Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play, mime, etc, performed in a theatre, or on radio or television. Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes since Aristotle's Poetics —the earliest work of dramatic theory; the term "drama" comes from a Greek word meaning "action", derived from "I do". The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy. In English, the word "play" or "game" was the standard term used to describe drama until William Shakespeare's time—just as its creator was a "play-maker" rather than a "dramatist" and the building was a "play-house" rather than a "theatre"; the use of "drama" in a more narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the modern era. "Drama" in this sense refers to a play, neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example, Zola's Thérèse Raquin or Chekhov's Ivanov. It is this narrower sense that the film and television industries, along with film studies, adopted to describe "drama" as a genre within their respective media.
"Radio drama" has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a live performance, it has been used to describe the more high-brow and serious end of the dramatic output of radio. The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception; the structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception. Mime is a form of drama. Drama can be combined with music: the dramatic text in opera is sung throughout. Musicals include songs. Closet drama describes a form, intended to be read, rather than performed. In improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance. Western drama originates in classical Greece; the theatrical culture of the city-state of Athens produced three genres of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Their origins remain obscure, though by the 5th century BC they were institutionalised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating the god Dionysus.
Historians know the names of many ancient Greek dramatists, not least Thespis, credited with the innovation of an actor who speaks and impersonates a character, while interacting with the chorus and its leader, who were a traditional part of the performance of non-dramatic poetry. Only a small fraction of the work of five dramatists, has survived to this day: we have a small number of complete texts by the tragedians Aeschylus and Euripides, the comic writers Aristophanes and, from the late 4th century, Menander. Aeschylus' historical tragedy The Persians is the oldest surviving drama, although when it won first prize at the City Dionysia competition in 472 BC, he had been writing plays for more than 25 years; the competition for tragedies may have begun as early as 534 BC. Tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play. Comedy was recognized with a prize in the competition from 487 to 486 BC. Five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia.
Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between "old comedy", "middle comedy" and "new comedy". Following the expansion of the Roman Republic into several Greek territories between 270–240 BC, Rome encountered Greek drama. From the years of the republic and by means of the Roman Empire, theatre spread west across Europe, around the Mediterranean and reached England. While Greek drama continued to be performed throughout the Roman period, the year 240 BC marks the beginning of regular Roman drama. From the beginning of the empire, interest in full-length drama declined in favour of a broader variety of theatrical entertainments; the first important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies that Livius Andronicus wrote from 240 BC. Five years Gnaeus Naevius began to write drama. No plays from either writer have survived. While both dramatists composed in both genres, Andronicus was most appreciated for his tragedies and Naevius for his comedies. By the beginning of the 2nd century BC, drama was established in Rome and a guild of writers had been formed.
The Roman comedies that have survived are all fabula palliata (comedies b
Music hall is a type of British theatrical entertainment, popular from the early Victorian era, beginning around 1850. It ended, after the First World War, when the halls rebranded their entertainment as Variety. Perceptions of a distinction in Britain between bold and scandalous Victorian Music Hall and subsequent, more respectable Variety differ. Music hall involved a mixture of popular songs, speciality acts, variety entertainment; the term is derived from a type of venue in which such entertainment took place. American vaudeville was in some ways analogous to British music hall, featuring rousing songs and comic acts. Originating in saloon bars within public houses during the 1830s, music hall entertainment became popular with audiences. So much so, that during the 1850s some public houses were demolished, specialised music hall theatres developed in their place; these theatres were designed chiefly so that people could consume food and alcohol and smoke tobacco in the auditorium while the entertainment took place.
