Hanged, drawn and quartered
To be hanged and quartered was from 1352 a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason, although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of King Henry III. A convicted traitor was fastened to a hurdle, or wooden panel, drawn by horse to the place of execution, where he was hanged, disembowelled and quartered; the traitor's remains were displayed in prominent places across the country, such as London Bridge. For reasons of public decency, women convicted of high treason were instead burned at the stake; the severity of the sentence was measured against the seriousness of the crime. As an attack on the monarch's authority, high treason was considered a deplorable act demanding the most extreme form of punishment. Although some convicts had their sentences modified and suffered a less ignominious end, over a period of several hundred years many men found guilty of high treason were subjected to the law's ultimate sanction, they included many English Catholic priests executed during the Elizabethan era, several of the regicides involved in the 1649 execution of Charles I.
Although the Act of Parliament defining high treason remains on the United Kingdom's statute books, during a long period of 19th-century legal reform the sentence of hanging and quartering was changed to drawing, hanging until dead, posthumous beheading and quartering, before being abolished in England in 1870. The death penalty for treason was abolished in 1998. During the High Middle Ages those in England guilty of treason were punished in a variety of ways, including drawing and hanging. In the 13th century other, more brutal penalties were introduced, such as disembowelling, burning and quartering; the 13th-century English chronicler Matthew Paris described how in 1238 "a certain man at arms, a man of some education" attempted to kill King Henry III. His account records in gruesome detail how the would-be assassin was executed: "dragged asunder beheaded, his body divided into three parts, he was sent by William de Marisco, an outlaw who some years earlier had killed a man under royal protection before fleeing to Lundy Island.
De Marisco was captured in 1242 and on Henry's order dragged from Westminster to the Tower of London to be executed. There he was hanged from a gibbet until dead, his corpse was disembowelled, his entrails burned, his body quartered and the parts distributed to cities across the country. The punishment is more recorded during Edward I's reign; the Welsh Prince Dafydd ap Gruffydd became the first nobleman in England and Wales to be hanged and quartered after he turned against the king and proclaimed himself Prince of Wales and Lord of Snowdon. Dafydd's rebellion infuriated Edward so much. Therefore, following his capture and trial in 1283, for his betrayal he was drawn by horse to his place of execution. For killing English nobles he was hanged alive. For killing those nobles at Easter he was eviscerated and his entrails burned. For conspiring to kill the king in various parts of the realm, his body was quartered and the parts sent across the country. A similar fate was suffered by the Scottish leader Sir William Wallace.
Captured and tried in 1305, he was forced to wear a crown of laurel leaves and was drawn to Smithfield, where he was hanged and beheaded. His entrails were burned and his corpse quartered, his head was set on London Bridge and the quarters sent to Newcastle, Berwick and Perth. These and other executions, such as those of Andrew Harclay, 1st Earl of Carlisle, Hugh Despenser the Younger, which each occurred during King Edward II's reign, happened when acts of treason in England, their punishments, were not defined in common law. Treason was based on an allegiance to the sovereign from all subjects aged 14 or over and it remained for the king and his judges to determine whether that allegiance had been broken. Edward III's justices had offered somewhat over-zealous interpretations of what activities constituted treason, "calling felonies treasons and afforcing indictments by talk of accroachment of the royal power", prompting parliamentary demands to clarify the law. Edward therefore introduced the Treason Act 1351.
