Vienne is a department in the French region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. It takes its name from the river Vienne. Established on March 4, 1790 during the French Revolution, Vienne is one of the original 83 departments, it was created from parts of the former provinces of Poitou and Berry, the latter being a part of the Duchy of Aquitaine until the 15th century. The original Acadians, who settled in and around what is now Nova Scotia, left Vienne for North America after 1604. Kennedy argues that the emigrants carried to Canada social structure, they were frontier peoples. They emphasized trading for a profit, they were politically active. Édith Cresson, France's first woman Prime Minister from 1991-1992, was a deputy for the department. It has three arrondissements: Poitiers, the prefecture, the subprefectures Châtellerault and Montmorillon; the capital Poitiers is the see of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Poitiers, which pastorally serves the department. The most famous tourist sites include the Futuroscope theme park, the Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, a UNESCO world heritage site, the animal parks of Monkey's Valley in Romagne & the Crocodile Planet in Civaux.
Goat cheese making is an important industry of Vienne. Vienne has a partnership relationship with: Communes of the Vienne department Cantons of the Vienne department Arrondissements of the Vienne department Anjou wine French Vienne Tourism Agency General Council website
The Alps are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies in Europe, separating Southern from Central and Western Europe and stretching 1,200 kilometres across eight Alpine countries: France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria and Slovenia. The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps; the Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 metres. The altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe. Wildlife such as ibex live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m, plants such as Edelweiss grow in rocky areas in lower elevations as well as in higher elevations. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era.
A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, the Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800, Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000; the 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists and artists, in particular, the Romantics, followed by the golden age of alpinism as mountaineers began to ascend the peaks. The Alpine region has a strong cultural identity; the traditional culture of farming and woodworking still exists in Alpine villages, although the tourist industry began to grow early in the 20th century and expanded after World War II to become the dominant industry by the end of the century. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, Italian and German Alps. At present, the region has 120 million annual visitors; the English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes.
Maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp; this may be consistent with the theory. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb "hill". Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe. In Roman times, "Albania" was a name for the eastern Caucasus, while in the English languages "Albania" was used as a name for Scotland, although it is more derived from the Latin albus, the color white; the Latin word Alpes could come from the adjective albus. In modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a high mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found, the term "the Alps", referring to the mountains, is a misnomer.
The term for the mountain peaks varies by nation and language: words such as Horn, Kopf, Spitze and Berg are used in German speaking regions. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width; the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, stretching eastward through mid and southern Switzerland; the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the southern border of Bavaria in Germany. In areas like Chiasso and Allgäu, the demarcation between the mountain range and the flatlands are clear; the countries with the greatest alpine territory are Austria, Italy and Switzerland. The highest portion of the range is divided by the glacial trough of the Rhône valley, from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa on the southern side, the Bernese Alps on the northern.
The peaks in the easterly portion of the range, in Austria and Slovenia, are smaller than those in the central and western portions. The variances in nomenclature in the region spanned by the Alps makes classification of the mountains and subregions difficult, but a general classification is that of the Eastern Alps and Western Alps with the divide between the two occurring in eastern Switzerland according to geologist Stefan Schmid, near the Splügen Pass; the highest peaks of the Western Alps and Eastern Alps are Mont Blanc, at 4,810 m and Piz Bernina at 4,049 metres. The second-highest major
House of Savoy
The House of Savoy is a royal family, established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps north-west of Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720. Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century; the Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed; the name derives from the historical region of Savoy in the Alpine region between what is now France and Italy. Over time, the House of Savoy expanded its territory and influence through judicious marriages and international diplomacy. From rule of a small region on the French/Italian border, the dynasty's realm grew to include nearly all of the Italian Peninsula by the time of its deposition.
The house descended from Count of Sabaudia. Humbert's family is thought to have originated near Magdeburg in Saxony, with the earliest recording of the family being two 10th century brothers and Humbert. Though Sabaudia was a poor county counts were diplomatically skilled, gained control over strategic mountain passes in the Alps. Two of Humbert's sons were commendatory abbots at the Abbey of St. Maurice, Agaunum, on the River Rhone east of Lake Geneva, Saint Maurice is still the patron of the House of Savoy. Humbert's son, Otto of Savoy succeeded to the title in 1051 after the death of his elder brother Amedeo and married the Marchioness Adelaide of Turin, passing the Marquessate of Susa, with the towns of Turin and Pinerolo, into the House of Savoy's possession; this diplomatic skill caused the great powers such as France and Spain to take the counts' opinions into account. They once had claims on the modern canton of Vaud, where they occupied the Château of Chillon in Switzerland, but their access to it was cut by Geneva during the Protestant Reformation, after which it was conquered by Bern.
