Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
Isabella II of Spain
Isabella II was Queen of Spain from 1833 until 1868. She came to the throne as an infant, but her succession was disputed by the Carlists, whose refusal to recognize a female sovereign led to the Carlist Wars. After a troubled reign, she was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1868, formally abdicated in 1870, her son, Alfonso XII, became king in 1874. Isabella was born in Madrid in 1830, the eldest daughter of King Ferdinand VII of Spain, of his fourth wife and niece, Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies. Queen Maria Christina became regent on 29 September 1833, when her three-year-old daughter Isabella was proclaimed sovereign on the death of the king. Isabella succeeded to the throne because Ferdinand VII had induced the Cortes Generales to help him set aside the Salic law, introduced by the Bourbons in the early 18th century, to reestablish the older succession law of Spain; the first pretender to the throne, Ferdinand's brother Infante Carlos, Count of Molina, fought seven years during the minority of Isabella to dispute her title.
Carlos' and his descendants' supporters were known as Carlists, the fight over the succession was the subject of a number of Carlist Wars in the 19th century. Isabella's reign was maintained only through the support of the army; the Cortes and the Moderate Liberals and Progressives reestablished constitutional and parliamentary government, dissolved the religious orders and confiscated their property, tried to restore order to Spain's finances. After the Carlist war, the regent, Maria Christina, resigned to make way for Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara, the most successful and most popular Isabelline general. Espartero, a Progressive, remained regent for only two years. Baldomero Espartero was turned out in 1843 by a military and political pronunciamiento led by Generals Leopoldo O'Donnell and Ramón María Narváez, they formed a cabinet, presided over by Joaquín María López y López. This government induced the Cortes to declare Isabella of age at 13. Three years on 10 October 1846, the Moderate Party made their sixteen-year-old queen marry her double-first cousin Francisco de Asís de Borbón, the same day that her younger sister, infanta Luisa Fernanda, married Antoine d'Orléans, Duke of Montpensier.
The marriages suited France and Louis Philippe, King of the French, who as a result bitterly quarrelled with Britain. However, the marriages were not happy; the Carlist party asserted that the heir-apparent to the throne, who became Alfonso XII, had been fathered by a captain of the guard, Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans. Isabella had nine children, but only five reached adulthood: Ferdinand Isabel, Princess of Asturias, who married her mother's and father's first cousin Prince Gaetan, Count of Girgenti. María Cristina Alfonso XII María de la Concepcion María del Pilar María de la Paz, who married her cousin Prince Ludwig Ferdinand of Bavaria. Francisco de Asís Eulalia de Asís de la Piedad, who married her cousin Infante Antonio, Duke of Galliera; the couple was rather caustically described by an English contemporary thus: … The Queen is large in stature, but rather what might be called bulky than stately. There is no dignity either in her face or figure, the graces of majesty are altogether wanting.
The countenance is cold and expressionless, with traces of an unchastened and impulsive character, the indifference it betrays is not redeemed by any regularity or beauty of feature. The King Consort is much smaller in figure than his royal two-thirds, is not a type that could be admired for its manly qualifications. Moderados and Unión Liberals succeeded each other to keep out the Progressives, thus sowing the seeds for the Revolution of 1868. Queen Isabella II interfered in politics, she showed favour to the Church and religious orders. Spain fought two wars during her reign: the war against Morocco in 1859, which ended in a treaty advantageous for Spain and cession of some Moroccan territory, the fruitless Chincha Islands War against Peru and Chile, her reign saw tensions with the United States over the Amistad affair and over the war in the Pacific. By virtue of a royal decree, she opened Iloilo in the Philippines to world trade on September 29, 1855 to export sugar and other products to America and Europe.
At the end of September 1868, the defeat of Isabella's forces at the Battle of Alcolea led to her deposition and exile to France. The revolt against Isabella played out in the battle is known as the Glorious Revolution. In 1870, the provisional government replaced Isabella with Amadeo I, second son of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, after much deliberation. Amadeo's abdication under pressure in 1873 led to the period of the First Spanish Repub
A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or other graphemes to form one symbol. Monograms are made by combining the initials of an individual or a company, used as recognizable symbols or logos. A series of uncombined initials is not a monogram. Monograms first appeared on coins, as early as 350BC; the earliest known examples are of the names of Greek cities which issued the coins the first two letters of the city's name. For example, the monogram of Achaea consisted of the letters alpha and chi joined together. Monograms have been used as signatures by artists and craftsmen on paintings and pieces of furniture when guilds enforced measures against unauthorized participation in the trade. A famous example of a monogram serving as an artist's signature is the "AD" used by Albrecht Dürer. Over the centuries, monograms of the name of Jesus Christ have been used as Christian symbols; the IX monogram consists of the initial Greek letters of the name "Jesus Christ," "I" for Ιησούς, "X" for Χριστος.