It was enacted at a time in English history when a monarch's right to rule was indisputable and was therefore written principally to protect the throne and sovereign. The new law offered a narrower definition of treason than had existed before and split the old feudal offence into two classes. Petty treason referred to the killing of a master by his servant, a husband by his wife, or a prelate by his clergyman. Men guilty of petty treason were hanged, whereas women were burned. High treason was the most egregious offence. Attempts to undermine the king's authority were viewed with as much seriousness as if the accused had attacked him which itself would be an assault on his status as sovereign and a direct threat to his right to govern; as this might undermine the state, retribution was considered an absolute necessity and the crime deserving of the ultimate punishment. The practical difference between the two offences therefore was in the consequence of being convicted; the Act declared that a person ha
Duke of Manchester
Duke of Manchester is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain, the current senior title of the Noble House of Montagu. It was created in 1719 for 4th Earl of Manchester, their ancestor was Richard Ladde, grandfather of the Lord Chief Justice Sir Edward, who changed his name to Montagu around 1447. His descendants claimed a connection with the older house of Montagu or Montacute, Barons Montagu or Montacute and Earls of Salisbury, but there is no sound evidence that the two families were related. A case has been made out for the possibility that the Ladde alias came from a division among coheirs about 1420 of the remaining small inheritance of a line of Montagus at Spratton and Little Creton in Northamptonshire; the judge Sir Edward Montagu's grandson, Edward Montagu, was raised to the peerage as 1st Baron Montagu of Boughton. He is the ancestor of the Dukes of Montagu, his brother, Sir Henry Montagu, who served as Lord Chief Justice as well as Lord High Treasurer and Lord Privy Seal, was in 1620 raised to the Peerage of England as Viscount Mandeville, with the additional title Baron Montagu of Kimbolton, of Kimbolton in the County of Huntingdon.
In 1626, he was made Earl of Manchester in the County of Lancaster. It is said that the title referred not to the city of Manchester, but to Godmanchester in Huntingdonshire; the word "God" was deliberately excluded from the title, as Henry thought it would be blasphemous for him to be known as "Lord Godmanchester". His son, the 2nd Earl, was a prominent Parliamentary General during the Civil War, but supported the restoration of Charles II, his son, the 3rd Earl, represented Huntingdonshire in the House of Commons. His son was the 4th Earl. Charles, 1st Duke of Manchester, was succeeded by his eldest son; the 2nd Duke notably served as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard in the administration of Sir Robert Walpole. He was childless, on his death, the titles passed to his younger brother, the 3rd Duke, he had earlier represented Huntingdonshire in Parliament. He was succeeded by his son, the 4th Duke, he was served as Lord Chamberlain of the Household. His son, the 5th Duke, was Governor of Jamaica between 1827 and 1830 held office as Postmaster General.
He was succeeded by the 6th Duke. He represented Huntingdon in the House of Commons as a Tory, his eldest son, the 7th Duke, was Conservative Member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire. His son, the 8th Duke represented Huntingdonshire in Parliament, he was succeeded by the 9th Duke. He sat on the Liberal benches in the House of Lords and served as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard in the Liberal administration of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman. In the twentieth century and profligacy resulted in the wholesale depletion of the Dukedom's estates. Generational instability caused further damage to the family's honour: both the 11th and 12th Dukes had a criminal record; the principal estate of the Dukes of Manchester was Kimbolton Castle. It was sold, together with 50 acres of parkland, by the 10th Duke in 1951, is now a private school. A remaining 3,250 acres of the estate were sold by his eldest son and heir in 1975; the other family seat was Tandragee Castle, in Northern Ireland. It was sold in 1955, the remaining estate in 1975, is now the headquarters of Tayto Ltd..
The arms of the Duke of Manchester have the following blazon: Quarterly, 1st & 4th: Argent, 3 fusils conjoined in fess gules. The fusils or diamond shapes in the Montagu arms were intended to represent a range of mountains, as the name comes from the old French mont agu meaning "pointed hill"; the arms represent a claim to be a cadet of the medieval Montagu family, earls of Salisbury, for which there is no proof. The Duke of Manchester holds the subsidiary titles Earl of Manchester, Viscount Mandeville, Baron Montagu of Kimbolton; the Duke of Manchester is styled His Grace, alternatively Sir. The heir apparent to the Dukedom takes the courtesy title Viscount Mandeville, the heir apparent's heir apparent, when such exists, is styled Lord Kimbolton. Many members of the Montagu family are buried at St Andrew's Church, Cambridgeshire. Several Montagu monuments still exist in the South Chapel, while the Montagu vault is located beneath the North Chapel; the 12th Duke of Manchester was cremated at Bedford Crematorium in 2002.
