Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme, was a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century. He is known as the Duke of Newcastle. A protégé of Sir Robert Walpole, he served under him for more than 20 years until 1742, he held power with his brother, Prime Minister Henry Pelham, until 1754. He had served as a Secretary of State continuously for 30 years and dominated British foreign policy. After Henry's death, the Duke of Newcastle was prime minister six years in two separate periods. While his first premiership was not notable, Newcastle precipitated the Seven Years' War, his weak diplomacy cost him the premiership. After his second term, he served in Lord Rockingham's ministry, before he retired from government, he was most effective as a deputy to a leader of greater ability, such as Walpole, his brother, or Pitt. Few politicians in British history matched his skills and industry in using patronage to maintain power over long stretches of time.
His genius appeared as the chief party manager for the Whigs from 1715 to 1761. He used his money to select candidates, distribute patronage and win elections, he was influential in the counties of Sussex, Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire. His greatest triumph came in the 1754 election. Outside the electoral realm, his reputation has suffered. Historian Harry Dickinson says that he becameNotorious for his fussiness and fretfulness, his petty jealousies, his reluctance to accept responsibility for his actions, his inability to pursue any political objective to his own satisfaction or to the nations profit... Many modern historians have depicted him as the epitome of unredeemed mediocrity and as a veritable buffoon in office. Thomas Pelham was born in London on 21 July 1693 the eldest son of Thomas Pelham, 1st Baron Pelham, by his second wife, the former Lady Grace Holles, younger sister of John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, he studied at Westminster School and was admitted a fellow-commoner at Clare College, Cambridge, in 1710.
Pelham's uncle died in 1711, his father the next year, both leaving their large estates to their nephew and son. When he came of age in 1714, Lord Pelham was one of the greatest landowners in the kingdom, enjoying enormous patronage in the county of Sussex. One stipulation of his uncle's will was that his nephew add Holles to his name, which he faithfully did, thereafter styling himself as Thomas Pelham-Holles. A long-standing legal dispute over the estate with his Aunt was settled in 1714, he identified with Whig politics, like his father and uncle, but whereas they had been moderate in their views, he grew more partisan and militant in his views. Britain was divided between Whigs who favoured the succession of George of Hanover after Queen Anne's death and Tories who supported the return of the Jacobite James Stuart, known as the'old pretender'; this issue dominated British politics during the last few years of Queen Anne's reign, leading up to her death in 1714, had a profound impact on the future career of the young Duke of Newcastle.
He joined the Hannover Club and the Kit Kat Club, both leading centres of Whig thinking and organisation. Newcastle House in London became his premier residence. Newcastle vigorously sustained the Whigs at Queen Anne's death and had much influence in making the Londoners accept King George I organising so-called'Newcastle mobs' to fight with rival Jacobites in the street, his services were too great to be neglected by the new Hanoverian king, in 1714, he was created Earl of Clare, in 1715 Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, two titles held by his late uncle John Holles. He became Lord-Lieutenant of the Counties of Middlesex and Nottingham and a Knight of the Garter. In his new position, he was in charge of suppressing Jacobitism in the counties under his control. In Middlesex, he arrested and questioned 800 people and drew up a Voluntary Defence Association to defend the county. In 1715, he became involved in a riot that ended with two men being killed, Newcastle fleeing along rooftops; the succession of George I was secured in late 1715 by the defeat of a Jacobite army at the Battle of Preston and the subsequent flight of the Old Pretender.
The victory of the Hanoverians over the Jacobites marked the beginning of the Whig Ascendancy which lasted for much of the 18th century. Because the Tory opposition had been tainted, in the eyes of George I, by their support of the Jacobite pretenders, he did not trust them and drew all of his ministers and officials from the Whigs. Following their victory, the Whigs split with one group forming the government for George I, the other dissident Whigs became the effective opposition in Parliament. After a period of political manoeuvring, he was for a while associated with a Whig faction led by James Stanhope, but from 1720, Newcastle began to identify with the government Whigs, who had come to be dominated by Sir Robert Walpole. Walpole gladly welcomed the young Newcastle into his coterie because Walpole believed that he could control Newcastle and because it would strengthen Walpole's hand against the rival Whig factions. Newcastle joined with Walpole because Newcastle believed that Walpole was going to dominate British politics for a generation.
