Thought encompasses an "aim-oriented flow of ideas and associations that can lead to a reality-oriented conclusion". Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is still no consensus as to how it is adequately defined or understood; because thought underlies many human actions and interactions, understanding its physical and metaphysical origins and its effects has been a longstanding goal of many academic disciplines including philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, biology and cognitive science. Thinking allows humans to make sense of, represent or model the world they experience, to make predictions about that world, it is therefore helpful to an organism with needs and desires as it makes plans or otherwise attempts to accomplish those goals. The word thought comes from Old English þoht, or geþoht, from stem of þencan "to conceive of in the mind, consider"; the word "thought" may mean: a single product of thinking or a single idea the product of mental activity the act or system of thinking the capacity to think, imagine, so on the consideration of or reflection on an idea recollection or contemplation half-formed or imperfect intention anticipation or expectation consideration, care, or regard judgment, opinion, or belief the ideas characteristic of a particular place, class, or time the state of being conscious of something tending to believe in something with less than full confidence Definitions may or may not require that thought take place within a human brain, take place as part of a living biological system, take place only at a conscious level of awareness, require language, is principally or only conceptual, involve other concepts such as drawing analogies, evaluating, imagining and remembering.
Definitions of thought may be derived directly or indirectly from theories of thought. "Outline of a theory of thought-processes and thinking machines" – thought processes and mental phenomena modeled by sets of mathematical equations Surfaces and Essences: Analogy as the Fuel and Fire of Thinking – a theory built on analogies The Neural Theory of Language and Thought – neural modeling of language and spatial relations ThoughtForms – The Structure and Limitations of Thought – a theory built on mental models Unconscious Thought Theory – thought, not conscious Linguistics theories – The Stuff of Thought – The linguistic and cognitive theory that thought is based on syntactic and linguistic recursion processes Language of thought hypothesis – A syntactic composition of representations of mental states – Literally, the'Language of Thought'. What is most thought-provoking in these thought-provoking times; the phenomenology movement in philosophy saw a radical change in the way in which we understand thought.
Martin Heidegger's phenomenological analyses of the existential structure of man in Being and Time cast new light on the issue of thinking, unsettling traditional cognitive or rational interpretations of man which affect the way we understand thought. The notion of the fundamental role of non-cognitive understanding in rendering possible thematic consciousness informed the discussion surrounding artificial intelligence during the 1970s and 1980s. Phenomenology, however, is not the only approach to thinking in modern Western philosophy. Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties and their relationship to the physical body the brain; the mind–body problem, i.e. the relationship of the mind to the body, is seen as the central issue in philosophy of mind, although there are other issues concerning the nature of the mind that do not involve its relation to the physical body. The mind–body problem concerns the explanation of the relationship that exists between minds, or mental processes, bodily states or processes.
The main aim of philosophers working in this area is to determine the nature of the mind and mental states/processes, how—or if—minds are affected by and can affect the body. Human perceptual experiences depend on stimuli which arrive at one's various sensory organs from the external world and these stimuli cause changes in one's mental state causing one to feel a sensation, which may be pleasant or unpleasant. Someone's desire for a slice of pizza, for example, will tend to cause that person to move his or her body in a specific manner and in a specific direction to obtain what he or she wants; the question is how it can be possible for conscious experiences to arise out of a lump of gray matter endowed with nothing but electrochemical properties. A related problem is to explain how someone's propositional attitudes can cause that individual's neurons to fire and his muscles to contract in the correct manner; these comprise some of the puzzles that have confronted epistemologists
The Scottish index of multiple deprivation is a statistical tool used by local authorities, the Scottish government, the NHS and other government bodies in Scotland to support policy and decision making. It won the Royal Statistical Society's Excellence in Official Statistics Awards in 2017; the 2016 release, known as SIMD16, was replaced the 2012 dataset. The Scottish index of multiple deprivation measures across seven domains: current income, health, education and training, geographic access and crime; these seven domains are calculated and weighted for 6,976 small areas, called ‘data zones’, with equal population. With the population total at 5,3 million that comes to an average population of 760 people per data zone; the principle behind the index is to target government action in the areas. Oxford IMD-2000/2004 Townsend deprivation index Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation on the Scottish Government website Deprivation in Scotland 2012, Google Maps overlaid with SIMD12 data by Professor Alasdair Rae of the University of Sheffield Official stats, how to publish them - a post with Taylor Swift, blog post by Dr. Peter Matthews of the University of Stirling
A vaso-occlusive crisis is a common painful complication of sickle cell anemia in adolescents and adults. It is a form of sickle cell crisis. Sickle cell anemia – most common in those of African and Mediterranean origin – leads to sickle cell crisis when the circulation of blood vessels is obstructed by sickled red blood cells, causing ischemic injuries; the most common complaint is of pain, recurrent episodes may cause irreversible organ damage. One of the most severe forms is the acute chest syndrome which occurs as a result of infarction of the lung parenchyma; this can result in death. Other types of vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell anemia include dactylitis, abdominal pain, jaundice. 1)Full blood count to check for Hemoglobin levels and 2) Rapid diagnostic test for Malaria to be able to rule out malaria in the patient The management of an acute event of vaso-occlusive crisis is the use of potent analgesics, rehydration with normal saline or Ringer's lactate, treatment of malaria using artemisinin combination therapy, the use of oxygen via face mask for acute chest syndrome.