Woodrow Wilson Guthrie was an American singer-songwriter, one of the most significant figures in American western folk music. He wrote hundreds of country and children's songs, along with ballads and improvised works, his album of songs about the Dust Bowl period, Dust Bowl Ballads, is included on Mojo magazine's list of 100 Records That Changed The World. Many of his recorded songs are archived in the Library of Congress. Songwriters such as Bob Dylan, Phil Ochs, Johnny Cash, Bruce Springsteen, Robert Hunter, Harry Chapin, John Mellencamp, Pete Seeger, Andy Irvine, Joe Strummer, Billy Bragg, Jerry Garcia, Jay Farrar, Bob Weir, Jeff Tweedy, Bob Childers, Sammy Walker, Tom Paxton, AJJ, Brian Fallon, Sixto Rodríguez have acknowledged Guthrie as a major influence, he performed with the slogan "This machine kills fascists" displayed on his guitar. Guthrie was brought up by middle-class parents in Okemah, until he was 14, when his mother Nora was hospitalized as a consequence of Huntington's disease, a fatal hereditary neurological disorder.
His father moved to Texas, to repay debts from unsuccessful real estate deals. During his early teens, Guthrie learned blues songs from his parents' friends, he married at 19, but with the advent of the dust storms that marked the Dust Bowl period, he left his wife and three children to join the thousands of Okies who were migrating to California looking for employment. He worked at Los Angeles radio station KFVD. Throughout his life, Guthrie was associated with United States communist groups, although he did not appear to belong to any. With the outbreak of World War II and the non-aggression pact the Soviet Union had signed with Germany in 1939, the owners of KFVD radio were not comfortable with Guthrie's political leanings, he left the station, ending up in New York where he wrote and recorded his 1940 album Dust Bowl Ballads, based on his experiences during the 1930s, which earned him the nickname the "Dust Bowl Troubadour". In February 1940 he wrote his most famous song, "This Land Is Your Land".
He said it was a response to what he felt was the overplaying of Irving Berlin's "God Bless America" on the radio. Guthrie was fathered eight children, his son Arlo Guthrie became nationally known as a musician. Guthrie died in 1967 from complications of Huntington's disease, his first two daughters died of the disease. During his years, in spite of his illness, Guthrie served as a figurehead in the folk movement, providing inspiration to a generation of new folk and country musicians, including mentoring Ramblin' Jack Elliott and Bob Dylan. Guthrie was born July 14, 1912 in Okemah, a small town in Okfuskee County, the son of Nora Belle and Charles Edward Guthrie, his parents named him after Woodrow Wilson Governor of New Jersey and the Democratic candidate, elected as President of the United States in fall 1912. Charles Guthrie was an industrious businessman, owning at one time up to 30 plots of land in Okfuskee County, he was involved in Oklahoma politics and was a conservative Democratic candidate for office in the county.
Charles Guthrie was involved in the 1911 lynching of Laura and L. D. Nelson. Three significant fires occurred during Guthrie's early life. There was one in 1909 that caused the loss of his family's home in Okemah, a month after the house was completed; when Guthrie was seven, his sister Clara died after setting her clothes on fire during an argument with her mother, in 1927, their father was burned in a fire at home. Guthrie's mother, was afflicted with Huntington's disease, although the family did not know this at the time. What they could see was dementia and muscular degeneration; when Woody was 14, Nora was committed to the Oklahoma Hospital for the Insane. At the time his father Charley was living and working in Pampa, Texas, to repay debts from unsuccessful real estate deals. Woody and his siblings were on their own in Oklahoma; the 14-year-old Woody Guthrie worked odd jobs around Okemah, begging meals and sometimes sleeping at the homes of family friends. Guthrie had a natural affinity for music, learning old ballads and traditional English and Scottish songs from the parents of friends.
