Joe Brown (climber)
Joseph Brown, usually Joe Brown, CBE is an English climber, born the seventh and last child of a family in Ardwick, Lancashire, England. Brown was the first in his family to climb, aged 12 and they used discarded clothes lines that were not fit for purpose. Brown was employed by a company called Archies, where he was apprenticed to a plumber and he became famous for climbing during the 1950s, and was a member of the Valkyrie Climbing Club and founding member of the Rock and Ice climbing club. An early climbing partner was Don Whillans, from the city of Salford. Brown was enlisted in 1949-50 for 18 months in the Royal Army Ordnance Corps, Brown broke his leg in three places in a scrum for the tea urn but was back up and climbing three months later. Brown is regarded as the outstanding pioneering English rock climber of the 1950s and he established an unprecedented number of classic new routes in Snowdonia and the Peak District that were at the leading edge of the hardest grades. Examples on Dinas Cromlech in the Llanberis Pass include Cenotaph Corner, so famous was he that the Post Office would often deliver letters simply addressed to The Human Fly, UK.
In 1956 he made the first ascent of the west summit of the Muztagh Tower in the Karakoram with Ian McNaught-Davis, the other members of the team, John Hartog and Tom Patey, reached the main summit the next day. Fifteen years Brown repeated the climb on the Old Man on a documentary with his second daughter Zoe. Her bubbly personality led her to being chosen as a presenter on the childrens TV show Razzamatazz. Already a Member of the Order of the British Empire, Brown was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2011 New Year Honours for services to climbing and mountaineering. On 17 February 1957 Brown married Valerie Melville Gray, who without her involvement with the fraternity, would never have been able to understand Joe. Throughout his climbing career Brown was involved in films such as Hazard, Upsidedown Wales, Five Days One Summer, in which he. His first daughter Helen was born in 1960 followed six years by Zoe and she repeated a climb for a TV show. List of Browns first ascents Video of an interview with Brown Short clip of Brown in George Smiths film Upside Down Wales Browns on-line store Joe-Brown. com
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground, the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos. A cavern is a type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves, visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years, caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, pressure. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and it is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the limit of karst forming processes. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution, solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves and such caves form in rock that is soluble. Most occur in limestone, but they can form in other rocks including chalk, marble, salt. Rock is dissolved by acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, joints. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems, the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3, the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation and these include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems, the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded.
Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes and this gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4. The acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, caves formed at the same time as the surrounding rock are called primary caves
In rock climbing and other climbing disciplines, climbers give a grade to a climbing route that concisely describes the difficulty and danger of climbing the route. Different aspects of climbing each have their own grading system, and many different nationalities developed their own, different grading systems consider these factors in different ways, so no two grading systems have an exact one-to-one correspondence. They may be the opinion of one or a few climbers, a grade for an individual route may be a consensus reached by many climbers who have climbed the route. While grades are usually applied fairly consistently across a climbing area, because of these variables, a given climber might find a route to be either easier or more difficult than expected for the grade applied. In 1894, the Austrian mountaineer Fritz Benesch introduced the first known grading system for rock climbing, the Benesch scale had seven levels of difficulty, with level VII the easiest and level I the most difficult.
Soon more difficult climbs were made, which originally were graded level 0 and 00, in 1923, the German mountaineer Willo Welzenbach compressed the scale and turned the order around, so that level 00 became level IV-V. It prevailed internationally and was renamed in 1968 as the UIAA scale, originally a 6-grade scale, it has been officially open-ended since 1979. For free climbing, there are many different grading systems varying according to country and they include, The Yosemite Decimal System of grading routes was initially developed as the Sierra Club grading system in the 1930s to rate hikes and climbs in the Sierra Nevada range. The rock climbing portion was developed at Tahquitz Rock in southern California by members of the Rock Climbing Section of the Angeles Chapter of the Sierra Club in the 1950s and it quickly spread to Canada and the rest of the Americas. Originally a single-part classification system and protection rating categories were added later, the new classifications do not apply to every climb and usage varies widely.
