Henbury Village Hall
Henbury Village Hall was built as a school in the Henbury area of Bristol, England. It was built in 1830 in a Tudor Revival style by Thomas Rickman, on the site of a charity school which had stood on the site since 1601, it has been designated by English Heritage as a grade II listed building. Grade II listed buildings in Bristol
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England. Part of Warwickshire, Coventry is the 9th largest city in England and the 12th largest in the United Kingdom, it is the second largest city in the West Midlands region, after Birmingham. Coventry is 19 miles east-southeast of Birmingham, 24 miles southwest of Leicester, 11 miles north of Warwick and 94 miles northwest of London. Coventry is the most central city in England, being only 11 miles south-southwest of the country's geographical centre in Leicestershire; the current Coventry Cathedral was built after the majority of the 14th century cathedral church of Saint Michael was destroyed by the Luftwaffe in the Coventry Blitz of 14 November 1940. Coventry motor companies have contributed to the British motor industry; the city has two universities, Coventry University in the city centre and the University of Warwick on the southern outskirts. On 7 December 2017, the city won the title of UK City of Culture 2021, after beating Paisley, Stoke-on-Trent and Sunderland to the title.
They will be the third title holder, of the quadrennial award which began in 2013. The Romans founded a settlement in Baginton, next to the River Sowe, another formed around a Saxon nunnery, founded c. AD 700 by St Osburga, left in ruins by King Canute's invading Danish army in 1016. Earl Leofric of Mercia and his wife Lady Godiva built on the remains of the nunnery and founded a Benedictine monastery in 1043 dedicated to St Mary. In time, a market was established at the settlement expanded. Coventry Castle was a bailey castle in the city, it was built in the early 12th century by 4th Earl of Chester. Its first known use was during The Anarchy when Robert Marmion, a supporter of King Stephen, expelled the monks from the adjacent priory of Saint Mary in 1144, converted it into a fortress from which he waged a battle against the Earl. Marmion perished in the battle, it was demolished in the late 12th century and St Mary's Guildhall was built on part of the site. It is assumed. By the 14th century, Coventry was an important centre of the cloth trade, throughout the Middle Ages was one of the largest and most important cities in England.
The bishops of Lichfield were referred to as bishops of Coventry and Lichfield, or Lichfield and Coventry. Coventry claimed the status of a city by ancient prescriptive usage, was granted a charter of incorporation in 1345, in 1451 became a county in its own right; the plays that William Shakespeare witnessed in Coventry during his boyhood or'teens' may have influenced how his plays, such as Hamlet, came about. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Coventry became one of the three main British centres of watch and clock manufacture and ranked alongside Prescot, in Lancashire and Clerkenwell in London; as the industry declined, due to competition from Swiss Made clock and watch manufacturers, the skilled pool of workers proved crucial to the setting up of bicycle manufacture and the motorbike, machine tool and aircraft industries. In the late 19th century, Coventry became a major centre of bicycle manufacture; the industry energised by the invention by James Starley and his nephew John Kemp Starley of the Rover safety bicycle, safer and more popular than the pioneering penny-farthing.
The company became Rover. By the early 20th century, bicycle manufacture had evolved into motor manufacture, Coventry became a major centre of the British motor industry; the research and design headquarters of Jaguar Cars is in the city at their Whitley plant and although vehicle assembly ceased at the Browns Lane plant in 2004, Jaguar's head office returned to the city in 2011, is sited in Whitley. Jaguar is owned by Tata Motors. With many of the city's older properties becoming unfit for habitation, the first council houses were let to their tenants in 1917. With Coventry's industrial base continuing to soar after the end of the Great War a year numerous private and council housing developments took place across the city in the 1920s and 1930s; the development of a southern by-pass around the city, starting in the 1930s and being completed in 1940, helped deliver more urban areas to the city on rural land. Coventry suffered severe bomb damage during the Second World War. There was a massive Luftwaffe air raid that the Germans called Operation Moonlight Sonata, part of the "Coventry Blitz", on 14 November 1940.
Firebombing on this date led to severe damage to large areas of the city centre and to Coventry's historic cathedral, leaving only a shell and the spire. More than 4,000 houses were damaged or destroyed, along with around three quarters of the city's industrial plants. More than 800 people were killed, with thousands injured and homeless. Aside from London and Plymouth, Coventry suffered more damage than any other British city during the Luftwaffe attacks, with huge firestorms devastating most of the city centre; the city was targeted due to its high concentration of armaments, munitions and aero-engine plants which contributed to the British war effort, although there have been claims that Hitler launched the attack as revenge for the bombing of Munich by the RAF six days before the Coventry Blitz and chose the Midlands city because its medieval heart was regarded as one of the finest in Britain. Following the raids, the majority of Coventry's historic buildings could not be saved as they were in ruinous states or were deemed unsafe for any future use.