In 1721, Walpole began to serve as Britain's first prime minister and would that position for the next 21 years. He was related to Walpole's leading ally, Charles Townshend, strengthening his bond with the leader of the new administration. On 2 April 1717, he increased his Whig connections by marrying Lady Henrietta Godolphin, the granddaughter of the Duke of
Mallee known as Roe Botanical District, is a biogeographic region in southern Western Australia. Located between the Esperance Plains, Avon Wheatbelt and Coolgardie regions, it has a low undulating topography, a semi-arid mediterranean climate, extensive Eucalyptus mallee vegetation. About half of the region has been cleared for intensive agriculture. Recognised as a region under the Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia, it was first defined by John Stanley Beard in 1980; the Mallee region has a complex shape with tortuous boundaries, but may be approximated as the triangular area south of a line from Bruce Rock to Eyre, but not within 40 kilometres of the south coast, except at its eastern limits. It has an area of about 79000 square kilometres, making it about a quarter of the South West Botanic Province, 3% of the state, 1% of Australia, it is bounded to the south by the Esperance Plains region. There are a number of small towns in the west of the region; these include Gnowangerup, Lake Grace, Newdegate and Hyden.
Of note is the tourist attraction Wave Rock. Further east, the area is uninhabited, except for Lake King, a few small towns along the road from Norseman to Esperance, such as Grass Patch and Salmon Gums. Most soil is sand over clay, overlying Proterozoic granite of the Yilgarn Craton. At the eastern limits there is some calcareous soil overlying Eocene limestone; the region has a low undulating topography, with somewhat occluded drainage, resulting in a series of playa lakes. Mallee is semi-arid, with a warm, Mediterranean climate, it has seven to eight dry months. Rainfall in winter is between 300 and 500 millimetres; the region's vegetation is predominantly Eucalyptus mallee over proteaceous heath. Over 50% of the area is vegetated by mallee, a further 25% is mallee but with patches of woodland; the mallee consists of the most consistent being E. eremophila. Seasonally wet and alluvial areas are vegetated by Melaleuca shrublands where fresh, Tecticornia low shrublands where saline. There are occasional thickets of Allocasuarina on greenstone hills.
As of 2007, the Mallee region is known to contain 3443 indigenous vascular plant species, a further 239 naturalised alien species. As with other regions in semi-arid areas of the South West, it exhibits high endemism with respect to Eucalyptus and Acacia species; the endangered flora of the Mallee region consists of 55 species, with a further 325 species having been declared Priority Flora under the Department of Environment and Conservation's Declared Rare and Priority Flora List. Species richness ranges from 17 to 48 species per 1000 m²; the lowest species richness occurs in severe habitats such as alongside salt lakes, but in the areas of highest soil nutrition, where dominant species suppress associated species. Conversely, the highest species richness occurs in soils with the lowest soil nutrition. Most species are killed by fire and regenerate from seed, suggesting that they have evolved in an environment in which fire is infrequent. 56% of the Mallee region falls within what the Department of Agriculture and Food calls the "Intensive Land-use Zone", the area of Western Australia, cleared and developed for intensive agriculture such as cropping and livestock production.
This includes most of the western parts of the region, a smaller area along the road from Norseman to Esperance. Within this area, only 19.5% of the native vegetation remains uncleared. The remaining 44% of the region falls within the "Extensive Land-use Zone", where the native vegetation has not been cleared but may have been degraded by the grazing of introduced animals and/or changes to the fire regime, thus about 44.9% of the total Mallee region has been cleared. The majority of clearing was undertaken by the Government of Western Australia between 1958 and 1969, under a program of assisted settlement in which the Government cleared and stocked virgin crown land sold it to aspiring settlers. There has been no further clearing since 1980, when Beard estimated the cleared proportion of the region at 44%. About 30% of the Esperance Plains region is now in protected areas, it therefore has only medium priority under Australia's National Reserve System. Early biogeographic regionalisations of Western Australia do not recognise the Mallee region.
