Canons regular are priests in the Latin Church living in community under a rule, sharing their property in common. All canons regular are to be distinguished from secular canons who belong to a community of priests attached to a church but do not take vows or live in common under a Rule. Among canons regular most, but not all, have followed the Rule of St. Augustine and thus have been called Augustinian Canons, known sometimes in English as Austin Canons or Black Canons, from their black habits. However, one particular group of canons regular who follow the Rule of St. Augustine are the Premonstratensians or Norbertines, sometimes called in English White Canons, from their white habits. Canons regular live together in community; the first communities of canons took vows of common stability. As a development, they now take the three vows of chastity and obedience though some Orders or congregations of canons regular have retained the vow of stability. When, in and after the 11th century, the various congregations of canons regular were formed, adopted the Rule of St. Augustine, they were called Canonici Regulares Ordinis S. Augustini Congregationis, in England "Austin Canons" or "Black Canons", but there have always been canons regular who never adopted the Rule of St. Augustine.
In a word, canons regular may be considered as the genus, Austin Canons as the species. By 1125 hundreds of communities of canons had sprung up in Western Europe, they were quite independent of one another, varied in their ministries. One obvious place where a group of priests was required was within a cathedral, where there were many Masses to celebrate and the Divine Office to be prayed together in community. Canons came to be associated with cathedrals, but other groups of canons established themselves in smaller centres. All the different varieties of canons regular are to be distinguished not only from secular canons but from: Monks, who in the Western tradition are members of monastic religious orders such as the various branches of Benedictines, or the Carthusians whose members in their history have been laymen not priests. Writing at a time before the foundation of the mendicant orders, Pope Urban II, said there were two forms of religious life: the monastic and the canonical, he likened the monks to the role of Mary, the canons to that of her sister, Martha.
Clerks regular which in the modern sense are a category of male religious orders of priests constituted from the 16th century, examples being the Theatines or the Barnabites. The members of these orders are priests who have an active apostolic life. While they live in communities, they belong to the order as such rather than to a particular house and their prime focus is on pastoral work rather than choral office; the Friars of Saint Augustine, sometimes called Augustinians or in English Augustinian friars or Austin friars, who are one of the mendicant orders. The mendicants are called "friars" not "Monks" nor "canons" and were itinerant preachers like the Franciscans or Dominicans, living on what the people gave them in food and alms; the Augustinian friars were a galaxy of dispersed religious groups, many of them hermits who in the 13th century were formed by the Popes and Church councils into a religious order with structures that followed the model of the mendicant orders. The Augustinian friars drew their inspiration from the ancient and flexible Rule of St. Augustine, hence their name.
However, they did not combine this with the structures or lifestyle of the canons regular. According to St. Thomas Aquinas, a canon regular is a religious cleric; this is what distinguishes him from a monk. The clerical state is essential to the Order of Canons Regular, whereas it is only accidental to the Monastic Order. Erasmus, himself a canon regular, declared that the canons regular are a "median point" between the monks and the secular clergy; the outer appearance and observances of the canons regular can seem similar to those of the monks. This is because the various reforms borrowed certain practices from the monks for the use of the canons. According to St. Augustine, a canon regular professes two things, "sanctitatem et clericatum", he lives in community, he leads the life of a religious, he sings the praises of God by the daily recitation of the Divine Office in choir. St. Augustine’s teaching and example has become the heritage of the Church as it sets about bringing to life again the common life of clerics.
The canons regular do not confine themselves to canonical functions. They give hospitality to pilgrims and travelers on the Great St. Bernard and on the Simplon, in former times the hospitals of St. Bartholomew's Smithfield, in London, of S. Spirito, in Rome, of Lochleven, Monymusk and St. Andrew's, in Scotland, others like them, were all served by canons regular. Many congregations of canons worked among the poor, the lepers, the infirm; the clerics established by St. Patrick in Ireland had a Guest House for pilgrims and the sick whom they tended by d
Rose of Lima
Saint Rose of Lima, was a member of the Third Order of Saint Dominic in Lima, who became known for both her life of severe asceticism and her care of the needy of the city through her own private efforts. A lay member of the Dominican Order, she was declared a saint by the Catholic Church, being the first person born in the Americas to be canonized as such; as a saint, Rose of Lima has been designated as a co-patroness of the Philippines along with Saint Pudentiana. Her image is featured on the highest denomination banknote of Peru, she was born Isabel Flores de Oliva in the city of Lima in the Viceroyalty of Peru, on April 20, 1586. She was one of the many children of Gaspar Flores, a harquebusier in the Imperial Spanish army, born in Puerto Rico, his wife, María de Oliva y Herrera, a criolla native of Lima, her nickname "Rose" comes from an incident in her infancy: a servant claimed to have seen her face transform into a rose. In 1597 Isabel was confirmed by the Archbishop of Lima, Toribio de Mogrovejo, to be declared a saint.