Guthrie befriended an African-American shoeshine boy named George, who played blues on his harmonica. After listening to George play, Guthrie began playing along with him, he used to busk for food. Although Guthrie did not do well as a student and dropped out of high school in his senior year before graduation, his teachers described him as bright, he was an avid reader on a wide range of topics. In 1929, Guthrie's father sent for Woody to join him in Texas, but little changed for the aspiring musician. Guthrie 18, was reluctant to attend high school classes in Pampa, he played at dances with his father's half-brother Jeff Guthrie, a fiddle player. His mother died in 1930 of complications of Huntington's disease while still in the Oklahoma Hospital for the Insane. At age 19, Guthrie met and married his first wife, Mary Jennings, in Texas in 1931. The
The 1997 Dunhill Cup was the 13th Dunhill Cup. It was a team tournament featuring 16 countries, each represented by three players; the Cup was played 16–19 October at the Old Course at St Andrews in Scotland. The sponsor was the Alfred Dunhill company; the South African team of Ernie Els, David Frost, Retief Goosen beat the Swedish team of Joakim Haeggman, Per-Ulrik Johansson, Jesper Parnevik in the final. The Cup was a match play event played over four days; the teams were divided into four four-team groups. The top eight teams were seeded with the remaining teams randomly placed in the bracket. After three rounds of round-robin play, the top team in each group advanced to a single elimination playoff. In each team match, the three players were paired with their opponents and played 18 holes at medal match play. Matches tied at the end of 18 holes were extended to a sudden-death playoff; the tie-breaker for ties within a group was based on match record head-to-head. Source:Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Source:Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Source:Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Source
Ogoveidae is a family of harvestmen with three described species in one genus, found in equatorial West Africa. The name of the genus giving the family its name refers to the river Ogooué, where the type species was found; the genus was named Ogovia Hansen & Sørensen, 1904, but renamed Ogovea Roewer, 1923, as the original name belonged to a genus of Noctuid moths. Ogoveidae are moderately sized Cyphophthalmi, at 3.4 to 5 mm long, dark reddish-brown in color as adults. Like most members of the Sternophthalmi, they are eyeless, exhibit opisthosomal exocrine glands located on the sternum, possess a complete corona analis, as well as laterally projecting ozophores, their body is covered with distinct granulations, as well as a variety of different types of sensory hairs and structures, including a solea on the first pair of tarsi. The chelicerae exhibit a smooth, second segment, as well as a dorsal crest, small ventral process, large, nodular teeth, they can be distinguished from other families of Sternophthalmi by the smooth tarsal claws on the second tarsi, as well as a conspicuous opisthosomal median furrow, more distinct than that of some Neogoveids, a short, triangular adenostyle.
Ogoveidae possesses several unique apomorphies, including a conspicuous, posteriorly projecting apophysis associated with the sternal exocrine glands, a conspicuous, anteriorly projecting tricuspidate process located along the front of the prosomal carapace, a modified, compressed pedipalpal femur that allows the pedipalps to fold over the chelicerae, unique structures known as Hansen's organs. Hansen's organs appear as circular, smooth patches of cuticle, can be found on the legs and the underside of the opisthosoma; the exact function of the Hansen's organ is unknown, although they are thought to be associated with some sensory function. Ogoveids possess a characteristic spermatopositor, with a uniquely complex setation pattern, consisting of 4-5 rows of short setae on the ventral plate, 4 short setae in a single row located apically on the median plate; the dorsal setae are long, form 2 groups. Ogoveidae is geographically conserved, found only in tropical rain forests of equatorial West Africa.
So far, it is known from 3 different nations: Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon. All 3 species are known only from their type locality, it is possible the range of the family extends further than is known. Ogoveidae was erected as a family in 1980 consisting of 2 genera and Huitaca, though in 2003 Huitaca was transferred to the related family Neogoveidae; these 2 families make up the superfamily Ogoveoidea, the sister group to Troglosironidae. Troglosironidae and Ogoveoidea together make up the infraorder Sternophthalmi, well supported as monophyletic by recent phylogenetic analyses. However, no cladistic analysis has been conducted to resolve the internal phylogeny of the family; this species was discovered near Yaoundé, in Cameroon extending the range of the genus northwards. It is known from all collected at the same locality; this is the largest of the three species by a wide margin, reaching up to 5 mm in length, is most similar to O. grossa. It can be distinguished from that species on the basis of its large size shorter anterior process, proportionally longer chelicerae, which exhibit a much more conspicuous dorsal crest.
The first species of the genus to be discovered, it is known only from a single female specimen collected along the Ogooué River in what was French Equatorial Africa. However, as the Ogooué River flows through both the modern day nations of Congo and Gabon, it is unknown in which modern nation the specimen was found; the specimen was identified as a separate genus on the basis of the anteriorly projecting process on the prosoma and compressed pedipalps. The single known specimen was 3.75 mm in length. This species is based on 5 specimens collected on the island of Bioko, in Equatorial Guinea, between the altitudes of 400 and 500 meters. Of the 5 specimens, 3 were adult males, allowing for the examination of sexually dimorphic characters in the family for the first time, including the characteristic ventral posterior apophysis of the male. Of the other 2, 1 was an adult female, 1 was an immature; this species was distinguished from O. grossa due to the longer and broader anterior process shorter legs, proportionally longer solea, a different granulation pattern.
This species is the smallest of the known species of Ogovea, with the single female specimen being 3.52 mm in length and the males being smaller than that