Battle of Tauberbischofsheim
The Battle of Tauberbischofsheim was an engagement of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, on 24 July at Tauberbischofsheim in the Grand Duchy of Baden between troops of the German Confederation and the Kingdom of Prussia. It ended with a Prussian victory. After the Prussian Mainarmee had beaten the Bavarians at Kissingen, the Bavarian army retreated to Würzburg; the Prussians now turned west against the VIIIth Federal Corps. After the VIIIth Corps had lost combats at Frohnhofen and Aschaffenburg it gave up the defense of Frankfurt and went south-eastward to unite with the Bavarians at the river Tauber; the Prussian army followed. The VIIIth Corps, consisting of four divisions under the command of Alexander von Hessen-Darmstadt, was distributed to the following places on the day of the battle: The Württemberg division was in the centre at Tauberbischofsheim, the Baden division on the right flank at Werbach, the Grand Ducal Hessian division at Großrinderfeld and a division mixed of troops from Austria and Nassau on the left flank at Grünsfeld-Paimar.
The Prussians were able to push back the federal troops in Tauberbischofsheim. Counter attacks failed and troops of Württemberg suffered a comprehensive defeat. At Werbach the troops of Baden were beaten. After further clashes the next two days at Gerchsheim, Helmstadt and Roßbrunn, which endet in favor of the Prussians, the federal troops withdrew to Würzburg where a truce ended the fightings; the Prussians occupied northern Württemberg and negotiated a peace in August 1866. Württemberg paid an indemnity of 8,000,000 gulden, concluded a secret offensive and defensive treaty with her conqueror. Although not part of the North German Confederation, the secret treaty bound Württemberg to Prussia. Few years in 1870, Württemberger troops played a creditable part in the Battle of Wörth and in other operations of the Franco-Prussian War. In 1871, Württemberg became a member of the new German Empire. Battle of Tauberbischofsheim, 24 July 1866 49°37′21″N 09°39′46″E
Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century. The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy; the term, which designates the cultural and social movement that promoted unification, recalls the romantic and patriotic ideals of an Italian renaissance through the conquest of a unified political identity that, by sinking its ancient roots during the Roman period, "suffered an abrupt halt of its political unity in 476 AD after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire". However, some of the terre irredente did not join the Kingdom of Italy until 1918 after Italy defeated Austria–Hungary in World War I. For this reason, sometimes the period is extended to include the late 19th-century and the First World War, until the 4 November 1918 Armistice of Villa Giusti, considered the completion of unification.
This view is followed, at the Central Museum of Risorgimento at the Vittoriano. Italy was unified by Rome in the third century BC. For 700 years, it was a kind of territorial extension of the capital of the Roman Republic and Empire, for a long time, a privileged status and so it was not converted into a province. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy remained united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and disputed between the Kingdom of the Lombards and the Byzantine Empire. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. However, the emperor was an absentee German-speaking foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state. Southern Italy however was governed by the long-lasting Kingdom of Sicily or Kingdom of Naples established by the Normans. Central Italy was governed by the Pope as a temporal kingdom known as the Papal States; this situation persisted through the Renaissance but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the early modern period.
Italy, including the Papal States became the site of proxy wars between the major powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire and France. Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the Italic League, in 1454, the 15th century foreign policy of Cosimo De Medici and Lorenzo De Medici. Leading Renaissance Italian writers Dante, Boccaccio and Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated. Machiavelli quoted four verses from Italia Mia in The Prince, which looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy "to free her from the barbarians"; the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 formally ended the rule of the Holy Roman Emperors in Italy. However, the Spanish branch of the Habsburg dynasty, another branch of which provided the Emperors, continued to rule most of Italy down to the War of the Spanish Succession. A sense of Italian national identity was reflected in Gian Rinaldo Carli's Della Patria degli Italiani, written in 1764, it told how a stranger entered a café in Milan and puzzled its occupants by saying that he was neither a foreigner nor a Milanese.