Several structures were demolished to make way for
The term Norman architecture is used to categorise styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans in the various lands under their dominion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries. In particular the term is traditionally used for English Romanesque architecture; the Normans introduced large numbers of castles and fortifications including Norman keeps, at the same time monasteries, abbeys and cathedrals, in a style characterised by the usual Romanesque rounded arches and massive proportions compared to other regional variations of the style. These Romanesque styles originated in Normandy and became widespread in north western Europe in England, which contributed considerable development and has the largest number of surviving examples. At about the same time a Norman dynasty ruled in Sicily, producing a distinctive variation incorporating Byzantine and Saracen influences, known as Norman architecture, or alternatively as Sicilian Romanesque. Ancient Rome's invention of the arch is the basis of all Norman architecture.
The term may have originated with eighteenth-century antiquarians, but its usage in a sequence of styles has been attributed to Thomas Rickman in his 1817 work An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest to the Reformation which used the labels "Norman, Early English and Perpendicular". The more inclusive term romanesque was used of the Romance languages in English by 1715, was applied to architecture of the eleventh and twelfth centuries from 1819. Although Edward the Confessor built Westminster Abbey in Romanesque style just before the Conquest, still believed to be the earliest major Romanesque building in England, no significant remaining Romanesque architecture in Britain can be shown to predate the Conquest, although historians believe that many surviving "Norman" elements in buildings, nearly all churches, may well in fact be Anglo-Saxon; the Norman arch is a defining point of Norman architecture. Grand archways are designed to evoke feelings of awe and are commonly seen as the entrance to large religious buildings such as cathedrals.
Viking invaders arrived at the mouth of the river Seine in 911, at a time when Franks were fighting on horseback and Frankish lords were building castles. Over the next century the population of the territory ceded to the Vikings, now called Normans, adopted these customs as well as Christianity and the langue d'oïl. Norman barons built timber castles on earthen mounds, beginning the development of motte-and-bailey castles, great stone churches in the Romanesque style of the Franks. By 950, they were building stone; the Normans were among the most travelled peoples of Europe, exposing them to a wide variety of cultural influences which became incorporated in their art and architecture. They elaborated on the early Christian basilica plan. Longitudinal with side aisles and an apse they began to add in towers, as at the Church of Saint-Étienne]] at Caen, in 1067; this would form a model for the larger English cathedrals some 20 years later. In England, Norman nobles and bishops had influence before the Norman Conquest of 1066, Norman influences affected late Anglo-Saxon architecture.
Edward the Confessor was brought up in Normandy and in 1042 brought masons to work on the first Romanesque building in England, Westminster Abbey. In 1051 he brought in Norman knights. Following the invasion, Normans constructed motte-and-bailey castles along with churches and more elaborate fortifications such as Norman stone keeps; the buildings show massive proportions in simple geometries using small bands of sculpture. Paying attention to the concentrated spaces of capitals and round doorways as well as the tympanum under an arch; the "Norman arch" is the rounded with mouldings carved or incised onto it for decoration. Chevron patterns termed "zig-zag mouldings", were a frequent signature of the Normans; the cruciform churches had deep chancels and a square crossing tower which has remained a feature of English ecclesiastical architecture. Hundreds of parish churches were built and the great English cathedrals were founded from 1083. After a fire damaged Canterbury Cathedral in 1174 Norman masons introduced the new Gothic architecture.