This differed somewhat from the conventional type of theatre, which until seated the audience in stalls with a separate bar-room. Major music halls were based around London. Early examples included: the Canterbury Music Hall in Lambeth, Wilton's Music Hall in Tower Hamlets, The Middlesex in Drury Lane, otherwise known as the Old Mo. By the mid-19th century, the halls cried out for many catchy songs; as a result, professional songwriters were enlisted to provide the music for a plethora of star performers, such as Marie Lloyd, Dan Leno, Little Tich, George Leybourne. All manner of other entertainment was performed: male and female impersonators, lions comiques, mime artists and impressionists, trampoline acts, comic pianists were just a few of the many types of entertainments the audiences could expect to find over the next forty years; the Music Hall Strike of 1907 was an important industrial conflict. It was a dispute between artists and stage hands on one hand, theatre managers on the other, culminating in a strike.
The halls had recovered by the start of the First World War and were used to stage charity events in aid of the war effort. Music hall entertainment continued after the war, but became less popular due to upcoming jazz and big-band dance music acts. Licensing restrictions had changed, drinking was banned from the auditorium. A new type of music hall entertainment had arrived, in the form of variety, many music hall performers failed to make the transition, they were deemed old-fashioned, with the closure of many halls, music hall entertainment ceased and modern-day variety began. Music hall in London had its origins in the 18th century, it grew with the entertainment provided in the new style saloon bars of public houses during the 1830s. These venues replaced earlier semi-rural amusements provided by fairs and suburban pleasure gardens such as Vauxhall Gardens and the Cremorne Gardens; these latter became fewer and less popular. The saloon was a room where for an admission fee or a greater price at the bar, dancing, drama or comedy was performed.
The most famous London saloon of the early days was the Grecian Saloon, established in 1825, at The Eagle, 2 Shepherdess Walk, off the City Road in east London. According to John Hollingshead, proprietor of the Gaiety Theatre, this establishment was "the father and mother, the dry and wet nurse of the Music Hall". Known as the Grecian Theatre, it was here that Marie Lloyd made her début at the age of 14 in 1884, it is still famous because of an English nursery rhyme, with the somewhat mysterious lyrics: Up and down the City RoadIn and out The EagleThat's the way the money goesPop goes the weasel. Another famous "song and supper" room of this period was Evans Music-and-Supper Rooms, 43 King Street, Covent Garden, established in the 1840s by W. H. Evans; this venue was known as'Evans Late Joys' – Joy being the name of the previous owner. Other song and supper rooms included the Coal Hole in The Strand, the Cyder Cellars in Maiden Lane, Covent Garden and the Mogul Saloon in Drury Lane; the music hall as we know it developed from such establishments during the 1850s and were built in and on the grounds of public houses.
Such establishments were distinguished from theatres by the fact that in a music hall you would be seated at a table in the auditorium and could drink alcohol and smoke tobacco whilst watching the show. In a theatre, by contrast, the audience was seated in stalls and there was a separate bar-room. An exception to this rule was the Britannia Theatre, Hoxton which somehow managed to evade this regulation and served drinks to its customers. Though a theatre rather than a music hall, this establishment hosted music hall variety acts; the establishment regarded as the first true music hall was the Canterbury, 143 Westminster Bridge Road, Lambeth built by Charles Morton, afterwards dubbed "the Father of the Halls", on the site of a skittle alley next to his pub, the Canterbury Tavern. It opened on 17 May 1852 and was described by the musician and author Benny Green as being "the most significant date in all the history of music hall"; the hall looked like most contemporary pub concert rooms, but its replacement in 1854 was of unprecedented size.
It was further extended in 1859 rebuilt as a variety theatre and destroyed by German bombing in 1942. Another early music hall was Drury Lane. Popularly known as the'Old Mo', it was built on the site of the Mogul Saloon. Converted into a theatre it was demolished in 1965; the New London Theatre stands on its site. Several la
John Alderton is an English actor, best known for his roles in Upstairs, Thomas & Sarah, Wodehouse Playhouse, Little Miss, Please Sir! and Fireman Sam. Alderton has starred alongside his wife, Pauline Collins. Alderton was born in Gainsborough, the son of Ivy and Gordon John Alderton, he grew up in Hull. Alderton first became familiar to television viewers in 1962, when he played Dr Moone in the ITV soap opera, Emergency – Ward 10, he married his co-star, Jill Browne, but they divorced. After an uncredited role in Cleopatra, appearing in British films such as The System, Assignment K, Duffy and Hannibal Brooks, he played the lead in the comedy series Please Sir!, as hapless teacher Mr Hedges, which resulted in him playing the character in the 1971 feature film of the same name. In 1972 he appeared with Hannah Gordon in the BBC comedy series My Wife Next Door which ran for 13 episodes, for which he won a Jacob's Award in 1975, he transferred to another top-rated ITV series when he played Thomas Watkins, the chauffeur, in Upstairs, opposite his wife, Pauline Collins.