When a route involves aid climbing, its unique aid designation can be appended to the YDS free climbing rating, Class 1 is the easiest and consists of walking on even terrain. Class 5 is climbing on vertical or near-vertical rock, and requires skill, un-roped falls would result in severe injury or death. Originally, Class 6 was used to aid climbing. However, the separate A rating system became popular instead, the original intention was that the classes would be subdivided decimally, so that a route graded 4.5 would be a scramble halfway between 4 and 5, and 5.9 would be the hardest rock climb. Increased standards and improved equipment meant that climbs graded 5.9 in the 1960s are now only of moderate difficulty. While the top grade was 5.10, a range of climbs in this grade was completed. Letter grades were added for climbs at 5.10 and above by adding a letter a, b, c, the system originally considered only the technical difficulty of the hardest move on a route. For example, a route of mainly 5.7 moves but with one 5. 11b move would be graded 5.
11b, the YDS system involves an optional Roman numeral grade that indicates the length and seriousness of the route
Staffordshire is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. It adjoins Cheshire to the north west and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to the south east, West Midlands and Worcestershire to the south, and Shropshire to the west. The largest city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent, which is administered separately from the rest of the county as an independent unitary authority, Lichfield has city status, although this is a considerably smaller cathedral city. Major towns include Stafford, Burton upon Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, smaller towns include Stone and Rugeley, and large villages Eccleshall, Kinver, Penkridge and Stretton. Cannock Chase AONB is within the county as well as parts of the National Forest, Walsall, West Bromwich, and Smethwick were historic Staffordshire towns until local government reorganisation created the West Midlands county in 1974. Historically, Staffordshire was divided into the five hundreds of Cuttlestone, Pirehill, the historic boundaries of Staffordshire cover much of what is now the metropolitan county of West Midlands.
The Act saw the towns of Tamworth and Burton upon Trent united entirely in Staffordshire, in 1553 Queen Mary made Lichfield a county separate from the rest of Staffordshire. Handsworth and Perry Barr became part of the county borough of Birmingham in the early 20th century, Burton, in the east of the county, became a county borough in 1901, and was followed by Smethwick, another town in the Black Country in 1907. In 1910 the six towns of the Staffordshire Potteries, including Hanley, a major reorganisation in the Black Country in 1966, under the recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England led to the creation of an area of contiguous county boroughs. Meanwhile, the county borough of Dudley, historically a part of Worcestershire, expanded. County boroughs were abolished, with Stoke becoming a district in Staffordshire. On 1 April 1997, under a recommendation of the Banham Commission, in July 2009 the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold ever found in Britain was discovered in a field near Lichfield.
The artefacts, known as The Staffordshire Hoard have tentatively dated to the 7th or 8th centuries. Some nationally and internationally known companies have their base in Staffordshire. They include the Britannia Building Society which is based in Leek, JCB is based in Rocester near Uttoxeter and bet365 based in Stoke-on-Trent. The theme park Alton Towers is in the Staffordshire Moorlands and several of the worlds largest pottery manufacturers are based in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire has a completely comprehensive system with eight independent schools. Most secondary schools are from 11–16 or 18, but two in Staffordshire Moorlands and South Staffordshire are from 13–18, there are two universities in the county, Keele University in Newcastle-under-Lyme and Staffordshire University, which has campuses in Stoke-on-Trent, Stafford and Shrewsbury. The modern county of Staffordshire currently has three football clubs – Stoke City and Port Vale, both from Stoke-on-Trent, and Burton Albion, who play in Burton upon Trent.
They were among the 12 founder members of the Football League in 1888, in 1972, the club finally won a major trophy when they lifted the Football League Cup, but after relegation from the First Division in 1985 they would not experience top flight football for 23 years
Blue (The Verve song)
Blue was the first single by British band The Verve to be released from their first album, A Storm in Heaven, which was released through Hut Records. The song peaked at #69 on the UK charts, the video shows the band down a dark alleyway in Islington, London. There was a video for the USA, which was filmed in Dublin. CD HUTCD29 Blue Twilight Where The Geese Go No Come Down In 1994 Blue was re-mixed and re-released for the American market - with a different track listing, the single was distributed by American label Vernon Yard Recordings. CD Promo DPRO-14193 Blue 6 OClock Make it Till Monday Virtual World CD Promo DPRO-14184 Blue Where The Geese Go Except of song #4 the songs appear on B-side compilation No Come Down. Music video Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Grindon is a small village in the Staffordshire Peak District of England. Grindon is situated near the end of the Peak District National Park. It is at the top of the edge of the limestone bank of the Manifold Valley, south of Butterton. A comparison of two views north from the village gives some indication of the bleakness of this area in winter, the nearer village, left of centre, is Butterton, while the far skyline is of Derbyshire. The river crossing between Grindon and Wetton is known as The Weags, the slope down to the Manifold is very steep on both sides, with several hairpin-bends on the road. A little downstream from The Weags is the confluence with the River Hamps, which flows from Waterhouses, opposite this is Beeston Torr, a rock face popular with climbers. This section of the Manifold, and the Hamps, runs dry for much of the year, the Manifold goes underground near Wetton Mill, and rises at Ilam. Much of the village is built of gritstone, there is a Parish Church and until recently a public house now a private house, but few other facilities.
