click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Thomas Lincoln

Thomas Lincoln was an American farmer and father of the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. Unlike some of his ancestors, Lincoln could not write, but he was a well-respected community and church member known for his honesty. Lincoln struggled to make a successful living for his family and met challenges of Kentucky real estate border disputes, the early death of his first wife, the integration of his second wife's family into his own family before making his final home in Illinois. Lincoln was descended from Samuel Lincoln, a respected Puritan weaver and trader from the County of Norfolk in East Anglia who landed in Hingham in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1637; some Lincolns migrated into Berks County, where they intermarried with Quakers, but did not retain the peculiar ways. According to the National Humanities Center, both Quakers and Puritans were opposed to slavery. Noteworthy ancestors include Samuel's grandson, Mordecai who married Hannah Salter from a prominent political family, made a name for himself in Pennsylvania society as a wealthy landowner and ironmaster.

Mordecai and Hannah's son, John Lincoln settled in Rockingham County and built a large, prosperous farm nestled in Shenandoah Valley. Abraham Lincoln, instead of being the unique blossom on an otherwise barren family tree, belonged to the seventh American generation of a family with competent means, a reputation for integrity, a modest record of public service. John Lincoln gave 210 acres of prime Virginian land to his first son, Captain Abraham Lincoln, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War. In 1770, Abraham married Bathsheba Herring, born in Rockingham County, Virginia. Thomas was born in 1778 in Virginia to Abraham and Bethsheba Lincoln; the Lincolns sold the land to move in the 1780s to western Virginia, now Springfield, Kentucky. He amassed an estate of 5,544 acres of prime Kentucky land, realizing the bounty as advised by Daniel Boone, a relative of the Lincoln family. In May 1786, Lincoln witnessed the murder of his father by Native American Indians "... when he was laboring to open a farm in the forest."

Lincoln's life was saved that day by Mordecai. One of the most profound stories of Lincoln's memory was: While Abraham Lincoln and his three boys, Mordecai and Thomas, were planting a cornfield on their new property, Indians attacked them. Abraham was killed instantly. Mordecai, at fifteen the oldest son, sent Josiah running to the settlement half a mile away for help while he raced to a nearby cabin. Peering out of a crack between logs, he saw an Indian sneaking out of the forest toward his eight-year-old brother, still sitting in the field beside their father's body. Mordecai picked up a rifle, aimed for a silver pendant on the Indian's chest, killed him before he reached the boy. Between September 1786 and 1788 Bathsheba moved the family to Beech Fork in Nelson County, now Washington County. A replica of the cabin is located at the Lincoln Homestead State Park; as the oldest son, in accordance with Virginian law at the time, Mordecai inherited his father's estate and of the three boys seems to have inherited more than his share of talent and wit.

Josiah and Thomas were forced to make their own way. "The tragedy," wrote historian David Herbert Donald, "abruptly ended his prospects of being an heir of a well-to-do Kentucky planter. From 1795 to 1802, Thomas Lincoln held a variety of ill-paying jobs in several locations, he served in the state militia at the age of 19 and became a Cumberland County constable at 24. He moved to Hardin County, Kentucky in 1802 and bought a 238-acre farm the following year for £118; when he lived in Hardin County, he was a jury member, a petitioner for a road, a guard for county prisoners. Lincoln was active in community and church affairs in Hardin Counties; the following year his sister Nancy Brumfield, brother-in-law William Brumfield and his mother Bathsheba moved from Washington County to Mill Creek and lived with Lincoln. In 1805, Lincoln constructed most of the woodwork, including mantels and stairways, for the Hardin house, now restored and called the Lincoln Heritage House at Freeman Lake Park in Elizabethtown.

In 1806, he ferried merchandise on a flatboat to New Orleans down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers for the Bleakley & Montgomery store in Elizabethtown. On June 12, 1806, Lincoln married Nancy Hanks at Beechland in Kentucky. Nancy Hanks, born in what was Hampshire County, was the daughter of Lucy Hanks and a man who Abraham believed to be "a well-bred Virginia farmer or planter." She was called Nancy Sparrow and adopted daughter of Elizabeth and Thomas Sparrow. Dennis Hanks, Abraham's friend and second cousin, reported that Nancy Hanks Lincoln had remarkable perception. Nathaniel Grisby, a friend and neighbor, said. Nancy taught young Abraham to read using the Bible, modeled "sweetness and benevolence". Abraham said of her, "All that I am or hope to be I get from my mother". Lincoln developed a modicum of talent as a carpenter and although called "an uneducated man, a plain unpretending plodding man", he was respected for his civil service, storytelling ability and good-nature, he was known as a "wandering" laborer and uneducated.