It cannot be distinguished in Ludwig Diels' 1906 regionalisation of the South West, is treated as part of the Wheatbelt in Edward de Courcy Clarke's 1926 map. It first appeared in Beard's 1980 phytogeographic regionalisation of Western Australia, but with an eastern limit of Point Culver. Beard named it "Roe Botanical District" in honour of John Septimus Roe, who explored the area in 1848. By 1984, Beard's phytogeographic regions were being presented more as "natural regions", as such were given more recognisable names, thus the "Roe Botanical District" became "Mallee". When the IBRA was published in the 1990s, Beard's regionalisation was used as the baseline for Western Australia; the Mallee region was accepted as defined by Beard, has since survived a number of revisions. The only significant change to its boundary is the extension of its eastern boundary eastwards along the coast as far as Eyre; the most recent revision, Version 6.1, defines two sub-regions for the Mallee region, Western Mallee and Eastern Mallee.
Under the World Wildlife Fund's biogeographic
Environmental personhood is a legal concept which designates certain environmental entities the status of a legal person. This assigns to these entities, the rights, privileges and legal liability of a legal personality. Environmental personhood emerged from the evolution of legal focus in pursuit of the protection of nature. Over time, focus has evolved from human interests in exploiting nature, to protecting nature for future human generations, to conceptions that allow for nature to be protected as intrinsically valuable; this concept can be used as a vehicle for recognising Indigenous peoples' relationships to natural entities, such as rivers. Environmental personhood, which assigns nature certain rights, concurrently provides a means to individuals or groups such as Indigenous peoples to fulfill their human rights; the United States Professor Christopher D. Stone first discussed the idea of attributing legal personality to natural objects in the 1970s, in his article "Should trees have standing?
Towards legal rights for natural objects". A legal person cannot be owned. Standing is directly related to legal personality. Entities with standing, or locus standi, have the right or capacity to bring action or appear in court. Environmental entities can not themselves appear in court. However, this action or standing can be achieved on behalf of the entity by a representing legal guardian. Representation could increase protection of culturally significant aspects of the natural environment, or areas vulnerable to exploitation and pollution. In 2014, Te Urewera National Park was declared an environmental legal entity; the area encompassed by Te Urewera ceased to be a government-owned national park and was transformed into freehold, inalienable land owned by itself. Following the same trend, New Zealand’s Whanganui River was declared to be a legal person in 2017; this new legal entity was named Te Awa Tupua and is now recognised as “an indivisible and living whole from the mountains to the sea, incorporating the Whanganui River and all of its physical and metaphysical elements.”
The river would be represented by two guardians, one from the Whanganui iwi and the other from the Crown. In 2017, the New Zealand government signed an agreement granting similar legal personality to Mount Taranaki and pledging a name change for Egmont National Park, which surrounds the mountain; the Ganges and Yamuna Rivers are now considered legal persons in an effort to combat pollution. The rivers are sacred to Hindu culture for their healing powers and attraction of pilgrims who bathe and scatter the ashes of their dead; the rivers have been polluted by 1.5 billion litres of untreated sewage and 500 million litres of industrial waste entering the rivers daily. The High Court in the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand ordered in March 2017 that the Ganges and its main tributary, the Yamuna, be assigned the status of legal entities; the rivers would gain “all corresponding rights and liabilities of a living person.” This decision meant that damaging the rivers is equivalent to harming a person.
The court cited the example of the New Zealand Whanganui River, declared to possess full rights of a legal person. This development of environmental personhood has been met with scepticism as announcing that the Ganges and Yamuna are living entities will not save them from significant, ongoing pollution. There is a possible need to change long-held cultural attitudes towards the Ganges, which hold that the river has self-purifying properties. There is further criticism that the guardianship of the rivers was only granted to Uttarakhand, a region in northern India which houses a small part of the rivers’ full extent; the Ganges flows for 2,525 km through Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, with only a 96 km stretch running through Uttarakhand. Only a small section of the 1,376 km Yamuna tributary runs through Uttarakhand – which crosses through the states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Regardless of scepticism surrounding the decision of the Uttarakhand High Court, proclaiming these vulnerable rivers as legal entities invokes a movement of change towards environmental and cultural rights protection.
