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Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction, the accelerated mass will cause a force of equal magnitude but opposite direction on that system; the force applied on a surface in a direction perpendicular or normal to the surface is called thrust. Force, thus thrust, is measured using the International System of Units in newtons, represents the amount needed to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at the rate of 1 meter per second per second. In mechanical engineering, force orthogonal to the main load is referred to as thrust. A fixed-wing aircraft generates forward thrust when air is pushed in the direction opposite to flight; this can be done in several ways including by the spinning blades of a propeller, or a rotating fan pushing air out from the back of a jet engine, or by ejecting hot gases from a rocket engine. The forward thrust is proportional to the mass of the airstream multiplied by the difference in velocity of the airstream.

Reverse thrust can be generated to aid braking after landing by reversing the pitch of variable-pitch propeller blades, or using a thrust reverser on a jet engine. Rotary wing aircraft and thrust vectoring V/STOL aircraft use engine thrust to support the weight of the aircraft, vector sum of this thrust fore and aft to control forward speed. A motorboat generates thrust; the resulting thrust pushes the boat in the opposite direction to the sum of the momentum change in the water flowing through the propeller. A rocket is propelled forward by a thrust force equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction, to the time-rate of momentum change of the exhaust gas accelerated from the combustion chamber through the rocket engine nozzle; this is the exhaust velocity with respect to the rocket, times the time-rate at which the mass is expelled, or in mathematical terms: T = v d m d t Where T is the thrust generated, d m d t is the rate of change of mass with respect to time, v is the speed of the exhaust gases measured relative to the rocket.

For vertical launch of a rocket the initial thrust at liftoff must be more than the weight. Each of the three Space Shuttle Main Engines could produce a thrust of 1.8 meganewton, each of the Space Shuttle's two Solid Rocket Boosters 14.7 MN, together 29.4 MN. By contrast, the simplified Aid For EVA Rescue has 24 thrusters of 3.56 N each. In the air-breathing category, the AMT-USA AT-180 jet engine developed for radio-controlled aircraft produce 90 N of thrust; the GE90-115B engine fitted on the Boeing 777-300ER, recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as the "World's Most Powerful Commercial Jet Engine," has a thrust of 569 kN. The power needed to generate thrust and the force of the thrust can be related in a non-linear way. In general, P 2 ∝ T 3; the proportionality constant varies, can be solved for a uniform flow: d m d t = ρ A v T = d m d t v, P = 1 2 d m d t v 2 T = ρ A v 2, P = 1 2 ρ A v 3 P 2 = T 3 4 ρ A Note that these calculations are only valid for when the incoming air is accelerated from a standstill – for example when hovering.

The inverse of the proportionality constant, the "efficiency" of an otherwise-perfect thruster, is proportional to the area of the cross section of the propelled volume of fluid and the density of the fluid. This helps to explain why moving through water is easier and why aircraft have much larger propellers than watercraft. A common question is how to compare the thrust rating of a jet engine with the power rating of a piston engine; such comparison is difficult. A piston engine does not move the aircraft by itself, so piston engines are rated by how much power they deliver to the propeller. Except for changes in temperature and air pressure, this quantity depends on the throttle setting. A jet engine has no propeller, so the propulsive power of a jet engine is determined from its thrust as follows. Power is the force it takes to move something over some distance divided by the time it takes to move that distance: P = F d t {\displaystyle \mathbf =\mathb

Frederick Buechner

Carl Frederick Buechner is an American writer, poet, essayist and theologian. He is the author of more than thirty published books, his work encompasses different genres, including fiction, autobiography and sermons, his career has spanned more than six decades. Buechner's books have been translated into many languages for publication around the world, he is best known for his novels, including A Long Day's Dying, The Book of Bebb and Brendan, his memoirs, including Telling Secrets and The Sacred Journey, his more theological works, including Secrets in the Dark, The Magnificent Defeat, Telling the Truth. He has been called "Major talent" and "...a good writer indeed" by the New York Times, "one of our most original storytellers" by USA Today. Annie Dillard says: "Frederick Buechner is one of our finest writers." Buechner was a finalist for the National Book Award presented by the National Book Foundation and the Pulitzer Prize, has been awarded eight honorary degrees from such institutions as Yale University and the Virginia Theological Seminary.