The "IHS" Christogram, denoting the first three letters of the Greek name of Jesus, is written as a cypher, but sometimes as a monogram. The most significant Christogram is the Chi Rho, formed from the first two letters of Χριστος. Signum manus refers to the medieval practice, current from the Merovingian period until the 14th century in the Frankish Empire and its successors, of signing a document or charter with a special type of monogram or royal cypher. Monograms of the names of monarchs are used as part of the insignia of public organizations in kingdoms, such as on police badges; this indicates a connection to the ruler. However, the royal cypher, so familiar on pillar boxes, is not technically a monogram, since the letters are not combined. Royal monograms appear on coins surmounted by a crown. Countries that have employed this device in the past include Bulgaria, Great Britain, Russia and many German states. Today, several Danish coins carry the monogram of Margrethe II, while the current Norwegian 1 Krone coin has the "H5" monogram of Harald V on the obverse.
The only countries using the Euro to have a royal monogram as their national identifying mark are Belgium and Monaco. In Thailand, royal monograms appear on the individual flag for each major royal family member. An individual's monogram is a fancy piece of art used for stationery, for adorning luggage, for embroidery on clothing, so forth; these monograms may have three letters. A basic 3-letter monogram has the initial of the individual's last name set larger, or with some special treatment in the center, while the first name initial appears to the left of it and the middle name initial appears to the right of it. There is a difference in how this is written for women. For example, if the individual's name is Mary Ann Jones, Jones is the surname the arrangement of letters would be thus: MJA, with the surname initial set larger in the center, the M for Mary to the left and the A for Ann to the right. Traditionally, individual monograms for men are based on the order of the name; the name Kyle George Martin would be written.
Married or engaged couples may use two-letter monograms of their entwined initials, for example on wedding invitations. Married couples may create three-letter monograms incorporating the initial of their shared surname. For example, the monogram MJA might be used for Alice Jones. However, monogramming etiquette for the married couple varies according to the item being monogrammed. Linens, for example list the woman's given initial first, followed by the couple's shared surname initial and the man's given initial. Monograms can be found on custom dress shirts where they can be located in a number of different positions; some personal monograms have become famous symbols in their own right and recognizable to many, such as J. R. R. Tolkien's monogram; some companies and organizations adopt a monogram for a logo with the letters of their acronym. For example, as well as having an official seal, the Texas Longhorns logo, the University of Texas at Austin uses a "UT" monogram; the New York Yankees baseball team uses a monogram on their ball cap insignia.
The Consolidated Edison logo, with a rounded "E" nested inside a "C," has been described as a "classic emblem."Many fashion companies have a monogram for a logo, including Louis Vuitton and Fendi. The connected "CC" company logo, created by Coco Chanel, is one of the most recognizable monograms internationally. Athletes have been known to brand merchandise with their monogram logo. A notable example of a royal monogram is the H7 monogram of King Haakon VII of Norway. While in exile during World War II, Haakon VII spearheaded the Norwegian resistance to the German occupation, H7 became a symbol used by the Norwegian populace to mark solidarity and loyalty to the King, adherence to the Norwegian resistance movement; the act of drawing or creating a H7 symbol in German-occupied Norway was punishable by imprisonment. During World War II in Poland, the "PW" monogram was used as a resistance symbol, known as The Anchor, or Kotwica due to its characteristic shape, its meaning varied, as the initials were useful for many different slogans, such as Poland Fights, Warsaw Uprising, Polish Army and others.