The decisions may be built upon as a foundation for future environmental legislative change. In 2006, a small community in Pennsylvania called Tamaqua Borough worked with a rights of nature group called the Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund. Together, the groups drafted legislation to protect the community and its environment from the dumping of toxic sewage. Since 2006, CELDF has assisted with over 30 communities in ten states across the United States to develop local laws codifying the rights of nature. CELDF assisted in the drafting of Ecuador's 2008 constitution following a national referendum. Besides Tamaqua, several other towns throughout the United States have drafted legislation that would, in effect, give nature natural rights. In 2008, residents in a town by the name of Shapleigh, Maine added a new section to their cities legal code; this new section stripped the rights of corporations granted by the United States Constitution, granted rights to the nature and natural bodies of water that surrounded Shapleigh.
What prompted the change to Shapleigh's legal code was a plan by the Nestle Corporation, which owns several water bottle brands such as Poland Spring, to pump truckloads of groundwater from Shapleigh to a water bottling facility. As of 2019, no lawsuits have been filed against Shapleigh, Maine for the change in the town's legal code, the Nestle Corporation has not chosen to challenge the cod
The Oklahoma State Cowboys wrestling team is a NCAA Division I wrestling program and is one of four full-member Big 12 Conference schools that participates in wrestling, along with eight Big 12 wrestling affiliate schools. Since the team's first season in 1914–15, it has won 34 team national championships, 134 individual NCAA championships, 213 wrestlers have earned 425 All-American honors; the Cowboys won the first official NCAA Division I Wrestling Team Championship in 1929. The Cowboys have won 234 individual conference titles; the program owns an all-time dual meet record of 1021-113-23. On January 28th, 2011, OSU became the second school in NCAA history to record one thousand dual victories, joining Iowa State University. Cowboy wrestling extends back to 1914–15 when A. M. Colville led the first team at what was Oklahoma A&M; that team lost. The next season, athletic director Edward C. Gallagher would take over the team, he coached the first national championship team in 1928. He was the coach of eight of the first ten national champions as his teams won in 1928, 1929, 1930, 1934, 1935, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940.
Only a strong 1936 Oklahoma team coached by Paul Keen kept him from sweeping the first 10 official NCAA Championships. He coached 50 official All-Americans and 26 official individual champions in the earliest days of the tournament. Following Gallagher's death in 1940, A&M to find a coach who could continue their winning tradition. For that task, the Cowboys turned to longtime coach at Central High School in Tulsa. In 15 years, Griffith he won 94 of 100 matches, including 50 in a row at one point. Once he arrived in Stillwater, Griffith picked up where Gallagher left off, winning eight national championships in 13 years, he continued two streaks left by Gallagher. First, he extended the four consecutive championships Gallagher had left with to seven losing out in 1947 to Cornell. Second, he extended the 27 consecutive dual meet victory streak to 76, before losing in 1951. Griffith's wrestlers won 27 individual championships and were All-Americans 64 times from 1941–1956, he retired on top after winning three consecutive NCAA Championships and going 78-7-4 for his career, including ten undefeated teams.
One of Griffith's wrestlers, Myron Roderick, was chosen to succeed his former coach following his retirement in 1956. As a wrestler for Griffith, Roderick went 42–2 and became a three-time national champion from 1954–1956. After he returned from the 1956 Olympics, he took over as head coach, his first team was one of his least successful, finishing fourth at nationals with only one champion and three All-Americans to his credit. However, his 1957–58 and 1958–59 teams dominated the NCAA tournament, winning in convincing fashion with four champions and 15 All-Americans between the two years, his 1960 team couldn't compete with a much stronger Oklahoma team coached by Thomas Evans. However, Roderick's teams once again rebounded with championship wins in 1961 and 1962, winning five individual championships and another 15 All-Americans. By the end of his career in 1969, he had coached seven team champions, 20 individual champions, 79 All-Americans; the dual success continued into the 1970s and 80s, with Tommy Chesbro leading the way from 1969-84.