Piedmont was joined with Sabaudia, the name evolved into "Savoy". The people of Savoy were descended from the Romans. By the time Amadeus VIII came to power in the late 14th century, the House of Savoy had gone through a series of gradual territorial expansions and he was elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund to the Duke of Savoy in 1416. In 1494, Charles VIII of France passed through Savoy on his way to Italy and Naples, which initiated the Italian War of 1494–98. During the outbreak of the Italian war of 1521-1526, Emperor Charles V stationed imperial troops in Savoy. In 1536, Francis I of France invaded Piedmont taking Turin by April of that year. Charles III, Duke of Savoy, fled to Vercelli; when Emmanuel Philibert came to power in 1553 most of his family's territories were in French hands, so he offered to serve France's leading enemy the House of Habsburg, in the hope of recovering his lands. He served Philip II as Governor of the Netherlands from 1555 to 1559. In this capacity he led the Spanish invasion of northern France and won a victory at St. Quentin in 1557.
He took advantage of various squabbles in Europe to regain territory from both the French and the Spanish, including the city of Turin. He moved the capital of the duchy from Chambéry to Turin; the 17th century brought about economic development to the Turin area and the House of Savoy took part in and benefitted from that. Charles Emmanuel II built a road through the Alps towards France, and through skillful political manoeuvres territorial expansion continued. In early 18th century in the War of the Spanish Succession Victor Amadeus switched sides to assist the Habsburgs and via the Treaty of Utrecht they rewarded him with large pieces of land in northeastern Italy, a Crown in Sicily. Savoy rule over Sicily lasted only seven years; the crown of Sicily, the prestige of being kings at last, the wealth of Palermo helped strengthen the House of Savoy further. In 1720 they were forced to exchange Sicily for Sardinia as a result of the War of the Quadruple Alliance. On the mainland, the dynasty continued its expansionist policies as well.
Through advantageous alliances during the War of the Polish Succession and War of the Austrian Succession, Charles Emmanuel III gained new lands at the expense of the Austrian-controlled Duchy of Milan. In 1792 Piedmont-Sardinia joined the First Coalition against the French First Republic, but was beaten in 1796 by Napoleon and forced to conclude the disadvantageous Treaty of Paris, giving the French army free passage through Piedmont. In 1798, Joubert occupied Turin and forced Charles Emmanuel IV to abdicate and leave for the island of Sardinia. In 1814 the kingdom was restored and enlarged with the addition of the former Republic of Genoa by the Congress of Vienna. In the meantime, nationalist figures such as Giuseppe Mazzini were influencing popular opinion. Mazzini believed that Italian unification could only be achieved through a popular uprising, but after the failure of the 1848 revolutions, the Italian nationalists began to look to the Kingdom of Sardinia and its prime minister Count Cavour as leaders of the unification movement.
In 1848, Charles Albert conceded a constitution known as the Statuto Albertino to Piedmont-Sardinia, which remained the basis of the Kingdom's legal system after Italian unification was achieved and the Kingdom of Sardinia became the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The Kingdom of I
Anthelm of Belley
Anthelm of Belley was a prior of the Carthusian Grand Chartreuse and bishop of Belley. He was born near Chambéry in 1107, he would receive an ecclesiastical benefice in the area of Belley. When he was thirty years old, he resigned from this position to become a Carthusian monk at Portes. Only two years after joining the order, he was made the prior of the Grande Chartreuse, the motherhouse of his order, which had incurred substantial damage, he was an effective administrator there. While under his direction, the community increased in numbers and fervency, he improved the buildings, including constructing a defensive wall and an aqueduct. The rules of the order were standardized, changed to allow women the opportunity to enter the order in their own houses, he brought the other houses of the order into closer alignment with the motherhouse. The monks under his direction included Hugh of Lincoln. Anthelm continued in his office constantly for twenty-four years, barring a period of a few years when he was a hermit.