She formally took the name of Rose at that time. As a young girl—in emulation of the noted Dominican tertiary, St. Catherine of Siena—she began to fast three times a week and performed severe penances in secret; when she was admired for her beauty, Rose cut off her hair and smeared pepper on her face, upset that men were beginning to take notice of her. She rejected all suitors against the objections of her family. Despite the censure of her parents, she spent many hours contemplating the Blessed Sacrament, which she received daily, an rare practice in that period, she was determined to take a vow of virginity, opposed by her parents who wished her to marry. Out of frustration, her father gave her a room to herself in the family home. After daily fasting, she took to permanently abstaining from eating meat, she helped the sick and hungry around her community, bringing them to her room and taking care of them. Rose sold her fine needlework, took flowers that she grew to market, to help her family.
She made and sold lace and embroidery to care for the poor, she prayed and did penance in a little grotto that she had built. Otherwise, she became a recluse, she attracted the attention of the friars of the Dominican Order. She wanted to become a nun, but her father forbade it, so she instead entered the Third Order of St. Dominic while living in her parents' home. In her twentieth year she took a vow of perpetual virginity, she only allowed herself to sleep two hours a night at most, so that she had more hours to devote to prayer. She donned a heavy crown made of silver, with small spikes on the inside, in emulation of the Crown of Thorns worn by Christ. For eleven years she lived this way, with intervals of ecstasy, died on August 24, 1617, at the young age of 31, it is said. Her funeral was held in the cathedral, attended by all the public authorities of Lima, her feast day is on August 23rd. Rose was beatified by Pope Clement IX on May 10, 1667, canonized on April 12, 1671, by Pope Clement X, the first Catholic in the Americas to be declared a saint.
Her shrine, alongside those of her friends St. Martin de Porres and Saint John Macias, is located inside the convent of St. Dominic in Lima; the Roman Catholic Church says that many miracles followed her death: there were stories that she had cured a leper, that, at the time of her death, the city of Lima smelled like roses. Many places in the New World are named Santa Rosa after her, her liturgical feast was inserted into the General Roman Calendar in 1729 for celebration on August 30, because August 24, the date of her death, is the feast of Saint Bartholomew the Apostle and August 30 was the closest date not allocated to a well-known saint. Pope Paul VI's 1969 revision of the calendar made August 23 available, the day on which her feast day is now celebrated throughout the world, including Spain, but excluding Peru and some other Latin American countries, where August 30 is a public holiday in her honor, she is honored together with Martin de Porres and Toribio de Mogrovejo with a feast day on the liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church on August 23.
Early lives of Santa Rosa were written by the Dominican Father Hansen, "Vita Sanctae Rosae", Vicente Orsini, afterward. Pope Benedict XIII wrote "Concentus Dominicano, Bononiensis ecclesia, in album Sanctorum Ludovici Bertrandi et Rosae de Sancta Maria, ordinero praedicatorum". There is a park named for her in downtown California. A plot of land at 7th and K streets was given to the Roman Catholic Church by Peter Burnett, first Governor of the State of California. Father Peter Anderson built one of the first of two churches in the diocese to be consecrated under the patronage of St Rose. In the Caribbean twin-island state of Trinidad and Tobago, the Santa Rosa Carib Community, located in Arima, is the largest organization of indigenous peoples on the island; the second oldest parish in the Diocese of Port of Spain is named after this saint. The Santa Rosa Church, located in the town of Arima, was established on April 20, 1786, as the Indian Mission of Santa Rosa de Arima, on the foundations of a Capuchin Mission established in 1749.