Around 1191 Wells Cathedral and Lincoln Cathedral brought in the English Gothic style, Norman became a modest style of provincial building. Oxford Castle 1074: church tower doubles as a place of refuge St John's Chapel, Tower of London Durham Cathedral was the first to employ a ribbed vault system with pointed arches Winchester Cathedral Ely Cathedral Peterborough Cathedral Kilpeck Church, Herefordshire St Nicholas Church, Surrey Southwell Minster St Mary the Virgin, Oxfordshire St Swithun's in Nately Scures, Hampshire, an example of a Norman single-cell apsidal church. Norwich Cathedral St Edward's Church St Botolph's Priory, Colchester St John's Abbey, Colchester St Peter’s Church, Rutland – Norman chancel Dunstable PrioryBibliography Sedding, Edmund H. Norman Architecture in Cornwall: a handbook to old ecclesiastical architecture. With over 160 plates. London: Ward & Co. White Tower Rochester Castle Norwich Castle Colchester Castle, the largest Norman castle built and the first stone Keep in England Hedingham Castle, Essex Jew's House, Lincoln Boothby Pagnell Manor, Lincolnshire Oakham Castle, Rutland Moyse's Hall Museum Bury St Edmunds Suffolk Scotland came under early
The Trinity Centre the Holy Trinity Church, in Lawrence Hill, Bristol is designated by English Heritage as a grade II* listed building. The building is protected by a covenant, which states that it is to only be used for community, arts and education services; this covenant has influenced much of the building's recent use as an arts and community venue. The church was built between 1829 and 1832 by Thomas Rickman and Henry Hutchinson, two architects from Birmingham, who designed the piers, perimeter walls and railings which are listed; the church is built using Bath stone in a Perpendicular style, a style of English Gothic architecture characterised by its strong emphasis on the vertical elements and its linear design. It has two octagonal bell towers with open turrets on the west face of the building; the towers sit on either side of the west window. During a period when the building sat empty, the bells were taken and either sold for scrap or to another church; the towers now are occupied only by bats and pigeons.
The original bells and fittings were replaced with new ones in April 1927. The work was carried out by local firm James Ltd of Castle Green, it cost £47 10s for bells and labour although an additional £3 10s was incurred when the workmen realised that they had to remove the floor of the towers to get the new bells in. The Holy Trinity Church had 2,200 seats with 1,500 of these being free; the Napoleonic War against France, which had raged for 12 years ended in 1815, with the defeat of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Waterloo. With victory came money for Britain and her allies. In 1818, £1,000,000 was given by Parliament to build new churches across the country. In 1824, a further £ 500,000 was given to continue; the acts became known as the'Million' and'Half Million' Acts. Churches built as a result of these acts became known as'Million','Half Million', or Waterloo churches. £6,000 was given to the out parish of St Philip's with a further £2,200 raised by the laymen. This and other sources brought.
4d. The church took 26 months of hard work to build; the foundation stone was laid on 22 September 1829, by the Lord Mayor John Cave. The consecration of the completed church took place by the Bishop of Bristol on 17 February 1832. Work was carried out on the building circa 1882 by John Bevan and in 1905 by William Venn Gough. Due to the small size of Trinity's graveyard, when graves were dug, they were dug deep and coffins were stacked on top of each other to maximise the use of space; when the church was deconsecrated the coffins were exhumed and moved to other graveyards such as Arnos Vale Cemetery. In the 19th Century there was no provision for street lighting or for constables to patrol after dark. Hand-in-hand with this went crime. Attempts to curb crime by making the death penalty a mandatory sentence for the smallest capital felony had little perceived impact. Local authorities felt the way to address the problem was to engage the spiralling population in Christian worship, the Holy Trinity Church was built.
On 24 April 1869, policeman PC Richard Hill 273 was stabbed to death by 19-year-old local labourer William Pullin. Thousands of people turned up to his funeral at Trinity, lining the streets all the way from the church to the burial at Arnos Vale. Pullin would have hanged had it not been for the intervention of more than 7,000 individuals petitioning for mercy on his behalf, on the grounds that he was a young man of good nature who had come to this terrible act due to circumstance. A marble memorial tablet that once resided in the Holy Trinity Church can now be found in the foyer of Old Market's Trinity Road police station, which reads: In memory of Richard Hill, police constable of this city, murdered whilst in the execution of his duty in Gloucester Lane, 24 April 1869, aged 31 years, was interred in Arnos Vale Cemetery; this tablet was erected as a mark of esteem by his brother inhabitants of the city. A brave man: PC Richard Hill was not forgotten. Parish records for Holy Trinity church, St Philip's, Bristol are held at Bristol Archives including baptism and burial registers.
The archive includes records of the incumbent, parochial church council, charities, Easton Christian Family Centre and societies plus photographs. The Holy Trinity Church of St Philip & St Jacob closed due to dwindling congregations and lack of money; the building sat empty for a decade, spiralling further into disrepair, due to vandalism and looting. Discontent amongst black and minority ethnic young people escalated due to unemployment and increasing clashes with the police. Local leaders looking to ease tensions agreed for Trinity to be deconsecrated and given to the public, for use as a community centre, with a focus on activities for young people; the building was transferred to the African-Caribbean Community Association with a 50-year lease, under the management of Mr Roy de Freitas. The group carried out extensive repairs and alternations to the building, including the installation of a second floor. On 1 July 1978, the same day as St Paul's Festival, now called Carnival, Trinity Community Centre was opened to the public.