"'Then what are you?' they asked.'I am an Italian,' he explained." The Habsburg rule in Italy came to an end with the campaigns of the French Revolutionaries in 1792–97, when a series of client republics were set up. In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by the last emperor, Francis II, after its defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz; the Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars destroyed the old structures of feudalism in Italy and introduced modern ideas and efficient legal authority. The French Republic spread republican principles, the institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties; the reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleon's choice of rulers. As Napoleon's reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. Beauharnais tried to get Austrian approval for his succession to the new Kingdom of Italy, on 30 March 1815, Murat issued the Rimini Proclamation, which called on Italians to revolt against their Austrian occupiers.
After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments. Italy was again controlled by the Austrian Empire and the Habsburgs, as they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of Italy and were, the most powerful force against unification. An important figure of this period was Francesco Melzi d'Eril, serving as vice-president of the Napoleonic Italian Republic and consistent supporter of the Italian unification ideals that would lead to the Italian Risorgimento shortly after his death. Meanwhile and literary sentiment turned towards nationalism.
The Aspromonte is a mountain massif in the province of Reggio Calabria. The literal translation of the name means "rough mountain", but for others the name more is related to the Greek word Aspros, meaning "white". It overlooks the Strait of Messina, being limited by the Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas and by the Pietrace river; the highest peak is Montalto. The constituting rocks are gneiss, mica schists, which form characteristic overlapping terraces; the massif is part of the Aspromonte National Park. In the short coastal strip citrus fruits and olives are grown, while at high elevations the vegetation is composed by oak and holm oak under the 1,000 m, by pine, Sicilian fir and beech over it. Olive trees grow in abundance; the rare bergamot, the lemony-yellow fruit used in perfumes and flavoring for Earl Grey tea, only grows in the southern Aspromonte. Points of attraction include the Gambarie ski resort and the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Polsi, in the comune of San Luca. Part of the population known as the Griko people have retained Greek language.
Giuseppe Garibaldi, landing here with 3,000 volunteers in his march towards Rome, was defeated and captured on August 29, 1862 in the Battle of Aspromonte. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne. Griko people Magna Graecia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia called "Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom", was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire. It was created in 1815 by resolution of the Congress of Vienna in recognition of the Austrian House of Habsburg-Lorraine's rights to Lombardy and the former Republic of Venice after the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, proclaimed in 1805, had collapsed, it was dissolved in 1866 when its remaining territory was incorporated into the proclaimed Kingdom of Italy. In the Treaty of Paris in 1814 the Austrians had confirmed their claims to the territories of the former Lombard Duchy of Milan, ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy since 1718 and together with the adjacent Duchy of Mantua by the Austrian tree branch of the dynasty from 1713 to 1796, of the former Republic of Venice, under Austrian rule intermittently upon the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio; the Congress of Vienna combined these lands into a single kingdom, ruled in personal union by the Habsburg Emperor of Austria. The Austrian emperor was represented day-to-day by viceroys appointed by the Imperial Court in Vienna and resident in Milan and Venice.
The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia was first ruled by Emperor Francis I from 1815 to his death in 1835. His son Ferdinand I ruled from 1835 to 1848. In Milan on 6 September 1838 he became the last king to be crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy; the crown was subsequently brought to Vienna after the loss of Lombardy in 1859, but was restored to Italy after the loss of Venetia in 1866. Though the local administration was Italian in language and staff, the Austrian authorities had to cope with the Italian unification movement. After a popular revolution on 22 March 1848, known as the "Five Days of Milan", the Austrians fled from Milan, which became the capital city of a Governo Provvisorio della Lombardia; the next day, Venice rose against the Austrian rule, forming the Governo Provvisorio di Venezia. The Austrian forces under Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky, after defeating the Sardinian troops at the Battle of Custoza, entered Milan and Venice, once again restored Austrian rule. Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria ruled over the Kingdom for the rest of its existence.
The office of Viceroy was replaced by a Governor-General. The office was assumed by Field Marshal Radetzky, upon his retirement in 1857 it passed it to Franz Joseph's younger brother Maximilian, who served as Governor-General in Milan from 1857 to 1859. After the Second Italian War of Independence and the defeat in the Battle of Solferino in 1859, Austria by the Treaty of Zurich had to cede Lombardy up to the Mincio River, except for the fortresses of Mantua and Peschiera, to the French Emperor Napoleon III, who passed it to the Kingdom of Sardinia and the embryonic Italian state. Maximilian retired to Miramare Castle near Trieste. However, remaining Venetia and Mantua fell to the Kingdom of Italy in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War, by the 1866 Peace of Prague; the territory of Venetia and Mantua was formally transferred from Austria to France, handed over to Italy on 19 October 1866, for diplomatic reasons. Administratively the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia comprised two independent governments in its two parts, which were declared separate crown lands in 1851.
