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Thomas Telford

Thomas Telford FRS, FRSE was a Scottish civil engineer and stonemason, road and canal builder. After establishing himself as an engineer of road and canal projects in Shropshire, he designed numerous infrastructure projects in his native Scotland, as well as harbours and tunnels; such was his reputation as a prolific designer of highways and related bridges, he was dubbed The Colossus of Roads, reflecting his command of all types of civil engineering in the early 19th century, he was elected as the first President of the Institution of Civil Engineers, a post he held for 14 years until his death. Telford was born on 9 August 1757, at Glendinning, a hill farm 3 miles east of Eskdalemuir Kirk, in the rural parish of Westerkirk, in Eskdale, Dumfriesshire, his father John Telford, a shepherd, died. Thomas was raised in poverty by his mother Janet Jackson. At the age of 14, he was apprenticed to a stonemason, some of his earliest work can still be seen on the bridge across the River Esk in Langholm in the Scottish borders.

He worked for a time in Edinburgh and in 1782 he moved to London where, after meeting architects Robert Adam and Sir William Chambers, he was involved in building additions to Somerset House there. Two years he found work at Portsmouth dockyard and — although still self-taught — was extending his talents to the specification and management of building projects. In 1787, through his wealthy patron William Pulteney, he became Surveyor of Public Works in Shropshire. Civil engineering was a discipline still in its infancy, so Telford was set on establishing himself as an architect, his projects included renovation of Shrewsbury Castle, the town's prison, the Church of St. Mary Magdalene and another church, St Michael, in Madeley. Called in to advise on a leaking roof at St Chad's Church Shrewsbury in 1788, he warned the church was in imminent danger of collapse; as the Shropshire county surveyor, Telford was responsible for bridges. In 1790 he designed a bridge carrying the London–Holyhead road over the River Severn at Montford, the first of some 40 bridges he built in Shropshire, including major crossings of the Severn at Buildwas, Bridgnorth.

The bridge at Buildwas was Telford's first iron bridge. He was influenced by Abraham Darby's bridge at Ironbridge, observed that it was grossly over-designed for its function, many of the component parts were poorly cast. By contrast, his bridge was 30 ft wider in span and half the weight, although it now no longer exists, he was one of the first engineers to test his materials before construction. As his engineering prowess grew, Telford was to return to this material repeatedly. In 1795, the bridge at Bewdley in Worcestershire was swept away in the winter floods and Telford was responsible for the design of its replacement; the same winter floods saw the bridge at Tenbury swept away. This bridge across the River Teme was the joint responsibility of both Worcestershire and Shropshire and the bridge has a bend where the two counties meet. Telford was responsible for the repair to the northern end of the bridge. Telford's reputation in Shropshire led to his appointment in 1793 to manage the detailed design and construction of the Ellesmere Canal, linking the ironworks and collieries of Wrexham via the north-west Shropshire town of Ellesmere, with Chester, utilising the existing Chester Canal, the River Mersey.

Among other structures, this involved the spectacular Pontcysyllte Aqueduct over the River Dee in the Vale of Llangollen, where Telford used a new method of construction consisting of troughs made from cast iron plates and fixed in masonry. Extending for over 1,000 feet with an altitude of 126 feet above the valley floor, the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct consists of nineteen arches, each with a forty-five foot span. Being a pioneer in the use of cast-iron for large scaled structures, Telford had to invent new techniques, such as using boiling sugar and lead as a sealant on the iron connections. Eminent canal engineer William Jessop oversaw the project, but he left the detailed execution of the project in Telford's hands; the aqueduct was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2009. The same period saw Telford involved in the design and construction of the Shrewsbury Canal; when the original engineer, Josiah Clowes, died in 1795, Telford succeeded him. One of Telford's achievements on this project was the design of Longdon-on-Tern Aqueduct, the cast-iron aqueduct at Longdon-on-Tern, pre-dating that at Pontcysyllte, bigger than the UK's first cast-iron aqueduct, built by Benjamin Outram on the Derby Canal just months earlier.