In addition, Buechner has been the recipient of the O. Henry Award, the Rosenthal Award, the Christianity and Literature Belles Lettres Prize, has been recognized by the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. Carl Frederick Buechner, the eldest son of Katherine Kuhn and Carl Frederick Buechner Sr. was born on July 11, 1926 in New York City. During Buechner's early childhood the family moved as Buechner's father searched for work. In The Sacred Journey Buechner recalls: "Virtually every year of my life until I was fourteen, I lived in a different place, had different people to take care of me, went to a different school; the only house that remained constant was the one where my maternal grandparents lived in a suburb of Pittsburgh called East Liberty... Apart from that one house on Woodland Road, home was not a place to me, it was people." This changed in 1936, when Buechner's father committed suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning, a result of his conviction that he had been a failure.

Following his father's death, the family moved to Bermuda, where they remained until World War II forced the evacuation of Americans from the island. In Bermuda, Buechner experienced "the blessed relief of coming out of the dark and unmentionable sadness of my father's life and death into fragrance and greenness and light." For a young Buechner, Bermuda became home. Bermuda left a lasting impression on Buechner; the distinctly British flavor of pre-World War II Bermuda provided in him a lifelong appreciation of English custom and culture, which would inspire such works as Godric and Brendan. Buechner frequently mentions Bermuda in his memoirs, including Telling Secrets and The Sacred Journey. Buechner attended the Lawrenceville School in Lawrenceville, New Jersey, graduating in 1943. While at Lawrenceville, he met the future Pulitzer Prize winning poet James Merrill; as Mel Gussow wrote in Merrill's 1995 obituary: "their friendly competition was an impetus for each becoming a writer." Buechner enrolled at Princeton University.

His college career was interrupted by—in Buechner's words—"two years of undistinguished service" in the Army during World War II, "all of it at several different places in the United States," including a post as "chief of the statistical section in Camp Pickett, Virginia." After the war, he returned to graduate with a degree in English in 1948. Regarding his time at Princeton, Buechner commented in an interview: I knew two Princetons; the first one was during the war, when everybody was enlisting. It was just one drunken farewell party after another. Nobody did any work. I didn't learn anything at all. I was in the Army for two years; when I came back, I was so delighted to be free again that I learned a few things. During his senior year at Princeton University, Buechner received the Irene Glascock Prize for poetry, he began working on his first novel and one of his greatest critical successes: A Long Day's Dying, published in 1950; the contrast between the success of his first novel and the commercial failure of his second, The Seasons' Difference, a novel with characters based on Buechner and his adolescent friend James Merrill which developed a more explicit Christian theme, was palpably felt by the young novelist, it was on this note that Buechner left his teaching position at Lawrenceville to move to New York City and focus on his writing career.

In 1952, Buechner began lecturing at New York University, once again received critical acclaim for his short story "The Tiger," published in The New Yorker, which won the O. Henry Award in 1955. During this time, he began attending the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church, where George Buttrick was pastor, it was during one of Buttrick's sermons that Buechner heard the words that inspired his ordination: Buttrick described the inward coronation of Christ as taking place in the hearts of those who believe in him "among confession, tears, great laughter." The impact of this phrase on Buechner was so great that he entered the Union Theological Seminary in 1954, on a Rockefeller Brothers Theological Fellowship. While at Union, Buechner studied under such renowned theologians as Reinhold Niebuhr, Paul Tillich, James Muilenberg, who helped Buechner in his search for understanding: "I wanted to learn about Christ

Currency strength index

Currency strength index expresses the index value of currency. For economists, it is calculated as purchasing power, while for financial traders, it can be described as an indicator, reflecting many factors related to the currency, it can be calculated from the currency in relation to other currencies using a pre-defined currency basket. A typical example of this method is the U. S. Dollar Index; the current trend in currency strength indicators is to combine more currency indexes in order to make forex movements visible. For the calculation of indexes of this kind, major currencies are used because they represent up to 90% of the whole forex market volume. Currency strength is calculated from the U. S. Dollar Index, used as a reference for other currency indexes. Percentage currency strength index on the analytic platform; the basic idea behind indicators is "to buy strong currency and to sell weak currency". It is X/Y currency pair is an uptrend, you are able to determine whether this happens due to X's strength or Y's weakness.

