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Thomas More

Sir Thomas More, venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author and noted Renaissance humanist. He was a Chancellor to Henry VIII, Lord High Chancellor of England from October 1529 to 16 May 1532, he wrote Utopia, published in 1516, about the political system of an ideal island nation. More opposed the Protestant Reformation, directing polemics against the theology of Martin Luther, John Calvin and William Tyndale. More opposed King Henry VIII's separation from the Catholic Church, refusing to acknowledge Henry as Supreme Head of the Church of England and the annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. After refusing to take the Oath of Supremacy, he was executed. On his execution, he was reported to have said: "I die the King's good servant, God's first". Pope Pius XI canonized More in 1935 as a martyr. Pope John Paul II in 2000 declared him the patron saint "of Statesmen and Politicians". Since 1980, the Church of England has remembered More liturgically as a Reformation martyr.

Praised by Marx and Engels, the Soviet Union in the early twentieth century honored him for the purportedly communist attitude toward property rights expressed in Utopia. Born on Milk Street in London, on 7 February 1478, Thomas More was the son of Sir John More, a successful lawyer and a judge, his wife Agnes, he was the second of six children. More was educated at St Anthony's School considered one of London's best schools. From 1490 to 1492, More served John Morton, the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Chancellor of England, as a household page. Morton enthusiastically supported the "New Learning", thought of the young More. Believing that More had great potential, Morton nominated him for a place at the University of Oxford. More began his studies at Oxford in 1492, received a classical education. Studying under Thomas Linacre and William Grocyn, he became proficient in both Greek. More left Oxford after only two years—at his father's insistence—to begin legal training in London at New Inn, one of the Inns of Chancery.

In 1496, More became a student at Lincoln's Inn, one of the Inns of Court, where he remained until 1502, when he was called to the Bar. According to his friend, theologian Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, More once contemplated abandoning his legal career to become a monk. Between 1503 and 1504 More lived near the Carthusian monastery outside the walls of London and joined in the monks' spiritual exercises. Although he admired their piety, More decided to remain a layman, standing for election to Parliament in 1504 and marrying the following year. More continued ascetic practices for the rest of his life, such as wearing a hair shirt next to his skin and engaging in flagellation. A tradition of the Third Order of Saint Francis honours More as a member of that Order on their calendar of saints. More married Jane Colt in 1505. Erasmus reported that More wanted to give his young wife a better education than she had received at home, tutored her in music and literature; the couple had four children before Jane died in 1511: Margaret, Elizabeth and John.

Going "against friends' advice and common custom," within thirty days More had married one of the many eligible women among his wide circle of friends. He chose a widow, to head his household and care for his small children; the speed of the marriage was so unusual that More had to get a dispensation from the banns of marriage, due to his good public reputation, he obtained. More had no children from his second marriage, although he raised Alice's daughter from her previous marriage as his own. More became the guardian of two young girls: Anne Cresacre would marry his son, John More. An affectionate father, More wrote letters to his children whenever he was away on legal or government business, encouraged them to write to him often. More insisted upon giving his daughters the same classical education as his son, an unusual attitude at the time, his eldest daughter, attracted much admiration for her erudition her fluency in Greek and Latin. More told his daughter of his pride in her academic accomplishments in September 1522, after he showed the bishop a letter she had written: When he saw from the signature that it was the letter of a lady, his surprise led him to read it more eagerly … he said he would never have believed it to be your work unless I had assured him of the fact, he began to praise it in the highest terms … for its pure Latinity, its correctness, its erudition, its expressions of tender affection.

He took out at once from his pocket a portague … to send to you as a pledge and token of his good will towards you. More's decision to educate his daughters set an example for other noble families. Erasmus became much more favourable once he witnessed their accomplishments. A portrait of More and his family, Sir Thomas More and Family, was painted by Holbein, but it was lost in a fire in the 18th century. More's grandson commissioned a copy. In 1504 More was elected to Parliament to represent Great Yarmouth, in 1510 began representing London. From 1510, More served as one of the two undersheriffs of the City of London, a position of considerable responsibility in which he earned a reput

Bengel (Mosel)

This is about the place. For the Lutheran clergyman see Johann Albrecht Bengel. Bengel is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany; the municipality lies at the foot of the Eifel on the river Alf near the Moselle valley, has some 900 inhabitants and is found in the Middle Moselle-Kondelwald holiday region. The municipal area is 78% wooded, it belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Traben-Trarbach. Bengel's Ortsteile are Neithof. In Springiersbach in 1102, the Augustinian Springiersbach Monastery was founded, to which the village of Bengel and Neithof were assigned. Beginning in 1794, Bengel lay under French hegemony. In 1802, the church and the monastery in Springiersbach were secularized. To save the new church from being torn down, the Bishop of Trier raised it to Parish Church of Bengel. In 1815, the municipality was assigned to the Kingdom of Prussia at the Congress of Vienna.