St. Rose's skull, surmounted with a crown of roses, is on public display at the Basilica in Lima, along with that of Saint Martin de Porres, it wa
Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241. He is known for issuing the Decretales and instituting the Papal Inquisition in response to the failures of the episcopal inquisitions established during the time of Pope Lucius III through his papal bull Ad abolendam issued in 1184; the successor of Pope Honorius III, he inherited the traditions of Pope Gregory VII and of his cousin Pope Innocent III and zealously continued their policy of Papal supremacy. Ugolino was born in Anagni; the date of his birth varies in sources between c. 1145 and 1170. He received his education at the Universities of Bologna, he was created Cardinal-Deacon of the church of Sant'Eustachio by his cousin Innocent III in December 1198. In 1206 he was promoted to the rank of Cardinal Bishop of Ostia e Velletri, he became Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1218 or 1219. Upon the special request of Saint Francis, in 1220, Pope Honorius III appointed him Cardinal Protector of the order of the Franciscans.
As Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, he cultivated a wide range of acquaintances, among them the Queen of England, Isabella of Angoulême. Gregory IX was elevated to the papacy in the papal election of 1227, he took the name "Gregory" because he formally assumed the papal office at the monastery of Saint Gregory ad Septem Solia. Gregory's Bull Parens scientiarum of 1231, after the University of Paris strike of 1229, resolved differences between the unruly university scholars of Paris and the local authorities, his solution was in the manner of a true follower of Innocent III: he issued what in retrospect has been viewed as the magna carta of the University, assuming direct control by extending papal patronage: his Bull allowed future suspension of lectures over a flexible range of provocations, from "monstrous injury or offense" to squabbles over "the right to assess the rents of lodgings". In 1233 Gregory IX established the Papal Inquisition to regularize the persecution of heresy; the Papal Inquisition was intended as replacing the chaotic and violent episcopal inquisitions, established by Lucius III in 1184.
Gregory's aim was to bring order and legality to the process of dealing with heresy, since there had been tendencies by mobs of townspeople to burn alleged heretics without much of a trial. In 1231 Pope Gregory IX appointed a number of Papal Inquisitors Dominicans and Franciscans, for the various regions of France and parts of Germany; the aim was to introduce due process and objective investigation into the beliefs of those accused to the erratic and unjust persecution of heresy on the part of local ecclesiastical and secular jurisdictions. Gregory was a remarkably learned lawyer, he caused to be prepared Nova Compilatio decretalium, promulgated in numerous copies in 1234. This New Compilation of Decretals was the culmination of a long process of systematising the mass of pronouncements that had accumulated since the Early Middle Ages, a process, under way since the first half of the 12th century and had come to fruition in the Decretum and edited by the papally commissioned legist Gratian and published in 1140.
The supplement completed the work. In the 1234 Decretals, he invested the doctrine of perpetua servitus iudaeorum – perpetual servitude of the Jews – with the force of canonical law. According to this, the followers of the Talmud would have to remain in a condition of political servitude until Judgment Day; the doctrine found its way into the doctrine of servitus camerae imperialis, or servitude subject to the Emperor's authority, promulgated by Frederick II. The Jews were thus suppressed from having direct influence over the political process and the life of Christian states into the 19th century with the rise of liberalism. In 1239, under the influence of Nicholas Donin, a Jewish convert to Christianity, Gregory ordered that all copies of the Jewish Talmud be confiscated. Following a public disputation between Christians and Jewish theologians, this culminated in a mass burning of some 12,000 handwritten Talmudic manuscripts on 12 June 1242, in Paris. Gregory was a supporter of the mendicant orders which he saw an excellent means for counteracting by voluntary poverty the love of luxury and splendour, possessing many ecclesiastics.