The main industry is farming, now supplemented by tourism, the village is, by modern standards and off the beaten track. Also, much of the land in the locality is either moorland or the slope down to the River Manifold. Farming is relatively unproductive, mainly suited to sheep and cattle, the Parish Church is a typical village church with a tower topped with an elegant spire which makes a conspicuous landmark from across the Manifold Valley. From this it received the nickname the Cathedral of the Moorlands, the present building was built in 1848. The first church in Grindon was built in the 11th century as a chapel of ease for the Parish of St Bartram, one of the rectors of Grindon parish was Anthony Draycot who served from 1540 to his imprisonment in 1560. Draycott was the judge at the trial of Joan Waste. The Church is decorated with a selection of stone carvings both inside and outside. While most of these are heads, there are other animals. The War Memorial tablet inside the Church shows those of the village who fought in World War I.23 men served, the Parish, in the Diocese of Lichfield, is in the Alstonefield Deanery, and now part of a Parish group.
The associated Parishes are Calton St. Mary, Grindon All Saints, Okeover All Saints, Waterfall St. James and St. Bartholomew, Blore Ray St. Bartholomew, and Cauldon St. Mary and St. Laurence
Ecton is a hamlet in the Staffordshire Peak District. It is on the Manifold Way, an 8-mile walk and cycle path follows the line of the former Leek. Population details as at the 2011 census can be found under Ilam, the village is overlooked by Ecton Hill, which has probably been mined for copper and lead since the sixteenth century. It was leased by the owner the Duke of Devonshire until, in 1760, within fifty years, it became the richest individual copper mine in England producing over sixty thousands tons of ore. Until 1769, when the fifth Duke, William Cavendish, opened his own works at nearby Whiston in the Churnet Valley, by 1790 the mine was employing 400 workers, men and children, producing 4000 tons a year. By 1800 the ore had almost been worked out and the Duke relinquished his interest, the Dukes profits had been almost a third of a million pounds and enabled him, so it is said, to build The Crescent at Buxton. Lead was smelted on the spot and sent initially to Derby by packhorse, arthur Ratcliffe MP built a house, modelled on a mediaeval castle, complete with battlements, next to the former lead mine in 1932.
Ecton was served by a station which was opened by the Leek. The line was closed in 1934 and since the 1937 the route of the line has been a foot and cycle path, the Manifold Way. The Express Dairies creamery at Ecton created most of the traffic on the Leek and Manifold Valley Light Railway line. In 1911222,598 imperial gallons were brought in from the L&MVLR growing to 717,332 imperial gallons in 1922, initially all the milk was carried in milk churns, which had to be manhandled across the railway platforms at Waterhouses. But after the First World War the churns were loaded into standard gauge vans taken to, eventually milk tankers were used, again being transferred between Ecton and Waterhouses on the transporters. In 1932 Express Dairies closed its Ecton creamery, concentrating on its new Rowsley creamery, the loss of this milk trade removed most of the goods traffic from the line. Two years after the closure of the creamery, in 1934, Ecton Mines Butterton Grindon Hulme End Thors Cave Warslow
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Wetton is a village in the Peak District National Park, North Staffordshire, at the top of the east side of the Manifold Valley. The population recorded in the 2001 Census was 157, at the time of the 2011 Census the population was recorded under Ilam. This article describes the location, some of the features of the village. These include Long Low, Wetton, a burial site unique to England. Because the post town is Ashbourne, many sources of tourist information wrongly describe Wetton as being in Derbyshire, Wetton is a small village in the Staffordshire Peak District. It is about 2 miles west of Alstonfield and 8½ miles east of Leek and it stands high above the Manifold valley and contains mostly stone-built properties. The village has an inn, and a church, part of which dates back to the 14th century, the church is unusual in that it has an external staircase to its belfry. Wetton village is primarily a collection of farmhouses, with the filled in by cottages. Towards the centre of the village are the green, Ye Olde Royal Oak public house, the church.