After that period, in 1152, Anthelm returned to the Grand Chartreuse, helped defend the sitting Pope Alexander III against the antipope Victor IV. Alexander III appointed Anthelm bishop of Belley in 1163. In that position, he is said to have been fearless and uncompromising, working to reform the clergy and regulate the affairs of the diocese. One example of his fearlessness occurred in 1175, when Anthelm excommunicated Count Humbert of Maurienne for having taken one priest captive and murdering another priest who had tried to free him. Humbert appealed his excommunication to Pope Alexander III. Anthelm, who believed that Humbert was not penitent for his misconduct, withdrew from his diocese in protest. Pope Alexander commissioned Anthelm to travel to England to try to reconcile Henry II of England and Thomas Becket. Anthelm's health was such. Anthelm returned to Belley to help the lepers of the area. Anthelm died at Belley in 1178. On his deathbed, he received Humbert, recognized that at that time Humbert had repented of his earlier acts.
He is considered a saint of the Roman Catholic Church, with a feast day of June 26. His feast has been celebrated by the Carthusians since 1607, his relics were enshrined in Belley. In art, Anthelm is depicted holding. Attwater and Catherine Rachel John; the Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-14-051312-4. Catholic online article on St. Anthelm, retrieved 23 May 2007
Roman Catholic Diocese of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne
The French Roman Catholic diocese of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne has since 1966 been suppressed, formally united with the archdiocese of Chambéry. While it has not been suppressed, is supposed to be on a par with Chambéry and the diocese of Tarentaise, it no longer has a separate bishop or existence. Saint Gregory of Tours's "De Gloria Martyrum" relates how the church of Maurienne, belonging to the Diocese of Turin, became a place of pilgrimage, after the holy woman Thigris or Thecla, a native of Valloires, had brought to it as sacred relic from the East a finger of St. John the Baptist. Saint Guntram, King of Burgundy, took from the Lombards in 574 the valleys of Maurienne and Suse, in 576 founded near the shrine a bishopric, detached from the Diocese of Turin, as suffragan of the Archdiocese of Vienne comprising the Briançonnais, its first bishop was Felmasius, known from a document on the Baptist relic's first miracle. In 599 Pope Gregory the Great failed to make the Merovingian Queen Brunhilda of Austrasia oblige the protests of the Bishop of Turin against this foundation.
Pope Leo III made Darantasia a Metropolitan archbishopric with three suffragans, Aosta and Maurienne, but maintained the Ancient primatial status of Vienne. A letter written by John VIII in 878 formally designated the Bishop of Maurienne as suffragan of Tarentaise, but for four centuries this supremacy was the cause of conflicts between the archbishops of Tarentaise and the Metropolitans of Vienna who continued to claim Maurienne as a suffragan see; as its first see, a cathedral of John the Baptist was built in the 6th century, destroyed by invading Saracens in 943 and rebuilt in the 11th century. After the Saracens had been driven out, the temporal sovereignty of the Bishop of Maurienne appears to have been extensive, but there is no proof that such sovereignty had been recognized since Gontran's time. At the death in 1032 of Rudolph III of Burgundy, the last ruler of the Kingdom of Arles, Bishop Thibaut was powerful enough to join a league against Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II of Franconia.
In 1033 the city was destroyed by imperial troops and the bishopric lost part of its territory to the diocese of Turin, promised all. In 1038 the emperor suppressed the see of Maurienne altogether, giving over its title and possessions to the Bishops of Turin, but this imperial decree was never executed and at the death of Torino's bishop Guido in 1044, bishop Thibaud was reinstated at Maurienne. Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, took solemn possession of a canonry in the cathedral of Maurienne in 1564. On 1801.11.29 the bishopric was suppressed, its territory being merged into the Diocese of Chambéry. On 1825.08.07 it was restored as Diocese of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne / Maurianen, on territory restituted from the now Metropolitan Archdiocese of Chambéry In 1947 it gained territory from the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Torino On 1966.04.26 it was suppressed as a see, its title and territory being merged into the accordingly renamed Metropolitan Archdiocese of Chambéry–Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne–Tarentaise.