He was a friend of Saint Dominic as well as Clare of Assisi. On 17 January 1235, he approved the Order of Our Lady of Mercy for the redemption of captives, he appointed ten cardinals and canonized Saints Elisabeth of Hungary, Anthony of Padua, Francis of Assisi, of whom he had been a personal friend and early patron. He transformed a chapel to Our Lady in the church of Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome. Gregory IX endorsed the Northern Crusades and attempts to bring Orthodox Slavic peoples in Eastern Europe under Papacy's fold. In 1232, Gregory IX requested the Livonian Brothers of the Sword to send troops to protect Finland, whose semi-Pagan people were fighting against the Novgorod Republic in the Finnish-Novgorodian wars. At the coronation of Frederick II in Rome, 22 November 1220, the emperor made a vow to embark for the Holy Land in August 1221. Gregory IX began his pontificate by suspending the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, for dilatoriness in carrying out the promised Sixth Crusade. Frederick II appealed to the sovereigns of Europe complaining of his treatment.
The suspension was followed by excommunication and threats of deposition. Frederick
Catholic laity are the ordinary members of the Catholic Church who are neither clergy nor recipients of Holy Orders or vowed to life in a religious order or congregation. The laity forms the majority of the estimated over one billion Catholics in the world. Whereas the ministry notably sanctifies the laity, the mission of the laity, according to the Second Vatican Council, is to "sanctify the world"; the Catholic Church is served by the universal jurisdiction of the Holy See, headed by the Pope, administered by the Roman Curia, while locally served by diocesan bishops. The Pope and the bishops in full communion with him are known collectively as the Catholic hierarchy, are responsible for the supervision and pastoral care of all members the Catholic Church, including clergy and laity, but since the Second Vatican Council of Bishops the laity have emerged as a greater source of leadership in various aspects of the church's life. The responsibilities of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, a dicastery of the Roman Curia based in Vatican City, were transferred to the newly established Dicastery for the Laity and Life as of 1 September 2016.
The council "...assists the Pope in all matters concerning the contribution the lay faithful make to the life and mission of the Church, whether as individuals or through the various forms of association that have arisen and arise within the Church."This dicastery emerged from the Decree on the Lay Apostolate of the Second Vatican Council, Apostolicam Actuositatem. It was created by Pope Paul VI on 6 January 1967, with the motu proprio Catholicam Christi Ecclesiam. Within the Catholic Church, the rights of the Catholic laity in regards to the Church are found in the Code of Canon Law. A new Code of Canon Law was promulgated in 1983, to incorporate teachings from the Second Vatican Council. In particular, Canons 224-231 of the 1983 Code outline the general and specific canonical rights of lay persons in the Catholic Church. Prior to 1972, no lay ministries existed, major orders; the minor orders were, in effect, the lower orders of the clerical state and were reserved for those preparing for the priesthood: Acolyte, Lector or reader, Ostiarius or porter.
As a result of the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, on 15 August 1972 Pope Paul VI issued the Motu Proprio Ministeria Quaedam which in effect suppressed the minor orders and replaced them with two ministries, those of lector and acolyte. A major difference was: "Ministries may be assigned to lay Christians; the ministries are conferred by the Ordinary through the liturgical rites De institutione lectoris and De institutione acolythi as revised by the Apostolic See. An interval, determined by the Holy See or the conferences of bishops, shall be observed between the conferring of the ministries of reader and acolyte whenever more than one ministry is conferred on the same person."However, "In accordance with the ancient tradition of the Church, institution to the ministries of reader and acolyte is reserved to men." Due to this reservation these ministries are formally instituted in many regions of the Catholic Church. In their place has evolved the widespread use of commissioned readers, altar servers and extraordinary ministers of the Eucharist as these functions can be undertaken by both men and women.
Conditions for the extension of these roles can be found in The General Instruction of the Roman Missal. In relation to readers, Instruction #101 says: "In the absence of an instituted lector, other laypersons may be commissioned to proclaim the readings from Sacred Scripture, they should be suited to perform this function and should receive careful preparation, so that the faithful by listening to the readings from the sacred texts may develop in their hearts a warm and living love for Sacred Scripture." As regards altar servers and extraordinary ministers of the Eucharist Instruction #100 says: "In the absence of an instituted acolyte, lay ministers may be deputed to serve at the altar and assist the priest and the deacon. To these belong, for example, the ministries of porter, catechist, as well as others to be conferred on those who are dedicated to works of charity, where this ministry had not been assigned to deacons." The 1983 Code of Canon Law does not permit the laity to have any kind of executive or juridical powers in Ecclesiastical affairs.