Alexander Montagu, Viscount Mandeville, only son of the 13th Duke. Lord Kimble Montagu, second son of the 12th Duke. William Montagu, elder son of Lord Kimble Nicholas Hodgkinson, younger son of the 12th Duke Roderick Montagu, only son of Lord Edward Montagu, grandson of the 9th Duke Michael Montagu, only son of John Montagu, 5xgreat-grandson of the 6th Duke Henry Montagu, first son of Robert Montagu, 4xgreat-grandson of the 6th Duke Cyril Montagu, second son of Robert Montagu, 4xgreat-grandson of the 6th Duke Graeme Montagu, first son of Cyril Montagu, 5xgreat-grandson of the 6th Duke Christopher Montagu, second son of Cyril Montagu, 5xgreat-grandson of the 6th Duke Gerard Montagu, third son of Robert Montagu, 4xgreat-grandson of the 6th Duke Matthew Montagu, only son of Gerard Montagu, 5xgreat-grandson of the 6th Duke Robert Montagu, first son of John Montagu, 3xgreat-grandson of the 6th Duke James Montagu, only son of Robert Montagu, 4xgreat-grandson o
Battle of Powick Bridge
The Battle of Powick Bridge, fought on 23 September 1642, was the first major cavalry engagement of the English Civil War. It was a Royalist victory. According to Hugh Peters it was "where England's sorrows began". King Charles I of England had left London and raised his standard in Nottingham on 22 August 1642. Although some skirmishing had occurred throughout the country, it was on 13 September, that the main campaign of the First English Civil War opened. King Charles, in order to reach the armouries of Derbyshire and Staffordshire, find recruits amongst his sympathisers and trained bands, to be in touch with his disciplined regiments in Ireland by way of Chester, moved westward from Nottingham through Cheshire to Shrewsbury; the Earl of Essex with an army of about 20,000 men followed suit by marching his army from Northampton to Worcester. The city of Worcester had medieval fortifications, but by the start of the Civil War they were dilapidated; the gates were still opened in the morning and closed each evening, but they were rotten and in a bad state of repair..
Worcester was occupied by Sir John Byron on 16 September 1642, on his way to deliver wagons of silver plate from Oxford to Charles I at Shrewsbury. Byron realising that he could not hold Worcester with a Parliamentary army under the command of the Earl of Essex approaching the city, he had sent a request to the King for additional forces to aid him; the Parliamentarians were aware of Byron's mission and an advanced force under the command of Colonel Nathaniel Fiennes arrived at the Sidbury Gate early on 22 September. What followed was typical of the inexperienced soldiery on both sides; the Parliamentarians were not challenged as they approached the gate and had they but known it they could have pushed it open and been into the town without difficultly. However they struck the gates with an axe which made a hole in it and fired a musket through the hole; this aroused the lax Royalist guard. The Parliamentarian assault team withdrew, they loosely invested the north of the city. In doing so they hoped to prevent Byron and his convoy leaving the city, which could be taken by Essex's main force in a day or so.
Prince Rupert was sent to escort his convoy onwards from Worcester. Colonel Nathaniel Fiennes' decided to cross the river Severn, remain on the west bank until the vanguard of the Parliamentary army under the command of the Lord General Earl of Essex's should appear on the east, place himself on the Shrewsbury road in the line of Byron's retreat, meanwhile keeping watch on the Shrewsbury road to intercept any movement of Byron before Essex appeared; the plan was thought out, was the best one that could have been designed under the existing circumstances. By it Byron was placed in a trap, Fiennes had only to wait for the arrival of Essex to compel Byron to surrender. To carry out his plan Fiennes gave orders to his men to march south down the Severn so as to cross to the west bank and assemble at Powick, a village 3 miles from Worcester. Whoever selected the spot, Fiennes or his expert advisers, the historian Willis-Bund thought it showed considerable tactical knowledge, for the post was a strong one, commanding good views of Worcester and the Severn valley, one from which as soon as Essex's arrival was seen there would be no difficulty in intercepting Byron on the road to Shrewsbury.
Rupert reached Bewdley from Bridgnorth on 22 September. He knew, if he did not know before, that if Byron was to be saved instant action was necessary, he was 16 miles from Worcester, Essex with his whole army was at about the same distance. Rupert set off from Bewdley early on 23 September. Marching through Astley, Shrawley and Hallow he reached St. John's, the western suburb of Worcester, about mid-day. Here he halted hearing that some of the Parliament troops were at Powick. On this he divided his force, sending a detachment into Worcester to help Byron to get all ready for a start, it is probable that the preparation that Byron made for this was the origin of the news, brought to Powick and led Fiennes to march to intercept him. The evening of 22 September passed off Fiennes and his men were not disturbed. In some way the fact that Fiennes had occupied Powick was well known in Worcester, for on the 23 September the Worcester people walked out in some numbers to Powick, if not to show sympathy with Fiennes, at least to see the soldiers and what was going on.