A rover and drifter, he kept floating about from one place to another, taking any kind of job he could get when hunger drove him to it. Aside from making cabinets and other carpentry work, Lincoln worked as a manual lab

China–Comoros relations

People's Republic of ChinaComoros relations refers to the current and historical relationship between the People's Republic of China and the Comoros. Relations were established by Comorian President Ali Soilih on 13 November 1975 and have been described as "friendly and cooperative". China wished to maintain contact with Comoros to counterbalance Indian and Soviet influence in the Indian Ocean. In August 2008, a Comorian delegation visited China on a good-will visit. Together with the Chinese defense minister Liang Guanglie, Chief of Staff of the Comoros armed forces Salimou Mohamed Amiri, pledged to increase cooperation between the military of the two nations. Amiri stated; the two countries have an agreement for technological cooperation. In 1976, China began an aid program for Comoros and has helped build a water-supply project at Nioumakélé as well as governmental buildings including the people's palace, office buildings, presidential mansions and television and broadcasting buildings among other projects.

Bilateral trade totaled US$760,000 in 2002. In 2010, China was the second largest importer to Comoros after France. A comprehensive Chinese-assisted treatment campaign has eliminated malaria from the Comorian island of Moheli – and shows worldwide potential; the campaign is administered by Li Guoqiao, one of the researchers who developed a Chinese herb used as treatment for malaria into artemisinin the most effective antimalarial drug. The campaign is centered at the Tropical Medicine Institute, the program relies on Artemisia annua of hybrid ancestry, used for a drug regimen by which all residents of the island, whether or not visibly ill, took two doses at a 40-day interval; this eliminated the human reservoir of the disease and reduced hospital admissions to 1% or less of January 2008 levels. Visitors to Moheli are now required to take antimalarial drugs, a mix of artemisinin and pyrimethamine that China provides for free; when asked about Artemisia exports, Li was quoted as saying, "We want to grow them in China and whatever we export depends on bilateral relationships."

Comoros has requested a similar program for Grande Comore and Anjouan, total population 760,000, Li said that Beijing has agreed in principle. In 2011, China granted Comoros 4.65 million Euros to build a new 100-bed hospital in Anjouan. Chinese ambassador Wang Leyou heralded it as a "... a new step in our pragmatic cooperation of 36 years". In addition to helping the Comoran government combat malaria, Beijing has agreed to provide $30 million in funding for the installation of an submerged fiber optic network linking Comoros to the rest of East Africa. In 1985, China and Comoros signed an "Agreement for Cultural Cooperation between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Islamic Union of the Comoros". Part of the cultural exchanged included scholarships for Comorian students to study in China. Eleven Chinese medical professionals were operating in Comoros as well. Comoros–North Korea relations Chinese Ambassador to Comoros Attending 35th Anniversary Forum on Chinese-African Cooperation, 1 December 2010

Solomon's Porch

Solomon's Porch, Portico or Colonnade, was a colonnade, or cloister, located on the eastern side of the Temple's Outer Court in Jerusalem, named after Solomon, King of Israel, not to be confused with the Royal Stoa, on the southern side of Herod's Temple. Titus Flavius Josephus a Jewish historian who lived in Jerusalem during the 1st century A. D. and was present at its destruction by the Romans in 70 A. D. speaks of the wall and of the cloister or porch that King Solomon built east of the Temple House: NOW this temple, as I have said, was built upon a strong hill. At first the plain at the top was hardly sufficient for the holy house and the altar, for the ground about it was uneven, like a precipice; as witnessed by Josephus, the exact dimensions of Herod's Temple formed a perfect square - a furlong by a furlong on all four sides. On the east wall was a double cloister, which in times is referred to as Solomon's porch. “This hill was walled all round, in compass four furlongs, each angle containing in length a furlong: but within this wall, on the top of all, there ran another wall of stone having, on the east quarter, a double cloister, of the same length with the wall.

This cloister looked to the gates of the temple. The historic writings of Josephus give an eyewitness account to the First and Second Temples, as well as Herod's Temple, all shared the same fore-mentioned east wall of the Temple complex; the east boundary line of the Temple complex never changed. Josephus was clear that Herod refused to let his builders make any changes in the ancient works of the east wall because of the great expense. Herod allowed the construction of new courts on the north and south sides of the Temple but the east wall remained intact and undisturbed. Not to be confused with Herod's Royal Stoa, a porch, portico, or colonnade on the south wall of Herod's Temple; the location of Solomon's First Temple, Zerubbabel and Herod's Second Temple site, has remained a mystery for two thousand years. All were built on the threshing floor bought by King David. Finding the location of Herod's Temple would help us to locate Solomon's Porch; the location of the Temple has been a divisive subject.

