The Three Kingdoms from 220–280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Wei, Wu. It was followed by the Jin dynasty; the term "Three Kingdoms" is something of a misnomer, since each state was headed not by a king, but by an emperor who claimed suzerainty over all China. The term "Three Kingdoms" has become standard among English-speaking sinologists. To distinguish the three states from other historical Chinese states of the same names, historians have added a relevant character to the state's original name: the state that called itself Wei is known as Cao Wei, the state that called itself Han is known as Shu Han or just Shu, the state that called itself Wu is known as Eastern Wu or Sun Wu. Academically, the period of the Three Kingdoms refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 AD and the conquest of the state of Wu by the Jin dynasty in 280; the earlier, "unofficial" part of the period, from 184 to 220, was marked by chaotic infighting between warlords in various parts of China.
The middle part of the period, from 220 to 263, was marked by a more militarily stable arrangement between three rival states of Wei, Wu. The part of the era was marked by the conquest of Shu by Wei, the usurpation of Wei by the Jin dynasty, the conquest of Wu by the Jin; the Three Kingdoms period is one of the bloodiest in Chinese history. A nationwide census taken in 280 AD, following the reunification of the Three Kingdoms under the Jin shows a total of 2,459,840 households and 16,163,863 individuals, only a fraction of the 10,677,960 households, 56,486,856 individuals reported during the Han era. While the census may not have been accurate due to a multitude of factors of the times, the Jin in 280 AD did make an attempt to account for all individuals where they could. Technology advanced during this period. Shu chancellor Zhuge Liang invented the wooden ox, suggested to be an early form of the wheelbarrow, improved on the repeating crossbow. Wei mechanical engineer Ma Jun is considered by many to be the equal of his predecessor Zhang Heng.
He invented a hydraulic-powered, mechanical puppet theatre designed for Emperor Ming of Wei, square-pallet chain pumps for irrigation of gardens in Luoyang, the ingenious design of the south-pointing chariot, a non-magnetic directional compass operated by differential gears. Although short, this historical period has been romanticized in the cultures of China, Japan and Vietnam, it has been celebrated and popularized in operas, folk stories, novels and in more recent times, films and video games. The best known of these is Luo Guanzhong's Romance of the Three Kingdoms, a Ming dynasty historical novel based on events in the Three Kingdoms period; the authoritative historical record of the era is Chen Shou's Records of the Three Kingdoms, along with Pei Songzhi's annotations of the text. There is no set time period for the era. Speaking, the Three Kingdoms, or independent states, only existed from 229 with the proclamation of the Eastern Wu ruler as emperor until the downfall of Shu Han in 266.
Another interpretation of the period is. According to Mao Zonggang, a commentator on the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, in his commentary on Chapter 120 of the novel: The three kingdoms formed when the Han royal house declined; the Han royal house declined when the eunuchs abused the sovereign and officials subverted the government. Mao Zonggang suggests that the historiography of the Three Kingdoms began with the rise of the Ten Eunuchs, he further argues that the Romance of the Three Kingdoms defines the end of the era as 280, the downfall of Wu, justifying: As the novel focuses on Han, it could have ended with the fall of Han. But Wei usurped Han. To end the tale before Han's enemy had itself met its fate would be to leave the reader unsatisfied; the novel could have ended with the fall of Wei. To end the tale before Han's ally had fallen would be to leave the reader with an incomplete picture. So the tale had to end with the fall of Wu. Several other starting points for the period are given by Chinese historians: during the final years of the Han dynasty, such as the Yellow Turban Rebellion in 184.
The power of the Eastern Han dynasty went into depression and declined from a variety of political and economic problems after the death of Emperor He in 105 AD. A series of Han emperors ascended the throne while still youths, de facto imperial power rested with the emperors' older relatives; as these relatives were loath to give up their influence, emperors would, upon reaching maturity, be forced to rely on political alliances with senior officials and eunuchs to achieve control of the government. Political posturing and infighting between imperial relatives and eunuch officials was a constant problem in Chinese government at the time. During the reigns of Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling, leading officials' dissatisfaction with the eunuchs' usurpations of power reached a peak, many began to protest against them; the first and second protests met with failure, the court eunuchs persuaded the emperor to execute many of the protesting scholars. Some local rulers seized the oppo
An Echo in the Bone is the seventh book in the Outlander series of novels by Diana Gabaldon. Centered on time travelling 20th century doctor Claire Randall and her 18th century Scottish Highlander warrior husband Jamie Fraser, the books contain elements of historical fiction, romance and science fiction/fantasy. First published and released in the United States on September 22, 2009, the novel continues the adventures of Claire and Jamie in the 18th century, as well as their daughter, Brianna MacKenzie and her husband, Roger MacKenzie, who returned to the 20th century at the end of the previous book, A Breath of Snow and Ashes. In the 20th century at Lallybroch, Roger and Mandy are reading letters from Claire and Jamie from the past, one of which mentions hidden gold, with a location known only to Jem. William Buccleigh, Roger's Scottish ancestor, accidentally appears in their time. Given his date of death on the family record and Roger know he is unlikely to make it safely back. Rob Cameron, one of Brianna's coworkers, kidnaps Jem, appears that he has taken Jem into the past, Roger and William travel through time to find them.
