"This Land Is Your Land" is one of the United States' most famous folk songs. Its lyrics were written by American folk singer Woody Guthrie in 1940, based on an existing melody, a Carter Family tune called "When the World's on Fire", in critical response to Irving Berlin's "God Bless America." When Guthrie was tired of hearing Kate Smith sing "God Bless America" on the radio in the late 1930s, he sarcastically called his song "God Blessed America for Me" before renaming it "This Land Is Your Land."In 2002, "This Land Is Your Land" was one of 50 recordings chosen that year by the Library of Congress to be added to the National Recording Registry. Guthrie's melody was similar to the melody of "Oh, My Loving Brother", a Baptist gospel hymn, recorded by the Carter Family as "When the World's On Fire" and had inspired their "Little Darlin', Pal of Mine." He used the same melody for the verses. Guthrie's song, had a different melodic structure from the hymn or the similar Carter Family melodies, he used only the first half of those melodies in his song.
The melodic structure of the presumed model can be described as "ABCD"—a new melodic phrase for each of its four lines. Guthrie's structure, however, is "ABAC." In other words, Guthrie repeats the beginning of the melody for his third line. Following are the original lyrics as composed on February 23, 1940, in Guthrie's room at the Hanover House hotel at 43rd St. and 6th Ave. in New York, showing his strikeouts. The line "This land was made for you and me" does not appear in the manuscript at the end of each verse, but is implied by Guthrie's writing of those words at the top of the page and by his subsequent singing of the line with those words; the original title was "God Blessed America", but it was struck out and replaced by "This Land Was Made For You & Me". It appears therefore that the original 1940 title was "This Land". According to Joe Klein, after Guthrie composed it "he forgot about the song, didn't do anything with it for another five years." Note that this version drops the two political verses from the original: Verse four, about private property, verse six, about hunger.
A March 1944 recording in the possession of the Smithsonian, the earliest known recording of the song, has the "private property" verse included. This version was recorded the same day as 75 other songs; this was confirmed by several archivists for Smithsonian who were interviewed as part of the History Channel program Save Our History – Save our Sounds. The 1944 recording with this fourth verse can be found on Woody Guthrie: This Land is Your Land: The Asch Recordings Volume 1, where it is track 14. Woodyguthrie.org has a variant: It has a verse: A 1945 pamphlet which omitted the last two verses has caused some question as to whether the original song did in fact contain the full text. The original manuscript confirms both of these verses; as with other folk songs, it was sung with different words at various times although the motives for this particular change of lyrics may involve the possible political interpretations of the verses. Recordings of Guthrie have him singing the verses with different words.
The radical verses are not performed in schools or official functions. They can be best interpreted as a protest against the vast income inequalities that exist in the United States, against the sufferings of millions during the Great Depression. America, Guthrie insists, was made -- and could still be made -- for me; this interpretation is consistent with such other Guthrie songs as "Pretty Boy Floyd" and Guthrie's lifelong struggle for social justice. The song was revived in the 1960s, when several artists of the new folk movement, including Bob Dylan, The Kingston Trio, Trini Lopez and the Americans, The New Christy Minstrels all recorded versions, inspired by its political message. Peter and Mary recorded the song in 1962 for their Moving album; the Seekers recorded the song for A World of Our Own. It was performed many times by the cyclist choir, accompanied by guitarists and a wash-tub bassist, during the Wandering Wheels historic 1966 U. S. coast-to-coast bicycle trip. At the founding convention of the Canadian social democratic New Democratic Party, a version of the song was sung by the attending delegates.
Bruce Springsteen first began performing it live on the River Tour in 1980, released one such performance of it on Live/1975–85, in which he called it "about one of the most beautiful songs written."The song was performed by Springsteen and Pete Seeger, accompanied by Seeger's grandson, Tao Rodríguez-Seeger, at We Are One: The Obama Inaugural Celebration at the Lincoln Memorial on January 18, 2009. The song was restored to the original lyrics for this performance with exceptions of the changes in the end of the'Private Property' and'Relief Office' verses. In 2010, Peter Yarrow and Paul Stookey, the surviving members of Peter and Mary, requested that th
Meditative postures or meditation seats are the body positions or asanas sitting but sometimes standing or reclining, used to facilitate meditation. Best known in the Buddhist and Hindu traditions are kneeling positions. Meditation is sometimes practiced while walking, such as kinhin, or doing simple repetitive tasks, as in Zen samu, or work which encourages mindfulness; the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali describe yoga as having eight limbs, one being asana, the meditation seat. The sutras do not name any asanas specifying the characteristics of a good asana, stating: स्थिरसुखमासनम् ॥४६॥sthira sukham āsanamYour seat should be steady and comfortable. Yoga Sutras 2:46 The Sutras are embedded in the Bhasya commentary, which scholars including Philipp Maas now believe are by the same author. Sitting positions cross-legged, provide a stable base for meditation, have been used for the purpose in Buddhism and Hinduism for many centuries; these include Padmasana, Ardha Padmasana, Siddhasana or Muktasana, Sukhasana.
Other possibilities are Vajrasana or Seiza. Another sitting posture, Baddha Konasana, is suitable for people who can sit with the feet together and both knees on the ground. Seymour Ginsburg, describing Gurdjieff meditation, suggests that such compact positions help the meditator to "include the entire experience of ourself in our attention." The lotus position in particular can be uncomfortable for Westerners who have not practised sitting cross-legged since early childhood. They may, in the words of the yoga and meditation teacher Anne Cushman, be practising "self-torture... believing that bruising your inner thigh with your ankle is crucial to spiritual awakening." The pose can cause injury. Baddha Konasana is a safer alternative, provided. Cushman notes. All the same, she writes, a formal method is helpful, the asana chosen needs to be stable and comfortable, as the Yoga Sutras state: on the one side, few people would wish to hold strenuous postures like Downward Dog for half an hour or more.
The cross-legged postures are simple and stable, restful for the muscles, but active enough to keep the practitioner awake. The spinal column needs to be erect and in balance; these conditions can be met by a variety of postures with or without support, whether a cross-legged posture such as Muktasana, a kneeling posture, or sitting on a chair with the back vertical and the feet on the ground. The traditional support for sitting meditation is a zafu cushion. In various traditions people meditate in other postures. People who find sitting cross-legged uncomfortable can sit upright on a straight-backed chair, flat-footed and without back support, with the hands resting on the thighs, in what is sometimes called the Egyptian position. Orthodox Christians may practice the meditation of hesychasm sitting on a stool, as was recommended by Saint Gregory of Sinai. Theravada and Zen Buddhists sometimes vary their sitting meditation by meditating while walking very so as to be mindful of each movement.
Berriasella is a discoidal evolute perisphinctacean ammonite, type genus for the neocomitid subfamily Berriasellinae. Its ribbing is distinct, consisting of both simple and bifurcated ribs that extend from the umbilical seam across the venter. Berriasella, named by Uhlig, 1905, is known from the late Upper Jurassic, Tithonian, to the early Lower Cretaceous and has a worldwide distribution. Arkell, W. J.. W.. Mesozoic Ammonoidea. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part L, Mollusca 4. Lawrence, Kansas: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press