Since 1947, it has been part of the newly founded state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The council is made up of 12 council members, who were elected by majority vote at the municipal election held on 7 June 2009, the honorary mayor as chairman. In the outlying centre of Springiersbach stands the Springiersbach Monastery, founded in 1102 as an Augustinian institution and since 1922 a Carmelite convent with a Rococo church; this carved works that visitors may view. The convent was gutted by fire in 1940. Through Bengel runs Bundesstraße 49. To the west runs the Autobahn A 1; the municipality has at its disposal a railway station on the Moselstrecke. Municipality’s official webpage Springiersbach

Portage Point, Michigan

Portage Point is an unincorporated summer resort area of Onekama Township, Manistee County in the U. S. state of Michigan. It includes the site of the first town on Portage Lake at 44°21′43″N 86°15′42″W It is located on the narrow strip of land between Portage Lake and Lake Michigan developed by the Portage Point Association. A post office operated in summers from August 1917 until September 1921; the area was visited by Henri de Tonty in 1679 and other early explorers of the eastern coast of Lake Michigan. The first known non-Native Americans to live for any length of time near Portage Point was the crew of the schooner Prince Eugene that wrecked on 15 November 1835 three or four miles south of the present-day channel between Portage Lake and Lake Michigan. Not wanting to walk to the nearest town in winter, Grand Rapids or Muskegon, they built a log cabin in the dunes and waited for spring. Michigan became a state in 1837, in that same year the Federal government first surveyed the area around Portage Lake.

At that time the lake was called "O-neK-ama-engk", believed to be the native word for "portage". The natural outlet of Portage Lake was located about a mile north of the present-man made outlet; this stream ran northwesterly from the Portage Lake side the present-day intersection of Ridge Avenue and Portage Point Drive, north along Norwood Avenue to cross Lakeisle Avenue and to pass into Lake Michigan just north of the intersection of Lakeisle and Lakeside Avenue are located exactly on the section line separating sections 28 and 33. It was recognized early as an excellent site for a waterpowered saw mill. In 1845, Joseph Stronach purchased the land surrounding the outlet from Portage Lake and his uncle, James Stronach, built a dam and a sawmill at the outlet, about eight rods back from the Lake Michigan shore. In the summer of 1850, Joseph Stronach drowned while sailing from the Portage Creek outlet to Manistee and the property passed to his nephew, James Stronach, who maintained it until about 1852, when Joseph Harper purchased it.

At that point, the entrance to the Portage stream could accommodate vessels with a draft of nearly two feet, but could not pass the dam into Portage Lake. The mill burned in 1853. Harper returned the 40-acre property to Stronach, who in turn sold it to the J. L. James Company of Chicago. Over the next eighteen years, the mill was rebuilt and the property expanded to more than 4,000 acres of timberland; the property was operated successively by a number of firms, including Hannah and Rockwell in 1857, Coffin and Lockwood in 1860, Porter and Bates in 1866, Porter & Co. in 1868. By 1870, the operation of the sawmill and its dam had created difficulties for landowners on the northern and eastern shores of Portage Lake; the Lake as landlocked, except for the small stream and had a natural height about four to five feet above the level of Lake Michigan. The dam created at the Portage Mill to operate the saw mill was raised and had the effect of raising the water level of Portage Lake by an additional five to six feet, flooding the low-lying land at the far send of the lake.

From 1860, farmers in the area began to complain about the mill operators practice of periodically raising the Lake level to accommodate their needs for power to operate the saw mill. Additionally, the mill company began to charge high fees to use their pier at the Portage outlet. Business at Portage Mill increased and the site became a busy little village as the mill and its fifty workers cut 30,000 shingles, 10,000-12,000 pieces of lath a day 4.5 million feet of timber in the 1870 cutting season. By 1870, the pier at the Portage Mill was a wooden bridge pier, 30 to 40 feet wide, stood about 12 feet out of the water, extended several hundred feet into Lake Michigan. A narrow gauge railroad carries the timber from the mill out to the waiting vessels alongside the pier; the pier was known and used not only for loading sailing ships with lumber cut at the mill, but by sidewheel and propeller steam-powered vessels that stopped to refuel with wood or to pick up or deliver passengers and freight for the surrounding area.

The United States Government established Post Office at the Mill on 8 May 1871, but the Post Office Department required the name "O-nek-a-ma" for addresses in the area around Portage Lake, although the little village and mill retained the name "Portage". Meanwhile, the farmers operating their homestead lands around the shore of the lake were becoming exasperated by the Portage Mill operators. In 1868, a group of homesteaders had sought an injunction against Porter & Company to prevent the firm from raising their lake level above its natural levels, complaining that 400 acres had been flooded. Others complained; as a result, the circuit court ordered on 25 May 1870 the removal of the dam by 5 December 1870. The court order required that it be served on the proprietors of Porter & Company, but this proved to be difficult as they were located in Chicago. By mid-April 1871, the homesteaders made a formal complaint in Circuit Court reporting to the court that Porter & Company had failed to comply.

Under the pretense of starting a rival timber company, Nathan Pierce and Theodore Heiss had purchased a strip of land in 1867 from Andrew Shanks about a mile south of the Portage Mill on the narrow sand isthmus between Portage Lake and Lake Michigan. Four years Amos Pierce with a group of other like-minded men, decided to dig a ditch that would permanently lower Portage Lake to the level of Lake Michigan and put the Porta