Each part was further subdivided in several provinces corresponding with the départements of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. Lombardy included the provinces of Milan, Bergamo, Pavia, Mantua, Lodi-Crema, Sondrio. Venetia included the provinces of Venice, Padua, Treviso, Rovigo and Udine. According to the Ethnographic map of Karl von Czoernig-Czernhausen, issued by the Imperial and Royal Administration of Statistics in 1855, the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia had a population of 5,024,117 people, consisting of the following ethnic groups: 4,625,746 Italians. For the first time since 1428, Lombardy reappeared as en entity, the first time in history that term "Lombardy" was used to call this entity. Heinrich Johann Bellegarde 1814–1816 Francesco Saurau 1816–1818 Giulio Strassoldo di Sotto 1818–1830 Franz von Hartig 1830–1840 Robert von Salm-Reifferscheidt-Raitz 1840–1841 Johann Baptist Spaur 1841–1848 Maximilian Karl Lamoral O'Donnell 1848 Felix von Schwarzenberg 1848 Franz Wimpffen 1848 Alberto Montecuccoli-Laderchi 1848–1849 Karl Borromäus Philipp zu Schwarzenberg 1849–1850 Michele Strassoldo-Grafenberg 1851–1857 Friedrich von Burger 1857–1859 Peter Goëss 1815–1819 Ferdinand Ernst Maria von Bissingen-Nippenburg 1819–1820 Carlo d'Inzaghi 1820–1826 Johann Baptist Spaur 1826–1840 Aloys Pállfy de Erdöd 1840–1848 Ferdinand Zichy zu Zich von Vasonykeöy 1848 Laval Nugent von Westmeath 1848–1849 Karl von Gorzowsky 1849 Stanislaus Anton Puchner 1849–1850 Georg Otto von Toggenburg-Sargans 1850–1855 Kajetan von Bissingen-Nippenburg 1855–1860 Georg Otto von Toggenburg-Sargans 1860–1866 Media related to Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia at Wikimedia Commons Flags of Lombardy–Ven
Giuseppe Garibaldi was an Italian general and nationalist. A republican, he contributed to the creation of the Kingdom of Italy, he is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi is known as the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil and Europe, he commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led to the Italian unification. In 1848, the provisional government of Milan made Garibaldi a general, in 1849, the Minister of War promoted him to General of the Roman Republic to lead the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II, his last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War, as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many great intellectuals of the time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, George Sand, showered him with admiration.
The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts that his volunteers, the Garibaldini, wore in lieu of a uniform. Garibaldi was born and christened Joseph-Marie Garibaldi on 4 July 1807 in Nice, directly annexed by the First French Empire in 1805, to the Ligurian family of Giovanni Domenico Garibaldi from Chiavari and Maria Rosa Nicoletta Raimondo from Loano. In 1814, the Congress of Vienna returned Nice to Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia. Garibaldi's family's involvement in coastal trade drew him to a life at sea, he participated in the Nizzardo Italians community and was certified in 1832 as a merchant navy captain. In April 1833 he travelled to Russia, in the schooner Clorinda with a shipment of oranges. During ten days in port, he met Giovanni Battista Cuneo from Oneglia, a politically active immigrant and member of the secret Young Italy movement of Giuseppe Mazzini.