Among the saints specially honoured in, or connected with, the diocese are: Saint Aper, a priest who founded a refuge for pilgrims and the poor in the Village of St. Avre; the chief shrines of the diocese were: Notre Dame de Bonne Nouvelle, near St-Jean-de-Maurienne, which dates from the sixteenth century Notre Dame de Charmaise, near Modane Notre Dame de Beaurevers at Montaimon, dating from the seventeenth century. The Sisters of St. Joseph, a nursing and teaching order, with mother-house at St-Jean-de-Maurienne, are a branch of the Congregation of St. Joseph at Puy. At the end of the nineteenth century, they were in charge of 2 hospitals. In Algeria, the East Indies and Argentina houses were founded, controlled by the motherhouse at Maurienne. Incomplete, several early inculebnts unsure Suffragan Bishops of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne BIOs TO ELABORATE579: Saint Felmase 581–602: Saint Æconius 650: Leporius 725: Walchinus c. 736 to 738: Saint Emilian of Cogolla, martyred by the Saracens 773: Vitgarius 837: Mainard 855: Joseph 858: Abbo 876: Adalbert 899: Wilhelm I. c. 915 Benedict 916–926: Saint Odilard or Edolard, slain by the Saracens together with St. Benedict, Archbishop of Embrun 994–1025: Evrard c.
1032–1060: Thibaud 1060–1073: Brochard 1075–1081: Artaud 1081–1116: Conon 1116–1124: Amédée de Faucigny 1124–1132: Conon II. 1132–1134: St. Ayroldus = Airald, Ayrald I. or Ayrold, once a monk of the Charterhouse of Portes 1134–1146: Ayrald II. 1146–1158: Bernard I. 1158: Ayrald III. 1162–1176: Guillaume II. 1177: Peter 1177–1198: Lambert 1198–1200: Allevard 1200–1211: Bernard II. 1215 Amadeus of Genf 1215–1221 Ean 1221–1236 Aimar de Bernin 1236–1256: Amadeus of Savoyen, son of Thomas I of Savoy 1256–1261: Pierre de Morestel 1261–1269: Anselm I. de Clermont 1269–1273: Pierre
Beatrice of Savoy
Beatrice of Savoy was the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and Margaret of Geneva. She was Countess consort of Provence by her marriage to Count of Provence, her paternal grandparents were Humbert III, Count of Savoy, Beatrice of Viennois. Her maternal grandparents were Count of Geneva and Beatrice de Faucigny. Beatrice of Savoy's mother, was betrothed to Philip II of France. While Margaret was travelling to France for her wedding, she was captured by Beatrice's father, Thomas, he married her himself. Thomas' excuse was that Philip II was married, true. Beatrice was the tenth of fourteen children born to her parents, her siblings included: Amadeus Count of Savoy. Beatrice betrothed on 5 June 1219 to Count of Provence, she was a shrewd and politically astute woman, whose beauty was likened to that of a second Niobe by Matthew Paris. Ramon and Beatrice of Savoy had four daughters, who all lived to adulthood, married kings, their only son, Raymond died in early infancy. Margaret, Queen of France, wife of Louis IX of France Eleanor, Queen of England, wife of Henry III of England Sanchia, Queen of Germany, wife of Richard, Earl of Cornwall Beatrice, Queen of Sicily, wife of Charles I of Sicily Raymond of Provence, died young In 1242, Beatrice's brother Peter was sent to Provence by Henry III to negotiate the marriage of Sanchia to Richard.
Another brother, escorted Beatrice and Sanchia to the English court in Gascony, arriving in May 1243. There they joined Henry and their infant daughter, Beatrice of England. Henry was happy at this occasion and gave many gifts to the various relatives. In November 1243, Beatrice and Sanchia travelled to England for the wedding; this wedding did much to strengthen the bond between Richard and Henry III. She further strengthened the unity of the English royal family by convincing Henry III to help pay the debts of his sister Eleanor and her husband Simon de Montfort, at odds with Henry. In January 1244, Beatrice negotiated a loan for her husband from Henry of four thousand marks, offering the king five Provençal castles as collateral; when Ramon Berenguer died on 19 August 1245, he left Provence to his youngest daughter, his widow was granted the usufruct of the county of Provence for her lifetime. Beatrice's daughter and namesake became one of the most attractive heiresses in medieval Europe. Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor sent a fleet and James I of Aragon sent an army to seize her, so Beatrice placed herself and her daughter in a safe fortress in Aix, secured the trust of its people sent to the Pope for his protection.