With indicators of this kind one is able to choose the most valuable pair to trade. A good indicator of the money flow of the market should be the sum of all the graphs, by groups to know if the market is growing or decreasing. Typical examples of indicators based on currency strength are relative currency strength and percentage currency strength, their combination is called the "Forex Flow indicator" because one is able to see the whole currency flow across the forex market. Absolute currency strength Balance of trade Technical analysis Hard currency Market analysis Using Currency Correlations To Your Advantage

Z flag

The Z flag is one of the international maritime signal flags. In the system of international maritime signal flags, part of the International Code of Signals, the Z flag stands for the letter Z when used in letter-by-letter alphabetic communication; when used alone, it means "I require a tug" or, when used by fishing vessels near fishing grounds, "I am shooting nets". The Z flag when combined with four number flags indicates Z Time, a military and maritime term for Coordinated Universal Time, thus this would mean 0800Z equivalent to 08:00 UTC: Or, more the same information would be conveyed using repeat flags: Under yacht racing rules, display of the Z flag indicates that a particular false start rule, the 20% Penalty Rule 30.2, is in effect: a boat on the course side – that is, over the starting line – during the minute before the start will receive a 20% scoring penalty. The Z flag has special meaning in Japan due to its connection with and symbolizing of the great Japanese victory at the Battle of Tsushima.

At the Battle of Tsushima on May 27, 1905, Admiral Tōgō raised a Z flag on his flagship Mikasa. By prearrangement, this flag flown alone meant, "The fate of the Empire rests on the outcome of this battle. Let each man do his utmost." The Battle of Tsushima was one of the most important naval battles of history and this signal is, along with Nelson's signal "England expects that every man will do his duty" at the Battle of Trafalgar, one of the two most famous naval flag signals. The Z flag was raised on Vice-Admiral Nagumo's flagship Akagi before the aircraft were flown off for the 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor, explicitly referencing Tōgō's historic victory. John Toland, in his Pulitzer Prize-winning work The Rising Sun, though, that the Z flag was raised only briefly: According to Toland, the Z flag was raised on Akagi at the Battle of Midway and from the doomed flagship Zuikaku of Ozawa's sacrificial Northern Force at the Battle off Cape Engaño. According to Lieutenant Commander Sadeo Chigusa, executive officer of the escorting Japanese destroyer Akigumo, the D and G flags were raised aboard Akagi before the Pearl Harbor attack, as these flags together had in 1941 the same meaning as the Z flag in 1905.

According to Samuel Elliot Morrison, the Z flag flown at Pearl Harbor was the actual one used at Tsushima. From 1905 to 1945, the Z flag was used as an unofficial naval ensign; this practice was revived in 2011. Planes of the 3rd squadron of the 252nd Naval Air Group wore the Z flag on their vertical stabilizers during the Pacific War. During Project Z, the development of the Nissan Z-car which broke open the American market for Japanese automobile exports, project leader Yutaka Katayama used the Z flag as an inspirational symbol. During the strong yen crisis, the Nagasaki yards of Oshima Shipbuilding flew the Z flag to inspire the workers; the logo of the Japanese multinational corporation Zuken is based on the Z flag. The Z flag is sometimes waved by fans at Japanese sporting events as an exhortation to victory for their favored team, it is used as a symbol by some fringe right-wing groups in Japan. In the Battle of Elli against the Ottoman Navy, the Greek commander, Pavlos Kountouriotis, raised the Z flag as a signal for the independent movement of his flagship, the cruiser Georgios Averof.