Jem is locked underground at the dam where Brianna and Rob work, finds an electric train, starts an escape. In the past, Lord William Ellesmere is involved in the American Revolution as a Redcoat, but is embarrassed until the battle of Saratoga, wherein he distinguishes himself. Arch and Murdina Bug go after the gold on Fraser's Ridge, during a confused confrontation Mrs. Bug shoots Jamie when he tells her to stop, Ian shoots her. Ian feels guilty for killing Mrs. Bug. Claire and Ian leave their mountain home for Scotland to see Jenny and their children, to recover Jamie's printing press. Before they can leave America, they become involved in the Revolutionary War. A kinsman of Jamie's on the British side, Simon Fraser of Balnain, is killed, Jamie and Claire are asked to take his body back to Scotland. Before they leave, a stranger tries to blackmail Jamie. Claire and Ian leave for Scotland to bury Jamie's relative and Ian leaves his dog Rollo with a Quaker woman named Rachel Hunter. Jamie and Ian reach Scotland, where Ian the elder, husband to Jamie's sister Jenny, Jamie's best childhood friend, is dying of consumption when they arrive.
Ian and Jenny are ecstatic. Jamie apologizes to Laoghaire for their separation. Laoghaire's daughter Joan requires Laoghaire to marry her lover, a crippled servant, so that she can become a nun. A letter from Laoghaire's daughter Marsali reveals that her son, Henri-Christian, is ill. In this missive, Marsali beseeches Claire's help in treating him. Claire agrees to return to America to treat Henri-Christian, stipulating that Laoghaire marry her lover, stop taking alimony from Jamie, help Joan become a nun. Claire saves Henri-Christian's life, with the help of Lord John, saves Lord John's injured nephew Henry. Lord John's niece Dottie has come to America as well, in love with Rachel's brother, a Quaker physician named Denzell Hunter. Claire receives a letter from Jamie that Ian has died and Jenny has decided to leave Lallybroch. Word arrives that Jamie has been lost at sea. Arch tries to kill Rachel. Jamie returns alive, with Redcoats after him, pretends to take Lord John hostage and flees. Claire Elizabeth Beauchamp Randall Fraser - Main female character around whom the series revolves.
Nurse/Physician. Born in 1918 and married in the 20th century to professor/historian Frank Randall, Claire falls through the standing stones at Craigh na Dun in Scotland at Beltane while on a second honeymoon with Frank in 1946, finds herself in the 18th century Scotland Highlands in 1743, she is forced to marry James Alexander Malcolm MacKenzie Fraser, whom she falls in love with. Mother of Faith and Brianna, adopted mother of Fergus, mother-in-law to Marsali. Returned through the stones to 20th century in 1746 to protect hers and Jamie's unborn child. Twenty years after Frank Randall has died, Claire discovers that Jamie didn't die at Culloden, she returns through the standing stones to 1766 to search for him. James Alexander Malcolm MacKenzie Fraser - Laird of Lallybroch and Fraser's Ridge, North Carolina. Former inmate of Ardsmuir Prison. Eighteenth century husband of Claire, whom he affectionately calls "Sassenach". Father of Faith and William Ransom, stepfather to Marsali and Joan, adopted father to Fergus.
Lord John William Grey - Retired veteran of the Rising of 1745 and Seven Years' War. The former governor of Ardsmuir Prison. Jamie and Claire's long-time friend. Stepfather of William Ransom, brother to Harold Grey, Duke of Pardloe, uncle to Benjamin, Henry and Dorothea Grey. Lt. Lord William Ransom - The 9th Earl of Ellsmere, stepson of Lord John Grey, an
Air Marshal Sir Laurence Alfred Jones, was a senior Royal Air Force commander. Educated at Trinity School, Jones joined the Royal Air Force in 1951, he was made Officer Commanding No. 8 Squadron in 1961 and Officer Commanding No. 19 Squadron in 1967. He was appointed Station Commander at RAF Wittering in 1975 and Director of Operations in 1977 before becoming Senior Air Staff Officer at Headquarters RAF Strike Command in 1982, he went on to be Assistant Chief of the Air Staff in 1984, Assistant Chief of the Defence Staff in 1985 and Assistant Chief of the Air Staff in 1986 before being appointed Air Member for Personnel in 1987 and retiring in 1990. In retirement he became Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man