a conflict with the Fatimid rulers of Egypt. Saladin brought both the Egyptian and Syrian forces under his own control, employed them to reduce the Crusader states and to recapture Jerusalem in 1187. Spurred by religious zeal, King Henry II of England and King Philip II of France ended their conflict with each other to lead a new crusade; the death of Henry, meant the English contingent came under the command of his successor, King Richard I of England. The elderly German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa responded to the call to arms, leading a massive army across the Balkans and Anatolia.
He achieved some victories against the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm, but he drowned in a river on 10 June 1190 before reaching the Holy Land. His death caused tremendous grief among the German Crusaders, most of his troops returned home. After the Crusaders had driven the Muslims from Acre, Philip—in company with Frederick's successor in command of the German crusaders, Leopold V, Duke of Austria—left the Holy Land in August 1191. On 2 September 1192 Richard and Saladin finalized the Treaty of Jaffa, which granted Muslim control over Jerusalem but allowed unarmed Christian pilgrims and merchants to visit the city. Richard departed the Holy Land on 9 October 1192; the successes of the Third Crusade allowed Westerners to maintain considerable states in Cyprus and on the Syrian coast. The failure to re-capture Jerusalem inspired the subsequent Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204, but Europeans would only regain the city—and only briefly—in the Sixth Crusade in 1229. Baldwin IV of Jerusalem died in 1185, the kingdom was left to his nephew Baldwin V, whom he had crowned as co-king in 1183.
Raymond III of Tripoli again served as regent. The following year, Baldwin V died before his ninth birthday, his mother Princess Sybilla, sister of Baldwin IV, crowned herself queen and her husband, Guy of Lusignan, king. Raynald of Châtillon, who had supported Sybilla's claim to the throne, raided a rich caravan travelling from Egypt to Syria, had its travelers thrown in prison thereby breaking a truce between the Kingdom of Jerusalem and Saladin. Saladin demanded that their cargo be released; the newly crowned King Guy appealed to Raynald to give in to Saladin's demands, but Raynald refused to follow the king's orders. This final act of outrage by Raynald gave Saladin the opportunity he needed to take the offensive against the kingdom, in 1187 he laid siege to the city of Tiberias. Raymond advised patience, but King Guy, acting on advice from Raynald, marched his army to the Horns of Hattin outside of Tiberias; the Frankish army and demoralized, was destroyed in the ensuing battle, the city would not be held again by Christians until 1229.
King Guy and Raynald were brought to Saladin's tent, where Guy was offered a goblet of water because of his great thirst. Guy took a drink and passed the goblet to Raynald. Raynald's having received the goblet from King Guy rather than Saladin meant that Saladin would not be forced to offer protection to the treacherous Raynald; when Raynald accepted the drink from King Guy's hands, Saladin told his interpreter, "say to the King:'it is you who have given him to drink'". Afterwards, Saladin beheaded Raynald for past betrayals. Saladin honored tradition with King Guy, sent to Damascus and ransomed to his people, one of the few captive Crusaders to avoid execution. By the end of the year, Saladin had taken Jerusalem. Pope Urban III is said to have died upon hearing the news of the battle of Hattin; the new pope, Gregory VIII, in the bull Audita tremendi, proclaimed that the capture of Jerusalem was punishment for the sins of Christians across Europe and called for a new crusade to the Holy Land. The crusade of Frederick Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, was "the most meticulously planned and organized" yet.