They had a daughter and two sons and acted together in spin-off series, Thomas & Sarah, another sitcom, No, Honestly, as well as in Wodehouse Playhouse, a series that featured adaptations of short stories by P. G. Wodehouse In the meantime, he appeared on the big screen against-type as'Friend' in John Boorman's cult sci-fi film Zardoz, before returning to more familiar territory, as 1930s Yorkshire vet James Herriot in the 1976 film, It Shouldn't Happen to a Vet, he was a subject of the television programme This Is Your Life in 1974 when he was surprised by Eamonn Andrews. He graduated from the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in 1961 and appeared in their production of The Doctor and The Devils by Dylan Thomas, he made his first stage appearance with the repertory company of the Theatre Royal, York in August 1961, in Badger's Green by R. C. Sherriff. After a period in repertory, made his first London appearance at the Mermaid, November 1965, as Harold Crompton in Spring and Port Wine transferring with the production to the Apollo.
At the Aldwych, March 1969, played Eric Hoyden in the RSC's production of Dutch Uncle. At the Comedy Theatre, July 1969, played Jimmy Cooper in The Night I Chased the Women with an Eel. At the Howff, October 1973, played Stanley in Punch and Judy Stories, played the same part in "Judies" at the Comedy, January 1974. At the Shaw, January 1975, played Stanley in Pinter's The Birthday Party. At the Apollo, May 1976, played four parts in Ayckbourn's Confusions. During the 1980s and 1990s, Alderton had few roles, he narrated the children's original animated series Little Miss in 1983 and, from 1987 to 1994, narrated and voiced all the characters in the original series of Fireman Sam In 1988 he starred as Surgeon Robert Sandy in Tales of the Unexpected, in the episode "The Surgeon", from 1989 to 1992 he starred in the series Forever Green as the character Jack Boult. He appeared in the film Clockwork Mice in 1995. Alderton played opposite his wife Pauline in Mrs Caldicot's Cabbage War in 2002 and made something of a comeback in the 2003 film, Calendar Girls.
In 2004 he played a role in the BBC series of Anthony Trollope's He Knew He Was Right. In 2004, Alderton starred in the first series of ITV 1's Doc Martin in an episode entitled "Of All The Harbours in All The Towns" as sailor John Slater, a friend and former lover of Aunt Joan, he played Christopher Casby in the 2008 BBC adaptation of Charles Dickens' Little Dorrit. Alderton married actress Jill Browne in 1964 but they divorced. In 1969, he married actress Pauline Collins and they had three children, a daughter and two sons. Alderton is the stepfather of Collins' daughter Louise. Alderton is a fan of Hull City A. F. C.. John Alderton on IMDb John Alderton John Alderton's appearance on This Is Your Life
Pauline Collins is an English actress of stage and film, who first came to prominence portraying Sarah Moffat in Upstairs and its spin-off, Thomas & Sarah. In 1992, she released titled Letter to Louise. Collins played the title role in the play Shirley Valentine, for which she won an Olivier Award in 1988, Drama Desk and Tony Awards in 1989, she reprised the role in the 1989 film adaptation, winning the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role and receiving Golden Globe and Academy Award nominations. She starred in the television dramas Forever Green and The Ambassador, her other film appearances include City of Joy, Paradise Road, Albert Nobbs and The Time of Their Lives. Collins was born in Exmouth, the daughter of Mary Honora, a schoolteacher, William Henry Collins, a school headmaster, she is of Irish extraction, was brought up as a Roman Catholic in Wallasey near Liverpool. Her great-uncle was Irish poet Jeremiah Joseph Callanan. Collins was educated at Sacred Heart High School, and studied at the Central School of Speech and Drama in London.
