Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman, described as America's greatest inventor. He developed many devices in fields such as electric power generation, mass communication, sound recording, motion pictures; these inventions, which include the phonograph, the motion picture camera, the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb, have had a widespread impact on the modern industrialized world. He was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of organized science and teamwork to the process of invention, working with many researchers and employees, he established the first industrial research laboratory. Edison was raised in the American Midwest. In 1876, he established his first laboratory facility in Menlo Park, New Jersey, where many of his early inventions were developed, he established a botanic laboratory in Fort Myers, Florida in collaboration with businessmen Henry Ford and Harvey Firestone, a laboratory in West Orange, New Jersey that featured the world's first film studio, the Black Maria.
He was a prolific inventor, holding 1,093 US patents in his name, as well as patents in other countries. Edison fathered six children, he died in 1931 of the complications of diabetes. Thomas Edison was born in 1847 in Milan and grew up in Port Huron, Michigan, he was the last child of Samuel Ogden Edison Jr. and Nancy Matthews Elliott. His father, the son of a Loyalist refugee, had moved as a boy with the family from Nova Scotia, settling in southwestern Ontario, in a village known as Shrewsbury Vienna, by 1811. Samuel Jr. fled Ontario, because he took part in the unsuccessful Mackenzie Rebellion of 1837. His father, Samuel Sr. had earlier fought in the War of 1812 as captain of the First Middlesex Regiment. By contrast, Samuel Jr.'s struggle found him on the losing side, he crossed into the United States at Sarnia-Port Huron. Once across the border, he found his way to Ohio, his patrilineal family line was Dutch by way of New Jersey. Much of his education came from reading R. G. Parker's School of Natural Philosophy and from enrolling in chemistry courses at The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art.
Edison developed hearing problems at an early age. The cause of his deafness has been attributed to a bout of scarlet fever during childhood and recurring untreated middle-ear infections. Around halfway through his career, Edison attributed the hearing impairment to being struck on the ears by a train conductor when his chemical laboratory in a boxcar caught fire and he was thrown off the train in Smiths Creek, along with his apparatus and chemicals. In his years, he modified the story to say the injury occurred when the conductor, in helping him onto a moving train, lifted him by the ears. Being deaf in one ear and hearing in the other, Edison would listen to a music player or piano by chomping into the wood to absorb the sound waves into his skull; the waves would pass through the cochlea and into the auditory nerve and into his brain. Due to this method of listening, he could not stand vocal vibrato nor hear at the highest frequencies. Edison's family moved to Port Huron, Michigan after the canal owners kept the railroad out of Milan, Ohio in 1854 and business declined.
Edison sold candy and newspapers on trains running from Port Huron to Detroit, sold vegetables. Although he frustrated teachers and went in and out of various schools in Ohio and Michigan, he read and voraciously under his mother's supervision, he turned a $50 a week profit by age 13, most of which went to buying equipment for electric and chemical experiments. He became a telegraph operator after he saved three-year-old Jimmie MacKenzie from being struck by a runaway train. Jimmie's father, station agent J. U. MacKenzie of Mount Clemens, was so grateful that he trained Edison as a telegraph operator. Edison's first telegraphy job away from Port Huron was at Stratford Junction, Ontario, on the Grand Trunk Railway, he was held responsible for a near collision. He studied qualitative analysis and conducted chemical experiments on the train until he left the job. Edison obtained the exclusive right to sell newspapers on the road, with the aid of four assistants, he set in type and printed the Grand Trunk Herald, which he sold with his other papers.
This began Edison's long streak of entrepreneurial ventures, as he discovered his talents as a businessman. These talents led him to found 14 companies, including General Electric, still one of the largest publicly traded companies in the world. In 1866, at the age of 19, Edison moved to Louisville, where, as an employee of Western Union, he worked the Associated Press bureau news wire. Edison requested the night shift, which allowed him plenty of time to spend at his two favorite pastimes—reading and experimenting; the latter pre-occupation cost him his job. One night in 1867, he was working with a lead–acid battery when he spilled sulfuric acid onto the floor, it ran onto his boss's desk below. The next morning Edison was fired, his first patent was for the electric vote recorder, U. S. Patent 90,646, granted on June 1, 1869. Finding little demand for the machine, Edison moved to New York City shortly thereafter. One of his mentors during those early years was a fellow telegrapher and inventor named Franklin L
The Gardena Police Department is the principal law enforcement agency responsible for the city of Gardena, California, in the United States. The current Chief of Police is Michael Saffell, appointed in 2019. Chief Saffell is a 26 year veteran of the Gardena Police Department, he was raised in the South Bay. He was one of the first District Commanders for GPD's award winning District Policing Program which began in 2007; the Gardena Police Department is located in the South Bay area of Los Angeles County, about 13 miles south of Downtown Los Angeles, between the Harbor, San Diego and Glenn Anderson freeways. The city of Gardena encompasses an area of 6 square miles with a diverse population of nearly 60,000; the Police Department is funded for 31 part-time employees. Of those, 93 are sworn positions with assignments in Patrol, Motors, Narco/Vice/Intelligence, Tactical Team, various task forces. In 2006, the Gardena Police Department developed an innovative program for the prevention and investigation of criminal activity.