The Trinity Centre's early years as a community centre and music venue were set against a backdrop of rising local tensions, culminating in the St. Pauls riot. During the early part of this decade, the centre provided a much needed outlet for local youth culture, hosting nights of dub and reggae from the likes of Jah Shaka and Quaker City, playing host to some of the biggest domestic and international music stars of the
Rose Castle is a 16,244 square feet fortified house in Cumbria, England, on a site, home to the bishops of Carlisle from 1230 to 2009. It is 1.5 miles from Dalston itself. The architects Anthony Salvin and Thomas Rickman were responsible for the alterations which took place in the 19th century; the historical importance of Rose Castle is shown by its Grade I listing by Historic England. In September 2015, Rose Castle was listed for sale, with a sale price in excess of £2,950,000, it has since been purchased with the aim to turn it into an international centre of reconciliation. Grade I listed buildings in Cumbria Listed buildings in Dalston, Cumbria Rose Castle Foundation Raughton Head Parish Magazine Gatehouse Project page A brief history of Rose Castle Garden
Henbury is a suburb of Bristol, England 5 miles north west of the city centre. It was a village in Gloucestershire and is now bordered by Westbury-on-Trym to the south. To the north lie the South Gloucestershire village of Hallen and the entertainment/retail park Cribbs Causeway; the Hazel Brook, a tributary of the River Trym, flows through Henbury and crosses Henbury Road in a small ford near The Salutation pub. The ford is more than a foot deep often and a small bridge exists as a main route for motor vehicles a few metres away. Henbury is the name of a council ward for Bristol City Council that includes both Henbury and Brentry. Henbury Golf Club sits on the south border. Henbury was first mentioned in 692 as Heanburg; the name is from the Old English hēan byrig, meaning'high fortified place'. It was mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Henberie. Henbury was a large parish and the centre of a hundred of the same name; the parish extended to the River Severn and included King's Weston, Lawrence Weston, Charlton, Pilning and Aust.
When the civil parish was created in 1866, parts of the ancient parish were separated to form the civil parishes of Redwick and Northwick and Aust. The parish of Compton Greenfield, including the village of Easter Compton, was added to the civil parish of Henbury in 1885. In 1901, part of the civil parish was absorbed into Bristol, further parts were absorbed into Bristol between and 1933. In 1935, the civil parish was abolished, when the remaining parts were absorbed into the civil parishes of Pilning and Severn Beach, Almondsbury. Botany Bay is an old name for the area of Henbury centred on the modern Marmion Crescent believed to derive from the nineteenth-century name of a row of cottages; the Great House, Henbury was the home of the Astry family, of the slave or manservant Scipio Africanus. Nearby Henbury Court was built by Thomas Stock to replace the Great House. Henbury Court was demolished in the 1950s; the parish Church of St Mary the Virgin dates from 1096. The tower is from the early 13th century.
The north chapel was built, further restoration work undertaken by Thomas Rickman in 1836, with further restoration by G. E. Street in 1875-7, it is a grade II* listed building. The churchyard contains the grave of Scipio Africanus, the west African 18th-century manservant of Charles William Howard, 7th Earl of Suffolk. Emmanuel Chapel Henbury is an independent evangelical church located on Satchfield Crescent. St Antony's Church is a Catholic church, built in the 1950s and is located on Satchfield Crescent. List of schools in Henbury, Bristol: Henbury Court Primary School Blaise Primary School Henbury Secondary School Woodstock Special School Henbury Village Hall is a Grade II listed building. Henbury Leisure Centre is home to a 25-metre swimming pool, fitness suite, full-size all-weather pitch and a variety of fitness programmes and classes, it is located on the site of Henbury Secondary School. The Henbury Lodge Hotel is operated by Best Western; the building itself is believed to have been built around 1600 as two cottages, before being combined into one dwelling in 1712.