There have been many discrepancies concerning the size of Herod's Temple complex and where it was situated on the Temple Mount. The historical evidence does not support the idea of the whole Temple Mount as being Herod's extended courts to the North and South, as per the Dome of the Rock platform theories suggest. In these theories Herod's extended Temple courts would be triple the size of the furlong by furlong description of the Temple given by Josephus. Once the actual location of the Temple on the Mount is understood also the location, size, of Solomon's Porch/Portico will be revealed. Historical evidence suggests a Triple Gate connection This connection to Triple gate as Solomon Porch is shown in the maps of the 19th Century Explorations of the Temple Mount. During the 19th century Muslim rulers allowed various archaeological expeditions to take place in Jerusalem; some were funded by the Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem. Among the early explorers of Palestine were men like Titus Tobler who conducted an expedition in the 1840s.

The account of James Ferguson is found in An Essay on the Ancient Topography of Jerusalem, published in 1847. Thomas Lewin ESQ. authored Siege of Jerusalem by Titus, in 1863. Captain Charles Wilson documented the Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem in 1886. In an effort to identify the location of the first and second Temple site, these scientists relied on the Jewish Mishna and the historical writings of Josephus, they conducted and documented their own extensive research which included detailed topographical maps of both Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. The maps drawn by these early explorers show the Temple of Herod as being a furlong by a furlong square, stretching 606 feet in each direction from the SW corner of the Temple Mount with its east wall landing on a substructure called Triple Gate. A collection of these maps can be viewed here. In 1968, Archaeologist Benjamin Mazar made a notorious find at the base of the SW corner of the Temple Mount, which further identifies the location of Herod's Temple Complex.

The discovery of the Trumpeting Place confirms that the existing SW corner of the mount was part of Herod's 606 x 606 ft temple complex, as described by Josephus. The trumpeting stone fell during the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE, cracking the pavement stones of the first-century street below; as of 2016, clear evidence of two particular sets of blocked gates can be seen in the southern wall of the Temple Mount. These are known as the Triple Gate; the three arches of Triple Gate are not the original gates to the great halls within. In regards to the sealing of the gates, many scholars teach that these arches were blocked up by the Crusaders; some believe. Double Gate is closer to the SW corner of the Temple Mount; the triple arches, closer to the SE corner of the Temple

Mark Pitcavage

Mark Pitcavage is a historian and analyst of far right wing groups. He works with the Anti-Defamation League and was the creator of the now archived Militia Watchdog website; the site has been an archive since 2000 when Pitcavage took the position of Director of Fact Finding for the Anti-Defamation League. Mark Pitcavage earned a PhD in American military and social history from Ohio State University in 1995, his PhD dissertation was entitled "An Equitable Burden: The Decline of State Militias 1783-1858". The Militia Watchdog website was founded by Pitcavage in 1995 following the Oklahoma City bombing and operated until 2000; the site's subscription list, which included law enforcement officers and other "watchdog" groups, is still being used by the Anti-Defamation League. The site worked in cooperation with other "watchdog" groups such as The Center for New Community, The Center for Democratic Renewal, the Southern Poverty Law Center and the Simon Wiesenthal Center. Pitcavage's Militia Watchdog profiles have been used as a source for writers on militias and their activities.

With the success of the Militia Watchdog project, Pitcavage was made the Director of Investigative Research for the State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training Program. SLATT is an FBI domestic intelligence gathering apparatus that uses both paid and unpaid informants from organizations such as the Southern Poverty Law Center and The Center for New Community; the SLATT program is funded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance of the U. S. Department of Justice; the ADL absorbed Pitcavage's Militia Watchdog group and now maintains the site as an archive of his work between 1995 and 2000. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Pitcavage was cited as a terrorism and extremism expert by mainstream media. In 2002, he was interviewed and quoted at length about prison gangs by the Southern Poverty Law Center. Pitcavage has given interviews for radio stations such as KCBS. In 2006, a student radio station at St. Petersburg College interviewed Pitcavage for an episode titled "Militia Movement". Ropes of Sand: Territorial Militias, 1801-1812, Journal of the Early Republic, Vol. 13, No.