The Gardena Crime Accountability and Reduction Strategy was developed to create a simple but effective method of distributing crime information in the form of maps and reports to affected personnel. GCARS uses real-time crime statistics to detect patterns and identify geographic areas which require increased police services; this information is disseminated to police personnel by various methods, including publishing the information through email, posting to an in-house Intranet, printed for watch commanders prior to patrol shift deployments. The reports contain crime maps displaying current and 30-day trends with accompanying information about the crimes; the reports contain detailed information about crime descriptors, heavy police call-for-service locations, a log through which all police employees share important information. The system places a heavy emphasis on the use of technology and real-time information systems to put police resources where they are needed to reduce and prevent crime.
The foundation of this process creates an environment that puts officers back in the business of proactively fighting crime rather than just reacting to it. It provides an opportunity for the department to be flexible in responding to emerging crime patterns; the main focus of the strategy is to impact crime and disorder by using advanced technology to identify and categorize crime patterns in real-time so that the department can place appropriate resources where necessary to prevent and reduce crime. The department focuses its efforts to affect three identified sources of crime: high-risk people, high-risk places, high-risk activities, it is believed that by targeting these contributing factors to crime overall safety in the community will be improved and the resources necessary to effective change will be minimized. G-CARS is similar to CompStat, a system of management accountability utilizing crime statistics to identify recent patterns in criminal activity, it is used by hundreds of law enforcement agencies in the United States.
In 2007, the Gardena Police Department developed a district policing model. The city was divided into three districts, each managed by a police lieutenant; each lieutenant has a team of specialized personnel, brought together from various bureaus. A major goal of district policing is to localize efforts for better control of incidents of crime and the prevention of criminal activity; each district is led by a lieutenant, designated as the Area Commander. Along with the lieutenant, there is a sergeant, an officer from the COPPS Team, a Code Enforcement Officer, a detective from the Special Investigations Detail, a patrol officer from each of the four patrol teams assigned to each district; these patrol officers provide 24/7 coverage in each of the three districts, a designated contact point for citizens to voice their concerns and complaints. The strategy is to have those designated officers focus on their respective districts so the needs and problems relevant to those districts are addressed.
These officers are held accountable for the service they provide to their districts, give residents confidence in the quality of that service. Radio communications and the 9-1-1 call center are handled by the South Bay Regional Public Communications Authority located in Hawthorne, California. On June 2, 2013, Ricardo Diaz Zeferino was fatally shot by three Gardena police officers eight times, another man was injured by one bullet; the men were involved in the report of a stolen bicycle, were ordered to have their hands on their head. Seferino made officers fired at him, although no weapon was found on him. Los Angeles County prosecutors declined to file charges against the three officers; the families of Seferino and the man wounded in the shooting received $4.7 million in a lawsuit settlement against the city of Gardena. Footage of the incident was released to the public on July 15, 2015. Official website of the Gardena Police Department Gardena PD crime statistics Gardena PD organizational chart
Ernest Manirumva was a leading Burundian anti-corruption activist. Manirumva had served as the deputy chairman of the Anti-corruption and Economic Malpractice Observatory, a non-governmental, anti-graft watchdog group, before his murder in 2009; the organization has been responsible for uncovering a number of corruption scandals within the Burundian government and the business community in recent years. Ernest Manirumva was murdered in Bujumbura, on the night of 8–9 April 2009. Ernest Manirumva was the victim of telephone and written threats on several occasions in the past, including threats put on the Internet. On the night of 8–9 April, intruders broke into the home of Ernest Manirumva in Bujumbura, they ransacked the house and stole several documents related to the activities of OLUCOME. Members of OLUCOME, who discovered the body of Ernest Manirumva, believe that he was forced to lead the intruders to these documents since they found blood stains all over the house. Ernest Manirumva was stabbed several times by the intruders and he received severe head trauma.
The same night, his office was broken into but while nothing of value was taken, his lap-top was still connected. A number of sources believe that the murder of Ernest Manirumva is directly related to his legitimate work in the defence of human rights his investigation on arms trafficking to the ruling party of Burundi CNDD-FDD. On the evening of Wednesday, April 8, 2009, Manirumva was abducted from his office and taken to his home in Bujumbura where he was killed, his office and home were ransacked in the attack. Police believe that Manirumva, who suffered stab wounds to his head, was killed at home after midnight on April 9, 2009. Manirumva's body was discovered by neighbors on Thursday morning. A police spokesperson told the media following the discovery of the crime scene that, "Manirumva was assassinated after midnight. We don't yet know the people who committed the crime but investigations have started." Gervais Ndirakobuca, a deputy police chief, noted that Manirumva's murder was not "an ordinary crime during a robbery."New evidence pointed to the involvement of Burundi Police senior officer Colonel David Nikiza, the head of Burundi intelligence was suspected according to individuals involved in the political assassination of Ernest Manirumva.
His colleagues have alleged that Ernest Manirumva was killed as a result of his investigation on Burundi's ruling party CNDD FDD arms trafficking with Khartoum and Rwanda Genocide forces DRC based FDLR. Olucome spokesperson Richard Ntawe told the BBC's French language service that, "We are shocked by the cold-blooded murder of our deputy president. We are convinced, they didn't steal anything, they were looking for specific documents."OLUCOME officials have demanded an international investigation into Manirumva's murder