Among those who went was Richard Baxter, who tells us he walked out to Powick to see the soldiers out of curiosity. His curiosity might have cost him dear. While he was at Powick, came in all haste from Worcester with the news that Byron's men were mounting and preparing to set off. Fiennes and his men at once jumped to the conclusion, that hearing of the advance of Essex, Byron was making a desperate dash to get his convoy off towards Shrewsbury; this is what Fiennes anticipated would be done and this he was there to prevent. As the feet became known among Fiennes' men the excitement grew to be intense, they were most eager to get in front of Byron on the Shrewsbury road. Fiennes was, not left without wise counsels, it was suggested that the news was false, only invented to get him to leave his advantageous position at Powick to draw him into an ambush, or to lead him off so as to leave the way clear for Byron to escape. No one seems to have suspected the real reason of Byron's sudden movement.
Fiennes would not listen to the advice that he should remain at Powick u
Newcastle-under-Lyme, is a market town in Staffordshire, England. It had a population of 128,264 in 2016, up from 123,800 in the 2011 Census; the "Newcastle" part of the name derives from being the location of a new castle in the 12th century. The "Lyme" section could refer to the Lyme Brook or the extensive Forest of Lyme that covered the area with lime trees in the Middle Ages. Newcastle is not mentioned in the Domesday Book, as it grew up around the 12th-century castle, but it must have become a place of importance, because a charter, known only through a reference in another charter to Preston, was given to the town by Henry II in 1173; the new castle was built to supersede an older fortress at Chesterton about 2 miles to the north, the ruins of which were visible up to the end of the 16th century. In 1235 Henry III constituted granting a guild merchant and other privileges. In 1251 he leased it under a fee farm grant to the burgesses. In 1265 Newcastle was granted by the Crown to Simon de Montfort, subsequently to Edmund Crouchback, through whom it passed to Henry IV.
In John Leland's time the castle had disappeared "save one great Toure". Newcastle did not feature much in the English Civil War, except for a Royalist plundering. However, it was the home town of Major General Thomas Harrison, a Cromwellian army officer and leader of the Fifth Monarchy Men; the governing charter in 1835, which created the Newcastle-under-Lyme Municipal Borough, absorbed the previous borough created through the charters of 1590 and 1664, under which the title of the corporation, was the "mayor and burgesses of Newcastle-under-Lyme". Newcastle sent two members to Parliament from 1355 to 1885; when Stoke-on-Trent was formed by the 1910 amalgamation of the "six towns", Newcastle remained separate. Despite its close proximity, it was not directly involved in the pottery industry, it opposed attempts to join the amalgamation in 1930, with a postcard poll showing residents opposing the Stoke-on-Trent Extension Bill by a majority of 97.4%. Although passed by the House of Commons, the Bill was rejected by the House of Lords.
Following the Local Government Act 1972, it became the principal settlement of the Borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme. Like neighbouring Stoke-on-Trent, Newcastle's early economy was based around the hatting trade and cotton mills. Coal mining, brick manufacture, iron casting and engineering rose to prominence. Fine red earthenware and soft-paste porcelain tableware was produced in Newcastle at Samuel Bell's factory in Lower Street between 1724 and 1754, when production ceased. With the exception of a failed enterprise between 1790 and 1797, which switched to brewing, there was no further commercial production of pottery within the town of Newcastle. Production of earthenware tiles, continued at several locations within the borough. Manufacture of fine bone china was re-established in the borough in 1963 by Mayfair Pottery at Chesterton; the manufacture in the borough of clay tobacco-smoking pipes started about 1637 and grew until it was second only to hatting as an industry. Nationally, the town ranked with Chester and Hull as the four major pipe producers.