Like the Norwegian example above, its use was punished by the Nazi occupation authorities. A Japanese rebus monogram is a monogram in a particular style, which spells a name via a reb
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Berrien County, Michigan
Berrien County is a county on the south line of Michigan, at the southwestern corner of the state. As of the 2010 census, the population was 156,813; the county seat is St. Joseph. Berrien County is included in the Niles-Benton Harbor, MI Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the South Bend-Elkhart-Mishawaka, IN-MI Combined Statistical Area; as one of the Cabinet counties, Berrien County was named for John M. Berrien of Georgia, US Attorney General under US President Andrew Jackson; the county was founded in 1829, was organized in 1831, before Michigan was accepted into the Union as a state. When Michigan Territory was established in 1805, the area of present Berrien County was included in the boundary of Wayne County. About 1780, New Jersey resident William Burnett established a trading post at the mouth of the St. Joseph River to serve indigenous peoples and French Canadian residents. During that time, Joseph Bertrand established a trading post on the river, in present–day Niles Charter Township.
In December 1822, missionary Isaac McCoy moved his family and 18 Indian students from Indiana to the St. Joseph River near present-day Niles, Michigan, to open a religious mission to the Potawatomi Indians,160 km from the nearest White settlement. In 1827 St. Joseph Township was organized as part of Wayne County, It included all lands acquired from the Native Americans by the 1821 Treaty of Chicago; the boundary of Berrien County was delineated by the Michigan Territory Legislature on October 29, 1829 with its present limits. For purposes of revenue and judicial matters, it was attached to Cass County, was designated as Niles Township; this assignation was terminated in 1831 when Berrien County's government was organized and initiated. Berrien County began with three townships: Berrien Township – consisted of present-day townships of Berrien and Lake plus a two-mile strip north of that territory St. Joseph Township – consisted of the area north of Berrien Township Niles Township – consisted of the area south of Berrien Township.
Berrien County has favored a Republican Party candidate in all but six elections since 1884. The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, oversees public health, participates with the state in welfare and social services; the county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws and ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police, fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,581 square miles, of which 568 square miles is land and 1,014 square miles is water; the county borders the state of Indiana to the South and includes a portion of Lake Michigan to the West. The St. Joseph River is a major geographical feature, flowing north and west through the county from Niles to its mouth on Lake Michigan at St. Joseph; the southwest of the county is drained by its tributaries.
Paw Paw Lake is in the north of the county, along with the Paw Paw River, which flows into the St. Joseph River just before it enters Lake Michigan. A tiny portion along the Indiana state line is drained by small tributaries of the Kankakee River, which flows into the Mississippi River; this is one of two areas of Michigan drained by the Mississippi River, the other being an area of Michigan's Upper Peninsula near the Wisconsin border. I-94 – runs north along the western edge of the county near Lake Michigan. Turns inland to skirt the St. Joseph/Benton Harbor urban area. Runs east to Kalamazoo. Business Loop 94 passes through downtown Benton St. Joseph. BL I-94 – runs through St. Joseph and Benton Harbor. I‑196 – from its intersection with I-94 east of Benton Harbor, runs north to Holland east to Grand Rapids. US 12 – runs east–west through the southern portion of the county from south of Niles through Three Oaks to New Buffalo and Michiana, Michigan. From Berrien County it connects with Indiana.
US 31 – running north from South Bend, enters the southeast county as the St. Joseph Valley Parkway, near Niles, continues north and west. A segment of the freeway was completed in August 2003, running from Berrien Springs north to Napier Avenue east of Benton Harbor. US 31 follows Napier Avenue west to I-94 before branching off with I-196. A final segment is planned to continue the freeway from Napier Avenue north to the junction with I-94 and BL I-94 with a full cloverleaf interchange; the former route of US 31 between Berrien Springs and St. Joseph was redesignated as M-139. M-51 – enters from Indiana as a continuation of State Road 933. Runs north through Niles northeast toward Dowagiac, Michigan. M-60 – runs east from Niles to I-94 at Jackson. M-62 -- from its intersection with M-140, runs east toward Michigan. M-63 – from its intersection with M-139 in Scottdale, runs northwest into St. Joseph northeast to intersection with US 31/I-196 near the county line. M-139 – from its intersection with US 31 near Berrien Springs, runs northwest to Scottdale north near St. Joseph and Benton Harbor to intersection with Business Loop I-94.