The aqueduct is preserved as a distinctive piece of canal engineering. The Ellesmere Canal was completed in 1805 and alongside his canal responsibilities, Telford's reputation as a civil engineer meant he was consulted on numerous other projects; these included water supply works for Liverpool, improvements to London's docklands and the rebuilding of London Bridge. Most notably, in 1801 Telford devised a master plan to improve communications in the Highlands of Scotland, a massive project, to last some 20 years, it included the building of the Caledonian Canal along the Great Glen and redesign of sections of the Crinan Canal, some 920 miles of new roads, over a thousand new bridges, numerous harbour improvements (incl

Kingston Shipyards

Kingston Shipyards was a Canadian shipbuilder and ship repair company that operated from 1910 to 1968. The facility was located on the Kingston waterfront property known as Mississauga Point, the now the site of the Marine Museum of the Great Lakes at Kingston. In 1836 the British Board of Ordnance transferred control of the Kingston waterfront property, Mississauga Point, from the military to local businessmen. John Counter, Henry Gildersleeve, Thomas Kirkpatrick created the Marine Railway Company to service the shipping traffic on Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. By 1839 the company had built an engine foundry, two wharves and a marine railway. In 1848 a large three storey warehouse was constructed. Steam power was added to the marine railway in 1851 and additional stone outbuildings were constructed in 1854; the Marine Railway Company advertised its facilities in 1862. The company claimed to own a marine railway with steam sawmill and offices, sixteen stone cottages, a large foundry known as the Ontario foundry, five large three and four storey fireproof warehouses and many wharves.

Over two hundred men were employed to service seven vessels at a time. At its time, it was the largest shipbuilding effort west of Quebec. In 1910 Collingwood Shipyards opened a subsidiary repair plant in Kingston; the government dry dock was rented and purchased, three government contracts for ships were secured. Several small jobs followed until the First World War in 1915. War contracts required 8 minesweepers for the Royal Navy and the Royal Canadian Navy and thus the workforce increased to over 1000 workers. Manager D. Thompson headed the firm during the Great Depression keeping a crew of six to eight men onsite. Parties of workers were hired on the spot on a jobbed basis; the first three corvettes were ordered to be constructed in 1940. This was the first construction contract since 1923; the workforce grew to over 1500 as minesweeper construction progressed. The last wartime contracts were for seven seagoing steam tugs which were finished after the war had ended. In 1947 the yard was bought by the Canada Steamship Lines.

This rejuvenated the shipyard business as the fleet of canallers owned by the Canada Steamship Lines provided repair work for the yard. The Kingston Shipyards throughout the 1950s was occupied with building tugs and pontoons; the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959 made the fleet of canallers obsolete. With no canaller fleet wintering in Kingston, the yard lost the majority of its work. In 1967 Canada Steamship Lines shut down the site and all the equipment was to be sold or transferred to Collingwood Shipyards; the property was sold in 1968, in 1974 acquired by the establishment of the current Marine Museum of the Great lakes at Kingston

1993 Washington Huskies football team

The 1993 Washington Huskies football team was an American football team that represented the University of Washington during the 1993 NCAA Division I-A football season. In its first season under head coach Jim Lambright, the team compiled a 7–4 record, finished in fourth place in the Pacific-10 Conference, outscored its opponents by a combined total of 288 to 198; the team was not due to Pacific-10 conference sanctions. With its two starting quarterbacks from 1992 selected in the NFL draft, the Huskies were led by sophomore Damon Huard and junior Eric Bjornson. Halfback Napoleon Kaufman was selected as the team's most valuable player. Jamal Fountaine, Matt Jones, Andy Mason, Jim Nevelle were the team captains. Entering his nineteenth season as head coach of the Huskies, Don James retired on August 22, following the announcement of sanctions by the Pac-10 Conference, which included a two-year bowl ban. Defensive coordinator Lambright was named the head coach. Comedian and actor Joel McHale played tight end at Washington during the 1993 seasons.

Source: One Washington player was selected in the 1994 NFL Draft: This draft was seven rounds, with 222 selectionsSource:Defensive tackle D'Marco Farr was undrafted, but played seven seasons with the Los Angeles/St. Louis Rams, which included a Super Bowl win and a Pro Bowl selection