However, the NCAA title train ended during this time. He only won one national title, in part because his tenure coincided with the sudden rise of Iowa wrestling under Dan Gable; the Cowboys won only one title under Chesbro’s watch. Still, Chesbro managed to pass Gallagher as the winningest coach in school history, his dual mark of 227-26-0 would remain the best record in the history of the program until it was surpassed by current coach John Smith. Smith took over the Cowboy wrestling program in 1991 in the wake of NCAA sanctions and probation left over from previous head coach Joe Seay, who had won two national titles with a 114-18-2 overall record. Smith’s first season saw the Cowboys take second at Nationals, but his second season was crippled by the probation; the Pokes were banned from post-season competition. But the next season, the Cowboys were back as top wrestlers who had taken a redshirt year during the probation were back on the mat. OSU won the team title; the middle part of the 90s, saw the OSU program grow somewhat stagnant.
Wrestlers were still winning individual titles and claiming All-American honors and the team was still winning Big Eight and Big 12 Conference crowns, but their showings at Nationals were disappointing. Between 1995 -- 2002, the Cowboys finished third three times, but in 2002, the Cowboys were back in the saddle once again, winning the conference and NCAA titles and sporting a 17–0 record. It would be the first of four straight national championships reestablishing OSU's dominance in the wrestling world; the Cowboys were at their peak from 2002 to 2005, when they sported a combined record of 55–2. Smith has 239 wins as coach at OSU, the most in school history. Oklahoma State has had a number of key wrestlers that have been crucial to strengthening their program throughout the years. Yojiro Uetake, an Oklahoma State wrestler from Japan, is a prime example of this. To this day, Uetake holds the title of the only Cowboy wrestler to remain undefeated throughout his entire college career, ending with a record of 58 wins and no losses.
During his time as a 130-pound wrestler for OSU, Uetake won a total of three individual Big 8 and national championships. After graduating in Stillwa
Illimani is the highest mountain in the Cordillera Real of western Bolivia. It lies near the cities of La Paz at the eastern edge of the Altiplano, it is the second highest peak in Bolivia, after Nevado Sajama, the eighteenth highest peak in South America. The snow line lies at about 4,570 metres above sea level, glaciers are found on the northern face at 4,983 m; the mountain has four main peaks. Geologically, Illimani is composed of granodiorite, intruded during the Cenozoic era into the sedimentary rock, which forms the bulk of the Cordillera Real. Illimani is quite visible from the cities of El Alto and La Paz, is their major landmark; the mountain has been the subject of many local songs, most "Illimani", with the following refrain: "¡Illimani, centinela tú eres de La Paz! ¡Illimani, perla andina eres de Bolivia!" Illimani was first attempted in 1877 by the French explorator Charles Wiener, J. de Grumkow, J. C. Ocampo, they failed to reach the main summit, but did reach a southeastern subsummit, on 19 May 1877, Wiener named it the "Pic de Paris", left a French flag on top of it.
In 1898, British climber William Martin Conway and two Italian guides, J. A. Maquignaz and L. Pellissier, made the first recorded ascent of the peak, again from the southeast.. The current standard route on the mountain climbs the west ridge of the main summit, it was first climbed in 1940, by the Germans R. Boetcher, F. Fritz, W. Kühn, is graded French PD+/AD-; this route requires four days, the summit being reached in the morning of the third day. In July 2010 German climber Florian Hill and long-time Bolivian resident Robert Rauch climbed a new route on the'South Face', completing most of the 1700m of ascent in 21 hours. Deliver Me appears to climb the gable-end of the South West Ridge, a steep wall threatened by large broken seracs. In 1973 Pierre Dedieu and Ernesto Sánchez, Bolivia's best climber, perished climbing Illimani in August. In November an Italian expedition after ascending Illimani undertook the search for their bodies, locating the body of Sánchez, but on the 23rd of that month, during extended search for Dedieu, the Italian leader Carlo Nembrini fell to his death.
Illimani was the site where Eastern Air Lines Flight 980 crashed on January 1, 1985. US Major Kenneth R. Miller, US Colonel Paul Bruce Kappelman, Bolivian guide Vincente Perez died in a climbing accident on June 7, 2003. A German climber died on May 2, 2017 due to an avalanche occurring during the evening as he and his guide were climbing; the guide survived with minor injuries. Cordillera Kimsa Cruz Illimani on Peakware
Briarcliff High School is a public secondary school in Briarcliff Manor, New York that serves students in grades 9–12. It is the only high school in the Briarcliff Manor Union Free School District, sharing its campus with Briarcliff Middle School; as of 2014, the principal is Debora French and the assistant principals are Daniel Goldberg and Diana Blank. Briarcliff is noted for outstanding student achievement, testing scores and accomplishments, including a regarded science research program, world language and performing arts programs, University in the High School and Advanced Placement courses, graduation and college attendance rates; the school has an 11:1 student–teacher ratio, nearly every student has at least grade-level proficiency in mathematics and English. The student body consists of graduates from Briarcliff Middle School. Additionally, students graduating from Pocantico Hills Central School have the option to attend high school either at Briarcliff High School, Pleasantville High School, or Sleepy Hollow High School.