Mazzini was a passionate proponent of Italian unification as a liberal republic through political and social reform. Garibaldi joined the society and took an oath dedicating himself to the struggle to liberate and unify his homeland from Austrian dominance. In Geneva during November 1833, Garibaldi met Mazzini, starting a long relationship that became troublesome, he joined the Carbonari revolutionary association, in February 1834 participated in a failed Mazzinian insurrection in Piedmont. A Genoese court sentenced Garibaldi to death in absentia, he fled across the border to Marseille. Garibaldi first sailed to Tunisia before finding his way to the Empire of Brazil. Once there, he took up the cause of the Republic of Rio Grande do Sul in its attempt to separate from Brazil, joining the rebels known as the Ragamuffins in the Ragamuffin War. During this war he met Ana Ribeiro da Silva known as Anita; when the Ragamuffins tried to proclaim another republic in the Brazilian province of Santa Catarina in October 1839, she joined him aboard his ship, Rio Pardo, fought alongside him at the battles of Imbituba and Laguna.
In 1841, Garibaldi and Anita moved to Montevideo, where Garibaldi worked as a trader and schoolmaster. The couple married in Montevideo the following year, they had four children – Menotti, Rosita and Ricciotti. A skilled horsewoman, Anita is said to have taught Giuseppe about the gaucho culture of southern Brazil and Uruguay. Around this time, he adopted his trademark clothing—the red shirt and sombrero worn by gauchos. In 1842, Garibaldi took command of the Uruguayan fleet and raised an "Italian Legion" of soldiers known as Redshirts, who wore red, blouse-type shirts, for the Uruguayan Civil War, he aligned his forces with the Uruguayan Colorados led by Fructuoso Rivera, who were aligned with the Argentine Unitarios. This faction received some support from the French and British Empires in their struggle against the forces of former Uruguayan president Manuel Oribe's Blancos, aligned with Argentine Federales under the rule of Buenos Aires caudillo Juan Manuel de Rosas; the Italian Legion adopted a black flag that represented Italy in mourning, with a volcano at the center that symbolized the dormant power in their homeland.
Though contemporary sources don't mention the red shirts, popular history asserts that the legion first wore them in Uruguay, getting them from a factory in Montevideo that had intended to export them to the slaughterhouses of Argentina. These shirts became the symbol of his followers. Between 1842 and 1848, Garibaldi defended Montevideo against forces led by Oribe. In 1845 he managed to occupy Colonia del Sacramento and Martín García Island, led the controversial sack of Gualeguaychú during the Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata. Adopting guerrilla tactics, Garibaldi achieved two victories during 1846, in the Battle of Cerro and the Battle of San Antonio del Santo. Garibaldi joined Freemasonry during his exile, taking advantage of the asylum the lodges offered to political refugees from European countries governed by despotic regimes. At the age of thirty-seven, during 1844, Garibaldi was initiated in the "L'Asil de la Vertud" Lodge of Montevideo; this was an irregular lodge under a Brazilian Freemasonry not recognized by the main international masonic obediences, such as the United Grand Lodge of E
The Bersaglieri, singular Bersagliere, are a speciality of the infantry corps of the Italian Army. They were created by General Alessandro La Marmora on 18 June 1836 to serve in the Army of the Kingdom of Sardinia to become the Royal Italian Army, they have always been a high-mobility light infantry unit, can still be recognized by the distinctive wide brimmed hat that they wear, decorated with black capercaillie feathers. The feathers are applied to their combat helmets. Another distinctive trait of the Bersaglieri is the fast jog pace they keep on parades, instead of marching; the Bersaglieri were a high-mobility light infantry at their inception in 1836, with their specific situation evolving with changes in warfare. In the nineteenth century, Bersaglieri acted as skirmishers or shock troops, moving from place to place by running. An elaborate system of bugle calls allowed their units to be deployed and commanded singly or in combination; the tradition of running continues today during barracks duty.
In World War I, some Bersaglieri served as bicycle troops, better to execute their mission of maneuver warfare. During the Cold War, the Bersaglieri were employed as mechanized infantry. Bersaglieri are well-known for their extraordinary performances in parades and military tattoos, always running instead of marching, with hundreds of black capercaillie feathers flowing from their wide-brimmed black hats; these feathers are worn on Bersaglieri combat helmets. They once served a military purpose, acting as camouflage and as a sunshade for the marksman's shooting eye. Today, they are a badge of honor, fostering esprit among their wearers; the poor Kingdom of Sardinia could not afford large numbers of cavalry, so a quick-moving infantry corps of marksmen were needed. These troops were trained to high physical and marksmanship standards. Like the French chasseurs à pied, a level of independence and initiative was encouraged so that they could operate in looser formations, in which direct command and control was not required.