Frederick was sixty-six years old. Two accounts dedicated to his expedition survive: the History of the Expedition of the Emperor Frederick and the History of the Pilgrims. On 27 October 1187, just over three weeks after Saladin's capture of Jerusalem, Pope Gregory VIII sent letters to the German episcopate announcing his election and ordering them to win the German nobility over to a new crusade. Around 23 November, Frederick received letters, sent to him from the rulers of the Crusader states in the East urging him to come to their aid. By 11 November, Cardinal Henry of Marcy had been appointed to preach the crusade in Germany, he preached before Frederick and a public assembly in Strasbourg around 1 December, as did Bishop Henry of Strasbourg. About 500 knights took the cross at Strasbourg, but Frederick demurred on the grounds of his ongoing conflict with Archbishop Philip of Cologne, he did, send envoys to Philip of France to urge him to take the cross. On 25 December and Philip met in person on the border between Ivois and Mouzon in the presence of Henry of Marcy and Archbishop William of Tyre, but he could not convince Philip to go on crusade because he was at war with
Dorothy Burr Thompson was a classical archaeologist and art historian at Bryn Mawr College and a leading authority on Hellenistic terracotta figurines. Thompson was the elder of two daughters of a prominent Philadelphia family, her father was attorney Charles Henry Burr Jr. and her mother was novelist and biographer Anna Robeson Brown. Her grandfather was noted lawyer Henry Armitt Brown. Early in life Thompson studied the Classics, attending Miss Hill's School in Center City, Pa. and The Latin School in Philadelphia. She began her study of Latin at age 9 and ancient Greek at 12. At age 13, she took a Grand Tour of Europe, visiting monuments of Europe. In 1919 she began her studies at Bryn Mawr College where she took courses with Rhys Carpenter and Mary Hamilton Swindler, she graduated summa cum laude in 1923, the first graduate with a major in Greek and archaeology, was awarded the college's European Fellowship. She used the fellowship to study at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, works on excavations with Carl Blegen at Phlius.
In 1925 Thompson discovered a tholos tomb that proved to be the burial place of the king and queen of Midea. She completed her Ph. D. at Bryn Mawr College in 1931. In 1932 Thompson was appointed the first female Fellow of the Athenian Agora excavations; the dig's assistant director of field work was the Canadian archaeologist Homer Thompson. Homer Thompson accepted positions as curator of the classical collection at the Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology and assistant professor in fine arts at the University of Toronto. Burr Thompson had three daughters between 1935 and 1938, but found time to remain involved during the same period in the Athenian Agora excavations, where she discovered the garden of the Temple of Hephaistos in 1936. In 1946 her husband accepted a chair at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, Burr Thompson served as acting director of the Royal Ontario Museum until she moved to Princeton, New Jersey the following year. At Princeton she continued to carry out her research.
She published the book An Ancient Shopping Center: The Athenian Agora in 1971. In 1987 she was awarded the Gold Medal for distinguished achievement by the Archaeological Institute of America, she is buried in West Laurel Hill Cemetery. Dissertation: Terra-cottas from Myrina in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Bryn Mawr College, 1931. Small Objects from the Pnyx. 2 vols. Baltimore: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1943-56. An Ancient Shopping Center: the Athenian Agora. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1971. and Frantz, Allison. Miniature Sculpture from the Athenian Agora. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1959. Ptolemaic Oinochoai and Portraits in Faience: Aspects of the Ruler-Cult. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973. and Homer Thompson and Susan Rotroff. Hellenistic Pottery and Terracottas. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1987. "Three Centuries of Hellenistic Terracottas." Hesperia 31: 244-262. Troy: the Terra-Cotta Figurines of the Hellenistic Period.
Mary Hamilton Swindler Havelock, Christine Mitchell. "Dorothy Burr Thompson: Classical Archaeologist." in Women as Interpreters of the Visual Arts, 1820-1979. Claire R. Sherman, ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981, pp. 357–375. "Keen Eye: Archaeologist Dorothy Burr Thompson", Bryn Mawr Alumni Bulletin Online. Finding Aid to the Dorothy Burr Thompson Papers at Bryn Mawr College
Elektra/Musician was a jazz record label founded as a subsidiary of Elektra Records in 1982. The label was headed by Bruce Lundvall and released its first batch of albums on February 12, 1982; the label ceased when Lundvall left Elektra to start EMI's Manhattan Records in 1984. Elektra unsuccessfully attempted to revive the Elektra/Musician label in the late'80s. Elektra/Musician released albums by Joe Albany, Bill Evans, Dexter Gordon, Charles Lloyd, Bobby McFerrin, Woody Shaw, Steps Ahead, McCoy Tyner. Discogs