4, University of Pennsylvania Press Camouflage and Conspiracy: The Militia Movement From Ruby Ridge to Y2K, American Behavioral Scientist, 44, no. 6: 957-981

Edward Elgar

Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire. Among his best-known compositions are orchestral works including the Enigma Variations, the Pomp and Circumstance Marches, concertos for violin and cello, two symphonies, he composed choral works, including The Dream of Gerontius, chamber music and songs. He was appointed Master of the King's Musick in 1924. Although Elgar is regarded as a English composer, most of his musical influences were not from England but from continental Europe, he socially. In musical circles dominated by academics, he was a self-taught composer, he married the daughter of a senior British army officer. She inspired him both musically and but he struggled to achieve success until his forties, when after a series of moderately successful works his Enigma Variations became popular in Britain and overseas, he followed the Variations with a choral work, The Dream of Gerontius, based on a Roman Catholic text that caused some disquiet in the Anglican establishment in Britain, but it became, has remained, a core repertory work in Britain and elsewhere.

His full-length religious choral works were well received but have not entered the regular repertory. In his fifties, Elgar composed a violin concerto that were immensely successful, his second symphony and his cello concerto did not gain immediate public popularity and took many years to achieve a regular place in the concert repertory of British orchestras. Elgar's music came, in his years, to be seen as appealing chiefly to British audiences, his stock remained low for a generation after his death. It began to revive in the 1960s, helped by new recordings of his works; some of his works have, in recent years, been taken up again internationally, but the music continues to be played more in Britain than elsewhere. Elgar has been described as the first composer to take the gramophone seriously. Between 1914 and 1925, he conducted a series of acoustic recordings of his works; the introduction of the moving-coil microphone in 1923 made far more accurate sound reproduction possible, Elgar made new recordings of most of his major orchestral works and excerpts from The Dream of Gerontius.

Edward Elgar was born outside Worcester, England. His father, William Henry Elgar, was raised in Dover and had been apprenticed to a London music publisher. In 1841 William moved to Worcester, where he worked as a piano tuner and set up a shop selling sheet music and musical instruments. In 1848 he married daughter of a farm worker. Edward was the fourth of their seven children. Ann Elgar had converted to Roman Catholicism shortly before Edward's birth, he was baptised and brought up as a Roman Catholic, to the disapproval of his father. William Elgar was a violinist of professional standard and held the post of organist of St. George's Roman Catholic Church, from 1846 to 1885. At his instigation, masses by Cherubini and Hummel were first heard at the Three Choirs Festival by the orchestra in which he played the violin. All the Elgar children received a musical upbringing. By the age of eight, Elgar was taking piano and violin lessons, his father, who tuned the pianos at many grand houses in Worcestershire, would sometimes take him along, giving him the chance to display his skill to important local figures.

Elgar's mother encouraged his musical development. He inherited from a passionate love of the countryside, his friend and biographer W. H. "Billy" Reed wrote that Elgar's early surroundings had an influence that "permeated all his work and gave to his whole life that subtle but none the less true and sturdy English quality". He began composing at an early age; until he was fifteen, Elgar received a general education near Worcester. However, his only formal musical training beyond piano and violin lessons from local teachers consisted of more advanced violin studies with Adolf Pollitzer, during brief visits to London in 1877–78. Elgar said, "my first music was learnt in the Cathedral... from books borrowed from the music library, when I was eight, nine or ten." He worked through manuals of instruction on organ playing and read every book he could find on the theory of music. He said that he had been most helped by Hubert Parry's articles in the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Elgar began to learn German, in the hope of going to the Leipzig Conservatory for further musical studies, but his father could not afford to send him.

Years a profile in The Musical Times considered that his failure to get to Leipzig was fortunate for Elgar's musical development: "Thus the budding composer escaped the dogmatism of the schools." However, it was a disappointment to Elgar that on leaving school in 1872 he went not to Leipzig but to the office of a local solicitor as a clerk. He did not find an office career congenial, for fulfilment he turned not only to music but to literature, becoming a voracious reader. Around this time, he made his first public app

Roman Theatre, St Albans

The Roman theatre at St Albans, England is an excavated site within the Roman walled city of Verulamium. Although there are other Roman theatres in Britain, the one at Verulamium has been claimed to be the only example of its kind, being a theatre with a stage rather than an amphitheatre; the theatre differs from the typical Roman theatre in being built on a site, only sloping, in its plan. The theatre was built in about 140AD. Urban life continued in Verulamium into the 5th century. However, by that time the theatre had fallen into disuse, it was used as a rubbish dump in the 4th century. It was excavated in the 19th century, again in the 1930s by Kathleen Kenyon; the theatre is on land belonging to the Earl of Verulam and is opened to the public. It is sometimes used for theatrical performances. Roman theatre