They fired individually and carried 60 rounds instead of the standard 40 rounds of traditional line infantry. The first uniform was black with brimmed hats, called "vaira"; these were intended to defend the head from sabre blows. The first public appearance of the Bersaglieri was on the occasion of a military parade on 1 July 1836; the First Company marched through Turin with the rapid, high-stepping gait still used by the Bersaglieri in World War II and later. The modern Bersaglieri still run both on parade and during barracks duty - on penalty of punishment if they do not; the new corps impressed King Charles Albert, who had them integrated as part of the Piedmontese regular army. The corps grew and by 1852 there were 10 battalions, each with four companies. Throughout the nineteenth century the Bersaglieri filled the role of skirmishers, screening the slow-moving line and column formations, but acting as special shock troops if required, they were intended to serve as mountain troops, as well.
When the Alpini Corps were created in 1872 a strong rivalry arose between the two elite corps. During the First War of Italian Independence the Bersaglieri distinguished themselves by storming the bridge at Goito. In 1855 the Bersaglieri provided five battalions for the Sardinian Expeditionary Corps in the Crimean War, where they were involved in the Siege of Sevastopol and the Battle of the Cernaia. Most of the casualties were suffered due to a cholera epidemic, their bravery at the Cernaia was recognized and played a key role in gaining Piedmont-Sardinia a seat in the negotiations at the war's end. For their effort in the Crimea the Bersaglieri were rewarded a red fez with a blue tassel, in honor from the French zouaves troops, with whom they served, as they watch the Bersaglieri's bravery in the battle; when the Armata Sarda became the Regio Esercito in 1860, the existing 36 battalions were used to create six Bersaglieri regiments, which had administrative and disciplinary duties. The regiments were assigned to the army corps', with the regiment's battalions assigned to the divisions in the corps as reconnaissance units.
1st Bersaglieri Regiment under I Army Corps with the I, IX, XIII, XIX, XXI and XXVII battalions 2nd Bersaglieri Regiment under II Army Corps with the II, IV, X, XV, XVII and XVIII battalions 3rd Bersaglieri Regiment under III Army Corps with the III, V, VIII, XX, XXIII and XXV battalions 4th Bersaglieri Regiment under IV Army Corps with the VI, VII, XI, XII, XXXV and XXXVI battalions 5th Bersaglieri Regiment under V Army Corps with the XIV, XVI, XXII, XXIV, XXVI and XXXIV battalions 6th Bersaglieri Regiment under VI Army Corps with the XXVIII, XXIX, XXX, XXXI, XXXII and XXXIII battalionsThe most famous action of the Bersaglieri occurred on 20 September 1870, when the 12th Bersaglieri battalion stormed Rome through a breach created by Italian artillery in the Aurelian Walls near Porta Pia leading to the capture of Rome and end of the temporal power of the Pope, thus completing the unification of Italy. A monument was erected in 1932 in front of Porta Pia to commemorate the event at the same time as the National Museum of the Bersaglieri corps was moved to Porta Pia, where it resides still today.
In 1871, the Bersaglieri corps added another four battalions and the regiments were increased from six to 10 and given operational command of the battalions. In 1883 a further two regiments were added for a total of 12 Bersaglieri regiments, one for each army corps with three battalions per regiment
Battle of Custoza (1866)
The Battle of Custoza took place on the 24 June 1866 during the Third Italian War of Independence in the Italian unification process. The Austrian Imperial army, joined by the Venetian Army, jointly commanded by Archduke Albrecht of Habsburg, defeated the Italian army, led by Alfonso Ferrero la Marmora and Enrico Cialdini, despite the Italians' strong numerical advantage. In June 1866, the German Kingdom of Prussia declared war on the Austrian Empire; the formed Kingdom of Italy decided to seize the opportunity and allied with Prussia with the intention of annexing Venetia and thus uniting the Italian Peninsula. The Italians built up a military force, twice the size of their Austrian counterparts defending Venetia. Austrian South Army V Corps Moering, Piret BrigadesVII Corps Scudier, Töply, Welsersheimb BrigadesIX Corps Böck, Weckbecker BrigadesReserve Division Two weak brigadesCavalry Division Italian Mincio Army I Corps 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 5th DivisionsIII Corps 7th, 8th, 9th and 16th Divisions, plus an unattached Cavalry Division In the fourth week of May, the Italians divided their forces into two armies: the 11 division strong Army of the Mincio led by General Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora and accompanied by King Vittorio Emanuele II, the 5 division strong Army of the Po, led by Enrico Cialdini.