This curtails the extent of influence the laity has over how the Church is governed on a day-to-day basis. However, lay experts and advisors were appointed to participate during the deliberations of the Second Vatican Council. After the Council members of the Laity were appointed to sit on Commissions & Committees est
The Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages known as the Rolls Series, is a major collection of British and Irish historical materials and primary sources published as 99 works in 253 volumes between 1858 and 1911. All the great medieval English chronicles were included: most existing editions, published by scholars of the 17th and 18th centuries, were considered to be unsatisfactory; the scope was extended to include legendary and hagiographical materials, archival records and legal tracts. The series was government-funded, takes its unofficial name from the fact that its volumes were published "by the authority of Her Majesty's Treasury, under the direction of the Master of the Rolls", the official custodian of the records of the Court of Chancery and other courts, nominal head of the Public Record Office; the publication of the series was undertaken by the British Government in accordance with a scheme submitted in 1857 by the Master of the Rolls Sir John Romilly.
A previous undertaking of the same kind, the Monumenta Historica Britannica, had failed after the publication of the first volume. The principal editor, Henry Petrie had died, its form was cumbrous. Representations were made by Joseph Stevenson, the scheme of 1857 was the direct outcome of this appeal. Alongside Romilly and Stevenson, another key figure in shaping the direction of the project in its early years was Thomas Duffus Hardy, who served as Deputy Keeper of the Public Records from 1861 to 1878; the first two volumes were published in February 1858: they were the first volume of Stevenson's own edition of the Historia Ecclesie Abbendonensis, a 12th-century chronicle written at Abingdon Abbey. Hingeston's edition of John Capgrave's fifteenth-century Historia de Illustribus Henricis. Hingeston's work was slapdash, reviews were unfavourable. Prolific and well-regarded editors for the series included William Stubbs, H. R. Luard, H. T. Riley. Editors were handsomely paid. However, although editorial standards were high, there was little supervision or opportunity for enforcing editorial quality, little incentive for dilatory editors to bring their work to fruition.
In some quarters the project came to be regarded as providing an easy source of income for little work. Although at the beginning of the project Romilly insisted on a print run of 1,500 for each volume, this proved over-optimistic in terms of sales, 750 became the normal figure; the retail price per volume was 8s. 6d. Rising to 10s. Initial sales figures for each volume reached something over 200 copies: this left considerable surplus stock, so in the 1880s William Hardy, as Deputy Keeper, introduced the practice of presenting free copies to reputable public and university libraries, with a label inserted stating that "in the event of the Library being broken up", the volume should be returned to the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Funding for the project began to be reduced from the mid-1880s following the appointment as Deputy Keeper in 1886 of Henry Maxwell Lyte, concerned about the scholarly quality and pace of production, the funds being paid to unproductive editors, who felt that his office's priorities should lie elsewhere.
Thereafter, although work continued on editions in progress, few new works were initiated. One of the final works in the series was the 13th-century legal compilation known as the Red Book of the Exchequer, edited by Hubert Hall of the Public Record Office and published in three volumes in 1897; this became the occasion of a virulent and intemperate scholarly feud between Hall and J. H. Round: Round described the eventual edition as "so replete with heresy and error as to lead astray for all students of its subject", "probably the most misleading publication in the whole range of the Rolls series"; the last volume to be commissioned was the Memoranda de Parliamento, edited by F. W. Maitland, which appeared in 1893. Chronicles published in the series included the edition of the Chronica Majora of Matthew Paris by H. R. Luard. However, the scope of the series was not limited to conventional chronicles, it encompassed materials of a more or less legendary character relating to Ireland and Scotland, such as Whitley Stokes's edition of The Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, the Icelandic sagas edited by Guðbrandur Vigfússon and G.