M-140 -- from Niles, runs north through the eastern part of the county toward Michigan. M-239 – its 1.1 miles length links I-94 at exit 1 near New Buffalo to State Road 39 north of LaPorte, Indiana. A-2 – Berrien County's only signed county highway. Begins in Hagar Shores at M-63 and I-196, it follows the Lake Michigan shoreline and continues to
Prancer is a 1989 American-Canadian children's fantasy drama film directed by John Hancock, written by Greg Taylor, starring Rebecca Harrell, Sam Elliott, Cloris Leachman, Abe Vigoda, Michael Constantine, Rutanya Alda, Ariana Richards. It is set in Three Oaks, where town exteriors were filmed. Filming occurred at the Old Republic House in New Carlisle, Indiana, La Porte, at Starved Rock State Park in Utica, Illinois; the film was followed by a direct-to-video sequel, Prancer Returns, released by USA Home Entertainment in 2001. 8-year-old Jessica Riggs is raised by her older brother and widowed father, John. Their apple farm has fallen on hard times. John is temporarily being helped by Sarah. While walking home after a school Christmas pageant, Jessica witnesses a plastic reindeer fall from a Christmas decoration being hung above the main street in town, she concludes that it was Prancer from the order given in the poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas". Afraid he will be unable to provide for Jessica, John discusses a plan for Sarah to take her in to raise temporarily.
She overhears this, but does not know the full details. She and her best friend, Carol, go sledding and knock down some flowers at a house owned by a reclusive widow, Mrs. McFarland. While walking home, Jessica encounters a live reindeer in the woods, it runs away. While walking home from school, she finds reindeer tracks and follows them into the woods once more, she hears a gunshot, continues to walk. John finds her, but hits the reindeer, now standing in the road. Noticing it is wounded, he grabs his rifle; as Jessica pleads for him not to do so, it disappears. While dreaming of Prancer, Jessica is startled awake by the scene of the plastic reindeer falling from earlier, she sees the window to the barn outside is open. Investigating, she finds. Afraid John will find him, she moves him to a shed. Certain that he is the "real" Prancer, she takes it upon herself to nurse him back to health, she calls a veterinarian who refuses, but comes over to find him. Jessica tells a mall Santa that she has Prancer, gives him a Polaroid picture along with a letter to give to the real Santa before Christmas Eve.
He takes them to the editor of the local newspaper. Jessica apologizes to Mrs. McFarland, asks her if she can have a job to help pay for oats for the reindeer. Mrs. McFarland agrees to pay her if she cleans a room in the house, they become friends; the newspaper editor, inspired by Jessica's faith, writes an article, read by the local pastor in the middle of his sermon, which makes Jessica find out that she has been outed to the entire town. She becomes mad at Carol, she terminates her friendship with Carol, finds the article in the paper. John, meanwhile, is reading the paper. Before he finds the article, he discovers. While he tries to round them up, Prancer wrecks it. Townspeople begin to converge on the farm, wanting to see him. John grabs his rifle, threatening to shoot him when a local butcher stops him, offering to buy Prancer. Jessica, runs away in the night determined to rescue him; the butcher keeps him as a sales tool for his Christmas tree lot. Steve runs after her, telling her that he loves her though they fight.
She falls, injuring her head. Jessica stays in her bedroom. John goes to her and she asks him to read a passage from "Yes, there is a Santa Claus", he tells her that times may continue to be hard for a long time but while he could bear losing the farm, he will not lose her. He changes his mind about sending her away, he suggests they take Prancer to Antler Ridge, which would be the perfect place for Santa to pick him up. The townspeople begin singing to cheer her up. Prancer is taken to Antler Ridge. Following his tracks and Jessica notice that they vanish at the edge of a cliff; the faint sound of sleigh bells can be heard, a streak of light is seen rising to meet Santa's sleigh. It flies across the full moon towards the farm—its first stop. Jessica bids Prancer farewell, to always remember her; the film received mixed to positive reviews from critics, as it holds a 67% rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 24 reviews. The film's young lead actress, Rebecca Harrell, garnered a nomination for a Young Artist Award for Best Young Actress Starring in a Motion Picture for her performance.
Movie critic Roger Ebert highlighted Harrell's performance, saying: And what redeems the movie, taking it out of the category of kiddie picture and giving it a heart and gumption, is the performance by a young actress named Rebecca Harrell, as Jessica. She's something, she has a troublemaker's look in her eye, a round, pixie face that's filled with mischief. And she's smart -- a plucky schemer who figures out things for herself and isn't afraid to act on her convictions; the film was released on DVD by MGM Home Video with several re-packagings in 2003 and 2004, a newer release on October 7, 2014. Prancer on IMDb Prancer at the TCM Movie Database Prancer at Box Office Mojo Prancer at Rotten Tomatoes