Leaving the older and slower Hydra-class ironclads behind, the much faster Georgios Averof manoeuvred independently and on its own "crossed the T" of the Ottoman fleet, forcing it to retreat into the Dardanelles. The emblem of the Kortenaer-class frigate Kountouriotis features the Z flag in commemoration of this. Operation Z

Michael Segerström

Karl Kristian Mikael Segerström is a Swedish actor and director. Segerström was born in Lund and has worked at theatres in Stockholm and Helsingborg as well as in film with Jönssonligan and others. 1955 - Blå himmel 1976 - Sven Klangs kvintett 1979 - Barnförbjudet 1981 - På kurs med Kurt 1981 - Göta kanal eller Vem drog ur proppen? 1982 - Gräsänklingar 1982 - Dubbelsvindlarna 1984 - Skatten på Bråtehus 1985 - Hålet 1985 - Examen 1986 - Teaterterroristerna 1986 - Allt ljus på mig 1986 - Vägg i vägg 1986 - Moa 1987 - Jim och piraterna Blom 1988 - Enkel resa 1989 - Slavhandlarna 1990 - Hjälten 1991 - Ett paradis utan biljard 1991 - Den goda viljan 1992 - Vennerman & Winge ) 1993 - Macklean ) 1994 - Jönssonligans största kupp 1995 - Esters testamente ) 1997 - Rena rama Rolf 1997 - Adam & Eva 1999 - Hälsoresan – En smal film av stor vikt 2002 - Olivia Twist 2006 - LasseMajas detektivbyrå 2007 - Darling 2008 - LasseMajas detektivbyrå - Kameleontens hämnd 2008 - Mañana 2008 - Maria Larssons eviga ögonblick 2009 - Guds tre flickor 2009 - Wallander - Läckan 2010 - Kommissarie Winter Rum Nummer 10 2011 - Åsa-Nisse - wälkom to Knohult 2013 - Halvvägs till himlen 2015 - Miraklet i Viskan 2016 - Springfloden 2017 - Torpederna Michael Segerström on IMDb

Toby Keith (album)

Toby Keith is the debut studio album from American country music artist Toby Keith. Released in 1993 on Polygram Records, it features the singles "Should've Been a Cowboy", "He Ain't Worth Missing", "A Little Less Talk and a Lot More Action", "Wish I Didn't Know Now"; these songs peaked at No. 1, No. 5, No. 2, No. 2 on the Hot Country Songs charts. The album sold more than one million copies in the United States, earning RIAA platinum certification. "A Little Less Talk and a Lot More Action" was recorded by Hank Williams, Jr. on his album Maverick. A remastered 25th anniversary edition, retitled Should’ve Been a Cowboy as a nod to the hit single from the album, was released on November 30, 2018 with three bonus tracks added. All songs composed by Toby Keith except "Some Kinda Good Kinda Hold on Me" and "A Little Less Talk and a Lot More Action". "Should've Been a Cowboy" – 3:30 "He Ain't Worth Missing" – 3:05 "Under the Fall" – 3:22 "Some Kinda Good Kinda Hold on Me" – 3:31 "Wish I Didn't Know Now" – 3:26 "Ain't No Thang" – 3:27 "Valentine" – 3:34 "A Little Less Talk and a Lot More Action" – 2:49 "Mama Come Quick" – 3:23 "Close but No Guitar" – 2:46 "Tossin' and Turnin'" - 2:48 "I'll Still Call You Baby" - 3:33 "Daddy Mac" - 1:52 MusiciansKenny Bell - acoustic guitar Michael Black - background vocals Mark Casstevens - acoustic guitar, harmonica Michael Crossno - electric guitar Thom Flora - background vocals Sonny Garrish - steel guitar, Dobro Carl "Chuck" Goff Jr. - bass guitar Clayton Ivey - keyboards Jim Kimball - electric guitar Gary Lunn - bass guitar Scott Marcha - drums Don Potter - acoustic guitar Milton Sledge - drums Denis Solee - saxophone Troy Turner - keyboards John Willis - electric guitar Dennis Wilson - background vocals Lonnie Wilson - background vocals Reggie Young - electric guitarTechnicalJim Cotton - engineering Nelson Larkin - producer Ron "Snake" Reynolds - overdubs Joe Scaife - engineer Harold Shedd - producer Ronnie Thomas - digital editing Hank Williams - mastering