The Pope was a target for Frederick's military incursions in France. In Cluny during December 1245, a secret discussion, between Pope Innocent IV, Louis IX of France, his mother Blanche of Castile, his brother Charles of Anjou, took place, it was decided that in return for Louis IX supporting the Pope militarily, the Pope would allow Charles of Anjou, youngest brother to the French King, to marry Beatrice of Provence. Mother and daughter were satisfied with this selection, but Provence was to never go to France outright through Charles. It was agreed that if Beatrice had children, the county would go to them. If Sanchia died without an heir, Provence would go to the King of Aragon. Henry protested the selection, arguing that he had not yet received the full dowry for Eleanor nor his brother for Sanchia, he still had the castles in Provence against the loan he had made to the former count. When Charles took over the administration of Provence in 1246, he did not respect Beatrice's rights within the county.
She sought the aid of Barral of the Pope in protecting her rights within the area. The citizens of Marseille and Arles joined this resistance to Capetian control. In 1248, Charles began to seek peace with her. A temporary truce was reached to allow this. In 1248, she travelled back to England with her brother Thomas. In 1254, as Louis was returning from his crusade by way of Provence, Beatrice petitioned him for a more permanent resolution of the dispute with Charles; the French queen Margaret joined the petition, noting that Charles had not respected her dowry either. Beatrice travelled with them back to Paris; as the year progressed and his wife were invited to travel to Paris, all four daughters joined their mother there for Christmas. The good relationship among the four sisters did much to improve the relationship of the French and English kings, it brought about the Treaty of Paris in 1259. Beatrice and all her four daughters participated in the talks. While the family was still gathered, Louis IX persuaded Beatrice to surrender her claims and control in Provence in exchange for a sizeable pension to be paid to her.
Charles paid back the loan henry had made to the previous count, clearing his claims in the county. In 1262, Beatrice was part of the family discussion to try again to bring peace between Henry and Simon de Montfort; when Henry was captured in 1264, Beatrice's brother Peter II, Count of Savoy took his army to join the efforts to free the king. He left Beatrice in charge of Savoy. Beatrice outlived her third daughter Sanchia and came close to outliving her youngest daughte
Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. About 10 million people, forming one-sixth of Italy's population, live in Lombardy and about a fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in the region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest regions in Europe. Milan, Lombardy's capital, is the largest metropolitan area in Italy; the word Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, related to German Barte. During the early Middle Ages "Lombardy" referred to the Kingdom of the Lombards, a kingdom ruled by the Germanic Lombards who had controlled most of Italy since their invasion of Byzantine Italy in 568; as such "Lombardy" and "Italy" were interchangeable. The Kingdom was divided between Longobardia Major in the north and Langobardia Minor in the south, which were until the 8th century separated by the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna and the Papacy.
During the late Middle Ages, after the fall of the northern part of the Kingdom to Charlemagne, the term shifted to mean Northern Italy.. The term was used until around 965 in the form Λογγοβαρδία as the name for the territory covering modern Apulia which the Byzantines had recovered from the Lombard rump Duchy of Benevento. With a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the fourth-largest region of Italy, it is bordered by Switzerland and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont. Three distinct natural zones can be easily distinguished in Lombardy: mountains and plains—the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa; the orography of Lombardy is characterised by the presence of three distinct belts: a northern mountainous belt constituted by the Alpine relief, a central piedmont area of pebbly soils of alluvial origin, the Lombard section of the Padan plain in the southernmost part of the region. The most important mountainous area is an Alpine zone including the Lepontine and Rhaetian Alps, the Bergamo Alps, the Ortler Alps and the Adamello massif.
The plains of Lombardy, formed by alluvial deposits, can be divided into the Alta—an upper, permeable ground zone in the north and a lower zone—and the Bassa—dotted by the so-called line of fontanili, spring waters rising from impermeable ground. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the small subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River; the mighty Po river marks the southern border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino River, which rises in the Bedretto valley and joins the Po near Pavia; the other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio and the Mincio. The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands. From west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. South of the Alps lie the hills characterised by a succession of low heights of morainic origin, formed during the last Ice Age and small fertile plateaux, with typical heaths and conifer woods.
A minor mountainous area, the Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the Apennines range. In the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains; the most commons trees are elm, sycamore, poplar and hornbeam. In the area of the foothills lakes, grow olive trees and larches, as well as varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, acacias. Numerous species of endemic flora in the Prealpine area include some kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers and the cottony bellflowers; the highlands are characterised by the typical vegetation of the whole range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels oak woods or broadleafed trees grow. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summital zone. Lombardy counts many protected areas: the most important are the Stelvio National Park, with alpine wildlife: red deer, roe deer, chamois, foxes and golden eagles. L