The village gives its name to Wetton Mill, a hamlet on the River Manifold, and Wetton Hill. There are many burial chambers or mounds in the area, including those on Wetton Hill itself, at Wetton Low, there are several campsites in the area offering access to the Manifold valley. The parish Church of St Margaret is the most obvious public building in the village and it is now in the Benefice of Alstonefield, in the Diocese of Lichfield. The present building was rebuilt in 1820, but the dates from the 14th century. The Reading Room, by the gate opposite the village green, has not been in use for many decades. This may have been the Club House referred to by Rev, J B Dyson in his 1853 history of Methodism in the Leek Circuit as an early venue for Methodist meetings. The village school had to close because of falling pupil numbers, the building is now in use as the Village Hall. The old village hall, situated on the road to Wetton Mill, was an iron construction which was unusable by the 1960s. Children from Wetton, and from nearby Alstonefield, now travel to Ilam or Warslow.
on sketch plan, the former Chapel and Manse are next to Town End Farm, which is the last farm on the north-east of the village
Roman Britain was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from AD43 to 410. Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 and 54 BC as part of his Gallic Wars, the Britons had been overrun or culturally assimilated by other Celtic tribes during the British Iron Age and had been aiding Caesars enemies. He received tribute, installed a king over the Trinovantes. Planned invasions under Augustus were called off in 34,27, in AD40, Caligula assembled 200,000 men at the Channel, only to have them gather seashells. Three years later, Claudius directed four legions to invade Britain, the Romans defeated the Catuvellauni, and organized their conquests as the Province of Britain. By the year 47, the Romans held the lands southeast of the Fosse Way, control over Wales was delayed by reverses and the effects of Boudicas uprising, but the Romans expanded steadily northward. Around 197, the Severan Reforms divided Britain into two provinces, Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior, during the Diocletian Reforms, at the end of the 3rd century, Britannia was divided into four provinces under the direction of a vicarius, who administered the Diocese of the Britains.
A fifth province, Valentia, is attested in the 4th century, for much of the period of the Roman occupation, Britannia was subject to barbarian invasions and often came under the control of imperial usurpers and imperial pretenders. The final Roman withdrawal from Britain occurred around 410, the kingdoms are considered to have formed Sub-Roman Britain after that. Following the conquest of the Britons, a distinctive Romano-British culture emerged as the Romans introduced improved agriculture, urban planning, industrial production, after the initial invasions, Roman historians generally only mention Britain in passing. Thus, most present knowledge derives from archaeological investigations and occasional epigraphic evidence lauding the Britannic achievements of an emperor, over the centuries Roman citizens settled in Britain from many parts of the Empire, such as Italy, Spain and Algeria. Britain was known to the Classical world, the Greeks and Carthaginians traded for Cornish tin in the 4th century BC, the Greeks referred to the Cassiterides, or tin islands, and placed them near the west coast of Europe.
The Carthaginian sailor Himilco is said to have visited the island in the 5th century BC, however, it was regarded as a place of mystery, with some writers refusing to believe it existed at all. The first direct Roman contact was when Julius Caesar undertook two expeditions in 55 and 54 BC, as part of his conquest of Gaul, believing the Britons were helping the Gallic resistance. The second invasion involved a larger force and Caesar coerced or invited many of the native Celtic tribes to pay tribute. A friendly local king, was installed, and his rival, hostages were taken, but historians disagree over whether any tribute was paid after Caesar returned to Gaul. Caesar conquered no territory and left no troops behind but he established clients, Augustus planned invasions in 34,27 and 25 BC, but circumstances were never favourable, and the relationship between Britain and Rome settled into one of diplomacy and trade. Strabo, writing late in Augustuss reign, claimed that taxes on trade brought in annual revenue than any conquest could