Before turning to acting, she worked as a teacher until 1962. She made her stage debut at Windsor in A Gazelle in Park Lane in 1962 and her West End debut in Passion Flower Hotel in 1965. During the play's run, she made her first film, Secrets of a Windmill Girl, released in 1966. More stage roles followed. Collins played Samantha Briggs in the 1967 Doctor Who serial The Faceless Ones and was offered the chance to continue in the series as a new companion for the Doctor, but declined the invitation. Other early TV credits include the UK's first medical soap Emergency - Ward 10, the pilot episode and first series of The Liver Birds, both in 1969. Collins first became well known for her role as the maid Sarah in the 1970s ITV drama series Upstairs, Downstairs; the character appeared throughout the first two series, the second of which starred her actor husband, John Alderton, with whom she starred in a spin-off, Thomas & Sarah, the sitcom No, Honestly written by Terence Brady and Charlotte Bingham, as well as in a series of short story adaptations called Wodehouse Playhouse.
She co-narrated the animated British children's TV series Little Miss with husband John Alderton in 1983. In connection with her Upstairs, Downstairs role, Collins recorded a 1973 single for Decca: What Are We Going to Do with Uncle Arthur? b/w With Every Passing Day. She was a subject of the television programme This Is Your Life in April 1972 when she was surprised by Eamonn Andrews. In 1988, Collins starred in the one-woman play Shirley Valentine in London, reprising the role on Broadway in 1989 and in the 1989 film version; the film won a number of nominations. Both the play and the feature film utilized the technique known as "breaking the fourth wall," as the character Shirley Valentine directly addresses the audience throughout the story. After Shirley Valentine, Collins again starred alongside her husband in the popular ITV drama series Forever Green created and written by Terence Brady and Charlotte Bingham in which the fictitious couple escape the city with their children to start a new life in the country.
It ran from 1989 to 1992 over 18 episodes. Collins was voted sexiest woman in Britain in 1990. Collins' film credits include 1992's City of Joy, 1995's My Mother's Courage, 1997's Paradise Road, 2002's Mrs Caldicot's Cabbage War, which featured Alderton. In 1999 and 2000, Collins starred as Harriet Smith in the BBC television drama Ambassador, where she played the lead role of the British ambassador to Ireland. Other television credits include The Saint, The Wednesday Play, Armchair Theatre, Play for Today, Tales of the Unexpected, Country Matters and The Black Tower. In 2002, she guest starred in Boy, the dramatisation of Tony Parsons' best-seller. In 2005 she appeared as Miss Flite in the BBC production of Charles Dickens' Bleak House. In 2006, she became only the third actor to have been in both the original and new series of Doctor Who, appearing in the episode "Tooth and Claw" as Queen Victoria. In 2006, she appeared in Extinct, a programme where eight celebrities campaigned on behalf of an animal to save it from extinction.