Henbury is served by buses of First West of England, routes 1,3,4 and 76. Henbury provides good access to major trunk roads such as the A4018, M5 motorways, it is located two miles away from M5 junction 17 and five miles from the M4/M5 interchange. Bristol city centre is five miles south east of Henbury. Henbury station on the Henbury Loop railway between St Andrews Road and Filton Junction was opened in 1910 and closed in 1964; the station is scheduled to reopen in 2021 as part of MetroWest's Phase Two, with trains calling at Bristol Temple Meads railway station
Birmingham is the second-most populous city in the United Kingdom, after London, the most populous city in the English Midlands. It is the most populous metropolitan district in the United Kingdom, with an estimated 1,137,123 inhabitants, is considered the social, cultural and commercial centre of the Midlands, it is the main local government of the West Midlands conurbation, the third most populated urban area in the United Kingdom, with a population of 2,897,303 in 2017. The wider Birmingham metropolitan area is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a population of over 4.3 million. It is referred to as the United Kingdom's "second city". A market town in the medieval period, Birmingham grew in the 18th-century Midlands Enlightenment and subsequent Industrial Revolution, which saw advances in science and economic development, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society. By 1791 it was being hailed as "the first manufacturing town in the world".
Birmingham's distinctive economic profile, with thousands of small workshops practising a wide variety of specialised and skilled trades, encouraged exceptional levels of creativity and innovation and provided an economic base for prosperity, to last into the final quarter of the 20th century. The Watt steam engine was invented in Birmingham; the resulting high level of social mobility fostered a culture of political radicalism which, under leaders from Thomas Attwood to Joseph Chamberlain, was to give it a political influence unparalleled in Britain outside London, a pivotal role in the development of British democracy. From the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, Birmingham was bombed by the German Luftwaffe in what is known as the Birmingham Blitz; the damage done to the city's infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive urban regeneration in subsequent decades. Birmingham's economy is now dominated by the service sector.
The city is a major international commercial centre, ranked as a beta- world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Its metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $121.1bn, its six universities make it the largest centre of higher education in the country outside London. Birmingham's major cultural institutions – the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, the Birmingham Royal Ballet, the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, the Library of Birmingham and the Barber Institute of Fine Arts – enjoy international reputations, the city has vibrant and influential grassroots art, music and culinary scenes. Birmingham is the fourth-most. People from Birmingham are called Brummies, a term derived from the city's nickname of "Brum", which originates from the city's old name, which in turn is thought to have derived from "Bromwich-ham"; the Brummie accent and dialect are distinctive. Birmingham's early history is that of a marginal area; the main centres of population and wealth in the pre-industrial English Midlands lay in the fertile and accessible river valleys of the Trent, the Severn and the Avon.
The area of modern Birmingham lay in between, on the upland Birmingham Plateau and within the densely wooded and sparsely populated Forest of Arden. There is evidence of early human activity in the Birmingham area dating back to around 8000 BC, with stone age artefacts suggesting seasonal settlements, overnight hunting parties and woodland activities such as tree felling; the many burnt mounds that can still be seen around the city indicate that modern humans first intensively settled and cultivated the area during the bronze age, when a substantial but short-lived influx of population occurred between 1700 BC and 1000 BC caused by conflict or immigration in the surrounding area. During the 1st-century Roman conquest of Britain, the forested country of the Birmingham Plateau formed a barrier to the advancing Roman legions, who built the large Metchley Fort in the area of modern-day Edgbaston in AD 48, made it the focus of a network of Roman roads. Birmingham as a settlement dates from the Anglo-Saxon era.
The city's name comes from the Old English Beormingahām, meaning the home or settlement of the Beormingas – indicating that Birmingham was established in the 6th or early 7th century as the primary settlement of an Anglian tribal grouping and regio of that name. Despite this early importance, by the time of the Domesday Book of 1086 the manor of Birmingham was one of the poorest and least populated in Warwickshire, valued at only 20 shillings, with the area of the modern city divided between the counties of Warwickshire and Worcestershire; the development of Birmingham into a significant urban and commercial centre began in 1166, when the Lord of the Manor Peter de Bermingham obtained a charter to hold a market at his castle, followed this with the creation of a planned market town and seigneurial borough within his demesne or manorial estate, around the site that became the Bull Ring. This established Birmingham as the primary commercial centre for the Birmingham Plateau at a time when the area's economy was expanding with population growth nationally leading to the clearance and settlement of marginal land.
Within a century of the charter Birmingham had grown into a prosperous urban centre of merchants and craftsmen. By 1327 it was the third-largest town in Warwickshire, a position it would retain for the next 200 years; the principal governing institutions of medieval Birmingham – including the Guild of the Ho