The industry continued until the mid-19th century, when decline set in so that by 1881 there was only one tobacco-pipe maker left. In the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, the town had a flourishing felt hat manufacturing industry, at its peak locally in the 1820s, when a third of the town's population were involved in over 20 factories, but by 1892 there was only one manufacturer still in production. In 1944, the Rolls-Royce Derwent engine for the Gloster Meteor fighter was made in the borough. Newcastle's 20th-century industries include: iron-working, construction materials, computers, electric motors and machinery. Near the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, the town received major redevelopment to incorporate a new street into the town centre, providing Newcastle with a new bus station and bringing in more companies. Various business centres in the town provide offices for companies that operate in the service sector. A number of pubs and bars provide Newcastle with a strong night life, with students' night being on Thursdays.
The town has been the birthplace of activists. Fanny Deakin was a campaigner for better nourishment for babies and young children and better maternity care for mothers; the former chairwoman of Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Janet Bloomfield is a peace and disarmament campaigner. Vera Brittain writer, feminist was born in the town. There have been two notable Members of Parliament. Josiah Wedgwood IV was a Liberal and Labour Party MP, who served as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in the cabinet of Ramsay MacDonald, in the first Labour government, he was an MP from 1909 to 1942. John Golding was elected a Labour MP for Newcastle-under-Lyme at a by-election in 1969, he served in the governments of Harold Wilson and Jim Callaghan, as PPS to Eric Varley as Minister of Technology, a Labour whip in opposition, Minister for Employment, stepping down in 1986. The current MP is Paul Farrelly; the town was once served by the North Staffordshire Railway, its station being on a branch line from Stoke-on-Trent via Newcastle and Keele, to Mar
John Cook (regicide)
John Cook was the first Solicitor General of the English Commonwealth and led the prosecution of Charles I. Following the English Restoration, Cook was convicted of regicide and hanged and quartered on 16 October 1660, he is considered an international legal icon and progenitor of international criminal law for being the first lawyer to prosecute a head of state for crimes against his people. John Cook was the son of Leicestershire farmers Isaac and Elizabeth Cook whose farm was just outside Burbage, he was baptised on 18 September 1608 in the All Saints church in Husbands Bosworth and educated at Wadham College, at Gray's Inn. Cook and his wife Frances had a son and a daughter, still a baby in 1660 when Cook was executed. Prior to his appointment as prosecutor, he had established a reputation as a radical lawyer and an Independent. Mr. John Coke, late Chief Justice of Ireland, had in his younger years seen the best part of Europe. Diodati, minister of the Italian church in that city. In a 2005 biography of Cook, Geoffrey Robertson argued that Cook was a original and progressive lawyer: while representing John Lilburne he established the right to silence and was the first to advocate many radical reforms in law, including the cab-rank rule of advocacy, the abolition of imprisonment for debt, courtroom Latin, fusion of law and equity and restrictions on the use of the death penalty.
Cook was among the first to argue that poverty was a cause of crime and to urge probation for those who stole to feed starving families. Although he was not fundamentally anti-monarchist, he was forced to this stance when Charles refused to recognise the legality of the court or answer the charges of tyranny against him. Robertson writes that Cook bravely accepted his fate at the Restoration when many others compromised with the new regime; the idea of trying a king was a novel one. The High Court of Justice established by the Act consisted of 135 Commissioners; the trial of Charles I on charges of high treason and other high crimes began on 20 January 1649, but he refused to enter a plea, claiming that no court had jurisdiction over a monarch. When Cook began to read the indictment, Charles I twice tried to stop him by ordering him to "Hold" and twice tapping him on the shoulder with his cane. Cook ignored this so Charles rose to speak, but Cook resumed speaking, at which point Charles struck Cook so forcefully on the shoulder that the ornate silver tip of the cane broke off and rolled onto the floor.
Charles nodded to Cook to pick it up, but Cook stood his ground and after a long pause, Charles stooped to retrieve it himself. This is considered an important historical moment, seen as symbolising the divine monarch bowing before human law; as a regicide, Cook was excluded after the Restoration of Charles II from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act which indemnified most opponents of the Monarchy for crimes they might have committed during the Civil War and Interregnum. The memoirs of Edmund Ludlow give an account of Cook's trial and his public execution the next day....he was seized and imprisoned by Sir Charles Coote, who joining with Monk in his treachery to the Commonwealth, sent him over to England, that he might sacrifice him to his new master, in satisfaction for the blood of his party which he himself had shed. Being brought to his trial, he was accused of preferring, in the name of all the good people of England, an Impeachment of High Treason to the High Court of Justice against the late King.