W. Dasent. Archival records and legal tracts, such as the Year Books of Edward I and Edward III, the Black Book of the Admiralty, the Red
Opus Dei, formally known as the Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei, is an institution of the Catholic Church which teaches that everyone is called to holiness and that ordinary life is a path to sanctity. The majority of its membership are lay people. Opus Dei is Latin for "Work of God". Opus Dei was founded in Spain in 1928 by Catholic saint and priest Josemaría Escrivá and was given final Catholic Church approval in 1950 by Pope Pius XII. St. John Paul II made it a personal prelature in 1982 by the apostolic constitution Ut sit; as of 2016, there were 94,776 members of the Prelature: 2,109 priests. These figures do not include the diocesan priest members of Opus Dei's Priestly Society of the Holy Cross, estimated to number 2,000 in the year 2005. Members are in more than 90 countries. About 70% of Opus Dei members live in their private homes, leading traditional Catholic family lives with secular careers, while the other 30% are celibate, of whom the majority live in Opus Dei centers. Aside from their personal charity and social work, Opus Dei members organize training in Catholic spirituality applied to daily life.
Opus Dei was founded by a Catholic priest, Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer, on 2 October 1928 in Madrid, Spain. According to Escrivá, on that day he experienced a vision in which he "saw Opus Dei", he gave the organization the name "Opus Dei", which in Latin means "Work of God", in order to underscore the belief that the organization was not his work, but was rather God's work. Throughout his life, Escrivá held. Escrivá summarized Opus Dei's mission as a way of helping ordinary Christians "to understand that their life... is a way of holiness and evangelization... And to those who grasp this ideal of holiness, the Work offers the spiritual assistance and training they need to put it into practice."Initially, Opus Dei was open only to men, but in 1930, Escrivá started to admit women, based on what he believed to be a communication from God. In 1936, the organization suffered a temporary setback with the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, as many Catholic priests and religious figures, including Escrivá, were forced into hiding.
The many atrocities committed during the civil war included the murder and rape of religious figures by anti-Franco Anarchists. After the civil war was won by General Francisco Franco, Escrivá was able to return to Madrid. Escrivá himself recounted that it was in Spain where Opus Dei found "the greatest difficulties" because of traditionalists who he felt misunderstood Opus Dei's ideas. Despite this, Opus Dei flourished during the years of the Franquismo, spreading first throughout Spain, after 1945, expanding internationally. In 1939, Escrivá published The Way, a collection of 999 maxims concerning spirituality for people involved in secular affairs. In the 1940s, Opus Dei found an early critic in the Jesuit Superior General Wlodimir Ledóchowski, who told the Vatican that he considered Opus Dei "very dangerous for the Church in Spain," citing its "secretive character" and calling it "a form of Christian Masonry."In 1947, a year after Escrivá moved the organization's headquarters to Rome, Opus Dei received a decree of praise and approval from Pope Pius XII, making it an institute of "pontifical right", i.e. under the direct governance of the Pope.
In 1950, Pius XII granted definitive approval to Opus Dei, thereby allowing married people to join the organization, secular clergy to be admitted to the Priestly Society of the Holy Cross. In 1975, Escriva was succeeded by Álvaro del Portillo. In 1982, Opus Dei was made into a personal prelature; this means that Opus Dei is part of the universal Church, the apostolate of the members falls under the direct jurisdiction of the Prelate of Opus Dei wherever they are. As to "what the law lays down for all the ordinary faithful", the lay members of Opus Dei, being no different from other Catholics, "continue to be... under the jurisdiction of the diocesan bishop", in the words of John Paul II's Ut Sit. In 1994, Javier Echevarria became Prelate upon the death of his predecessor. One-third of the world's bishops sent letters petitioning for the canonization of Escrivá. Escriva was beatified in 1992 in the midst of controversy prompted by questions about Escriva's suitability for sainthood. In 2002 300,000 people gathered in St. Peter's Square on the day Pope John Paul II canonized Josemaría Escrivá.
According to one author, "Escrivá is... venerated by millions". There are other members whose process of beatification has been opened: Ernesto Cofiño, a father of five children and a pioneer in pediatric research in Guatemala. During the pontificate of John Paul II, two members of Opus Dei, Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne and Julián Herranz Casado, were made cardinals. In September 2005, Pope Benedict XVI blessed a newly installed statue of Josemaría Escrivá placed in an outside wall niche of St Peter's Basilic
Master of the Order of Preachers
The Master of the Order of Preachers is the leader of the Order of Preachers known as the Dominicans. The Master of the Order of Preachers is ex officio Grand Chancellor of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum in Rome, Italy. Fr. Bruno Cadoré is the current Master of the order, elected in 2010 at a General Chapter held in Rome