The majority, 75 percent in 2013, attend Briarcliff High School. Students from Pocantico Hills as well as other districts pay a tuition fee to attend. In 2015, Newsweek ranked the high school 31st-best in the country; the school was founded in 1928 at the Grade School building adjacent to Law Memorial Park. In 1971, the school moved to its current facility on the east border of the village. From 1865 until 1918, Briarcliff Manor served students up to the ninth grade. Before 1918, Briarcliff students who wanted to proceed to high school would attend the nearby Ossining High School. After 1918, Briarcliff introduced an advanced curriculum for high school students. In 1923, four students were the first in a Briarcliff school to receive high school diplomas. In 1928, with the entrance of additional high school students, an extension was added to the Spanish Renaissance-style Grade School for use as Briarcliff High School; the building was located adjacent to the Walter W. Law Memorial Park; the enlarged school accepted students from Croton, North White Plains, as far as Granite Springs.
The high school newspaper, The Briarcliff Bulletin, was founded in 1948. As Briarcliff's student population expanded, the need for more school facilities became apparent. In 1950, students from kindergarten to fifth grade were moved to the new Todd Elementary School. In spite of the newly empty space in the Grade School building, the high school population's continued growth necessitated the construction of a new structure. Efforts were delayed until the 1960s, when the village government made plans to purchase 55 acres of the Choate estate. Pace University, purchased the entire estate, it remains its Pleasantville campus; the Briarcliff Manor Board of Education took the matter to court and succeeded, Pace sold 35 acres to the village, which bought eight additional acres. The new site was completed in 1968, the current high school building opened in 1971. In the 1980s, as school enrollment declined and costs increased, the Grade School building was leased to Pace University and the remaining students in that building occupied a portion of the new High School building.
In 1988, a plan for a larger village and school meeting and performance area was initiated. A new auditorium was completed in 1998. After a bond vote in 2001, the current Briarcliff Middle School was constructed in the early 2000s adjoining the high school. In the summer and fall of 2011, several renovations took place, affecting the high school. All front-facing windows of the high school were replaced with energy-efficient windows, a permanent-storage building was constructed on the northeast side to store auditorium and maintenance supplies. In addition, many of the computers in the school were replaced with thin client computers. In 2013, the school's cardiovascular and weight lifting center was improved with more machines and equipment, increased space, new flat screen televisions, other additions. In 2013 and 2014, the school's fields on the property were remediated due to the use of contaminated fill; the football field was completed with artificial turf, as well as the track and artificial turf baseball field.
The lower soccer field will be reconstructed after the fall 2014 soccer season. Work on the softball field was finished in fall 2013. A security plan is to be submitted to the New York State Education Department; as of 2014, the school had 587 students, including 81 from the Pocantico Hills Central School, comprising 13.8 percent of the student body. Students in the graduating class of 2013 had a 100 percent graduation rate and a 99 percent college placement rate. 99 percent of those students graduated with a Regents diploma, 50 percent with Advanced Designation with Honors, 21 percent with Advanced Designation, 3 percent obtained Regents with Honors. 24 percent graduated with 1 percent with a local diploma. Briarcliff High School hosts several musical groups. School groups include the Fall Drama, the Spring Musical, Jazz Band, Pep Band, Clifftones, Chamber Orchestra, Garage Orchestra; the high school prides itself on its arts curricula, produces musicals and dramatic productions at the school auditorium, built in 1998 and seats 500.
In 2010, it was renamed for former Superintendent Frances G. Wills; the auditorium has hosted other Briarcliff shows and events, including the Centennial Variety Show from April 26–27, 2002, arranged by the nine-member Briarcliff Manor Centennial Committee for the village's centennial celebration