Secondly, that to bring about this conspiracy, he, with others, had assumed authority and power to accuse and murder the King. Thirdly, that a person unknown did cut off the King's head, he answered, that he could not be justly said to have contrived or counselled the death of the King, because the proclamation for the King's trial by the confession of his accuser, was published on the ninth of January, the day before he was appointed solicitor to the High Court of Justice. In the second place, though the Court should not admit that to be an Act of Parliament, which authorized him to do what he did. Thirdly, that he, who had neither been accuser, jury, judge, or executioner could not be guilty of treason in this case, he urged that having acted only as counsel, he was not answerable for the just
English Civil War
The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, the manner of England's governance. The first and second wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament; the war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651. The overall outcome of the war was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I. In England, the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship was ended, while in Ireland the victors consolidated the established Protestant Ascendancy. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although the idea of Parliament as the ruling power of England was only established as part of the Glorious Revolution in 1688; the term "English Civil War" appears most in the singular form, although historians divide the conflict into two or three separate wars.
These wars were not restricted to England as Wales was a part of the Kingdom of England and was affected accordingly, the conflicts involved wars with, civil wars within, both Scotland and Ireland. The war in all these countries is known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. In the early 19th century, Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "the Great Civil War". Unlike other civil wars in England, which focused on who should rule, this war was more concerned with the manner in which the kingdoms of England and Ireland were governed; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica called the series of conflicts the "Great Rebellion", while some historians – Marxists such as Christopher Hill – have long favoured the term "English Revolution". The two sides had their geographical strongholds, such that minority elements were fled; the strongholds of the royalty included the countryside, the shires, the less economically developed areas of northern and western England. On the other hand, all the cathedral cities sided with Parliament.
All the industrial centers, the ports, the economically advanced regions of southern and eastern England were parliamentary strongholds. Lacey Baldwin Smith says, "the words populous and rebellious seemed to go hand in hand". Many of the officers and veteran soldiers of the English Civil War studied and implemented war strategies, learned and perfected in other wars across Europe, namely by the Spanish and the Dutch during the Dutch war for independence which began in 1568; the main battle tactic came to be known as pike and shot infantry, in which the two sides would line up, facing each other, with infantry brigades of musketeers in the centre, carrying matchlock muskets. The brigades would arrange themselves in lines of musketeers, three deep, where the first row would kneel, the second would crouch, the third would stand, allowing all three to fire a volley simultaneously. At times there would be two groups of three lines allowing one group to reload while the other group arranged themselves and fired.
Mixed in among the musketeers were pikemen carrying pikes that were between 12 feet and 18 feet long, whose primary purpose was to protect the musketeers from cavalry charges. Positioned on each side of the infantry were the cavalry, with a right-wing led by the lieutenant-general, a left-wing by the commissary general; the Royalist cavaliers' skill and speed on horseback led to many early victories. Prince Rupert, the leader of the king's cavalry, learned a tactic while fighting in the Dutch army where the cavalry would charge at full speed into the opponent's infantry firing their pistols just before impact. However, with Oliver Cromwell and the introduction of the more disciplined New Model Army, a group of disciplined pikemen would stand their ground in the face of charging cavalry and could have a devastating effect. While the Parliamentarian cavalry were slower than the cavaliers, they were better disciplined; the Royalists had a tendency to chase down individual targets after the initial charge leaving their forces scattered and tired.
Cromwell's cavalry, on the other hand, was trained to operate as a single unit, which led to many decisive victories. The English Civil War broke out less than forty years after the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603. Elizabeth's death had resulted in the succession of her first cousin twice-removed, King James VI of Scotland, to the English throne as James I of England, creating the first personal union of the Scottish and English kingdoms; as King of Scots, James had become accustomed to Scotland's weak parliamentary tradition since assuming control of the Scottish government in 1583, so that upon assuming power south of the border, the new King of England was genuinely affronted by the constraints the English Parliament attempted to place on him in exchange for money. In spite of this, James's personal extravagance meant he was perennially short of money and had to resort to extra-Parliamentary sources of income; this extravagance was tempered by James's peaceful disposition, so that by the su