Collins won the public vote. In December 2007, she appeared as the fairy godmother in the pantomime Cinderella at the Old Vic in London. In 2011, she was cast as part of Sky 1's new comedy-drama Mount Pleasant, she played the role of Sue, Lisa's mum, in the first two series running into 2012. She didn't return to the third series in 2013, her character was killed off in the fourth series in 2014. In late 2015, she appeared as Mrs Gamp in the BBC TV series Dickensian. Collins was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2001 Birthday Honours for services to drama. Collins married actor John Alderton in 1969 and lives in Hampstead, with her husband and their three children, Nicholas and Richard, she has an older daughter with actor Tony Rohr, whom she gave up for adoption. They were reunited. Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actress Tony Award in 1989 for Best Actress in a Play Theatre World Award for Outstanding Broadway Debut Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actress in a Play Outer Critics Circle Award for Best Actress Academy Award for Best Actress Golden Globe Award for Best Actress, Comedy or Musical BAFTA for Best Film Actress Pauline Collins at the Internet Broadw
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Surrey is a subdivision of the English region of South East England in the United Kingdom. A historic and ceremonial county, Surrey is one of the home counties; the county borders Kent to the east, East Sussex and West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, Greater London to the northeast. Inhabited by about 1.2 million people, Surrey is the twelfth most populous English county, both the third most populous home county and the third most populous county in the South East. Guildford is considered to be the county town; however despite the town's designation, Surrey County Council has never been based there, being instead seated throughout its history in London. Since the borders of Surrey were altered in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 which created Greater London, none of these places are now in Surrey, marking an example of a de facto capital, located outside of its administrative area. Surrey is divided into eleven districts: Elmbridge and Ewell, Mole Valley and Banstead, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge and Woking.
Services such as roads, mineral extraction licensing, strategic waste and recycling infrastructure, birth and death registration, social and children's services are administered by Surrey County Council. The London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and small parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey until 1889. Since the 1965 reform the bordering boroughs of the capital have been those taken from it in 1965 plus Bromley and Hounslow; the form of Surrey which remains since 1965 is a wealthy county due to economic, aesthetic and logistical factors. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, some of the highest property values outside Inner London and the highest cost of living in the UK outside of the capital. Surrey has the highest proportion of woodland in England, having been rural since it was shorn in 1965 of the urbanised swathes of South London which had hitherto been part of the county, it has large protected green spaces. It has four racecourses in horse racing, the most of any Home County and as at 2013 contained 141 golf courses including international competition venue Wentworth.
Surrey has proximity to London and to Heathrow and Gatwick airports, along with access to major arterial road routes including the M25, M3 and M23 and frequent rail services into Central London. Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs; the ridge is pierced by the rivers Wey and Mole, tributaries of the Thames, which formed the northern border of the county before modern redrawing of county boundaries, which has left part of its north bank within the county. To the north of the Downs the land is flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames; the geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey Hills, while further east is the plain of the Low Weald, rising in the extreme southeast to the edge of the hills of the High Weald; the Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of geological deposits which extends across southern Kent and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay, Lower Greensand and the chalk of the Downs.
Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt. It contains valued reserves of mature woodland. Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22.4% coverage compared to a national average of 11.8% and as such is one of the few counties not to recommend new woodlands in the subordinate planning authorities' plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland in one of the oldest in Europe. Surrey contains England's principal concentration of lowland heath, on sandy soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way, a scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides many rural and semi-rural leisure activities, with a large horse population in modern terms; the highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking.
It is 294 m above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill in West Berkshire, 297 m. Surrey has a population of 1.1 million people. Its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 77,057, they are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Farnham and Redhill. Guildford is the historic county town, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon Thames in 1893; the county counc
Rolls-Royce was a British luxury car and an aero engine manufacturing business established in 1904 by the partnership of Charles Rolls and Henry Royce. Building on Royce's reputation established with his cranes they developed a reputation for superior engineering by manufacturing the "best car in the world"; the First World War brought them into manufacturing aero engines. Joint development of jet engines began in 1940 and they entered production. Rolls-Royce has built an enduring reputation for development and manufacture of engines for defence and civil aircraft. In the late 1960s Rolls-Royce became hopelessly crippled by its mismanagement of development of its advanced RB211 jet engine and the consequent cost over-runs, though it proved a great success. In 1971 the owners were obliged to liquidate their business; the useful portions were bought by a new government-owned company named Rolls-Royce Limited which continued the core business but sold the holdings in British Aircraft Corporation immediately and transferred ownership of the profitable but now financially insignificant car division to Rolls-Royce Motors Holdings Limited.