The Austrians, using the advantage of interior lines and the protection given by the Quadrilateral forts, concentrated against the Army of the Mincio and left a covering force against the Army of the Po. The King's force was to move into the Trentino region, while La Marmora's crossed the Mincio River and invaded Venetia. Meanwhile, the Austrian soldiers under Archduke Albrecht of Habsburg marched west from Verona to the north of the Italians, in an attempt to move behind the Italians so as to cut them off from the rear, thus, slaughter them. At the start of the 24 June 1866, La Marmora changed the direction of his front, toward the same heights the Austrians were trying to use as a launching point for their attack. Instead of an enveloping battle, the two forces collided head on, with both headquarters trying to discover what happened in the heights near Villafranca. On the Austrian left, the Austrian cavalry attacked the Italian I Corps without orders at 7 AM. Although the attack was ineffectual and only crippled the Austrian cavalry, it created a panic in the Italian rear and immobilized three Italian divisions, who for the rest of the battle only took a defensive posture.
During the morning isolated fights broke out in Oliosi, San Rocco and San Giorgio between Rodic’s V Corps and Durando’s I Corps. After fierce fighting the division of Cerale was thrown out of Oliosi and fled to the Mincio. Sirtori’s division was blocked from Monte Vento by Rodic’s other troops and by 8:00am, he was thrown back by fierce bayonet attacks. By 8:30am however, gaps were opening in the Austrian line. Brignone’s division had taken Belvedere Hill near Custoza after fighting with Hartung’s IX Corps. By 9:00am, Hartung started launching attacks up Monte Croce, trying to dislodge Brignone, but by 10:00am the Austrians seemed spent; the Italians however neglected reinforcing Brignone. The King’s younger son Amadeo led a counterattack, which failed, with the prince being wounded, Brignone was forced to leave the position. La Marmora ordered the divisions of Cugia and Govone up the heights to relieve Brignone; this forced the Austrian brigades of Scudier out of Custoza. Scudier retired from the field, opening another gap in the Austrian line.
On the Italian left Sirtori had managed to stabilize his front after Cerale’s flight. At this point in the battle, both sides were thinking. By 1:00pm La Marmora, deciding the battle was lost and wanting to secure his bridgeheads, ordered a retreat. Unbeknownst to La Marmora, Govone’s division had beaten back the VII Corps and captured Belvedere Hill. By 2 PM Rodic launched an attack on Santa Lucia; when Sirtori’s division gave way, a hole appeared in the Italian line, which the Austrians exploited. Govone, who thought he had broken through the Austrian line found himself isolated near Custoza, with Rodic on one flank and an Austrian brigade making for the bridge at Monzambano. At this point, he was attacked in his other flank by Maroicic, who without orders had committed the two Austrian reserve brigades to the fight. At the same time Hartung’s Corps was ordered to restart the fight, they drove off the division of Cugia, capturing six guns and many prisoners on the top of Monte Torre, which they had earlier failed to capture.
After a bombardment by 40 Austrian guns, at 5:00pm the Italians were driven out of Custoza by Maroicic. The Austrians were strategically and tactically; the Italians were driven back across the Mincio out of Venetia. It was, not a decisive defeat. To inflict a decisive defeat on the Italians, Albrecht's forces needed to drive southwest to seize the bridges across the Mincio; such a pursuit would have trapped the disbanded remnants of the two Italian corps on the east bank of the river and enabled Albrecht to invade the Kingdom of Italy itself. Instead, Albrecht did not order a pursuit because he thought the Austrians were too exhausted and the Austrian cavalry had been mauled by frivolous attacks in the morning, he thus squandered the possibility of destroying the demoralized Army of the Mincio. On the 26 June 1866, Albre