This it sold to Vickers in 1980. Rolls-Royce obtained consent to drop 1971 from its name in 1977; the Rolls-Royce business remained nationalised until 1987 when, renaming the owner Rolls-Royce plc, the government sold it to the public. Rolls-Royce plc still owns and operates Rolls-Royce's principal business though since 2003 it is technically a subsidiary of listed holding company Rolls-Royce Holdings plc. A marketing survey in 1987 showed that only Coca-Cola was a more known brand than Rolls-Royce. In 1884 Henry Royce started an mechanical business, he made his first car, a two-cylinder Royce 10, in his Manchester factory in 1904. Henry Royce was introduced to Charles Rolls at the Midland Manchester on 4 May of that year. Rolls was proprietor of an early motor car dealership, C. S. Rolls & Co. in Fulham. In spite of his preference for three- or four-cylinder cars, Rolls was impressed with the Royce 10, in a subsequent agreement on 23 December 1904 agreed to take all the cars Royce could make. There would be four models: a 10 hp, two-cylinder model selling at £395, a 15 hp three-cylinder at £500, a 20 hp four-cylinder at £650, a 30 hp six-cylinder model priced at £890,All would be badged as Rolls-Royces, be sold by Rolls.
The first Rolls-Royce car, the Rolls-Royce 10 hp, was unveiled at the Paris Salon in December 1904. Rolls-Royce Limited was formed on 15 March 1906, by which time it was apparent that new premises were required for production of cars. After considering sites in Manchester, Coventry and Leicester, it was an offer from Derby's council of cheap electricity that resulted in the decision to acquire a 12.7 acres site on the southern edge of that city. The new factory was designed by Royce, production began in early 1908, with a formal opening on 9 July 1908 by Sir John Montagu; the investment in the new company required further capital to be raised, on 6 December 1906 £100,000 of new shares were offered to the public. In 1907, Rolls-Royce bought out C. S. Rolls & Co. During 1906 Royce had been developing an improved six-cylinder model with more power than the Rolls-Royce 30 hp. Designated the 40/50 hp, this was Rolls-Royce's first all-new model. In March 1908 Claude Johnson, Commercial Managing Director and sometimes described as the hyphen in Rolls-Royce, succeeded in persuading Royce and the other directors that Rolls-Royce should concentrate on the new model, all the earlier models were duly discontinued.
Johnson had an early example named, as if it were a yacht, Silver Ghost. Unofficially the press and public picked up and used Silver Ghost for all the 40/50 cars made until the introduction of the 40/50 Phantom in 1925; the new 40/50 was responsible for Rolls-Royce's early reputation with over 6,000 built. Its chassis was used as a basis for the first British armoured car used in both world wars. Aero-engine manufacture began in 1914. Rolls-Royce's Eagle, the first example was made in 1915, was the first engine to make a non-stop trans-Atlantic crossing by aeroplane when in June 1919 two Eagles powered the converted Vickers Vimy bomber on the transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown. In 1921 Rolls-Royce opened a new factory in Springfield, Massachusetts in the United States where a further 1,701 "Springfield Ghosts" were built; this factory operated for 10 years, closing in 1931. It was located at the former American Wire Wheel factory on Hendee Street, with the administration offices at 54 Waltham Ave.
Springfield was the earlier location for the Duryea Motor Wagon Company, the location where the first American gasoline-powered vehicle was built. Their first chassis was completed in 1921. Bodies were supplied by Rolls-Royce Custom Coachwork and by Brewster & Co. in Long Island City, New York. After the First World War, Rolls-Royce avoided attempts to encourage British car manufacturers to merge. Faced with falling sales of the 40/50 Silver Ghost in short-lived but deep postwar slumps Rolls-Royce introduced the smaller, cheaper Twenty in 1922 ending the one-model policy followed since 1908; the new 40/50 hp Phantom replaced the Silver Ghost in 1925. The Phantom III introduced in 1936 was the last large pre-war model. A limited production of Phantoms for heads of state recommenced in 1950 and continued until the Phantom VI ended production in the late 1980s. In 1931 Rolls-Royce acquired