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Tiberius

Tiberius was the second Roman emperor, reigning from 14 AD to 37 AD. He succeeded Augustus. Born to Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla in a Claudian family, he was given the personal name Tiberius Claudius Nero, his mother divorced Nero and married Octavian—later to ascend to Emperor as Augustus—who became his stepfather. Tiberius would marry Augustus' daughter, Julia the Elder, later be adopted by Augustus. Through the adoption, he became a Julian, assuming the name Tiberius Julius Caesar; the emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the following thirty years. His relationship to the other emperors of this dynasty was as follows: he was the stepson of Augustus, grand-uncle of Caligula, paternal uncle of Claudius, great-grand uncle of Nero. Tiberius' 22-and-a-half-year reign would be the longest after that of Augustus until that of Emperor Antoninus Pius, who surpassed his reign by a few months. Tiberius was one of the greatest Roman generals. So, he came to be remembered as a dark and sombre ruler who never desired to be emperor.

After the death of his son Drusus Julius Caesar in 23 AD, Tiberius became more reclusive and aloof. In 26 AD he removed himself from Rome and left administration in the hands of his unscrupulous Praetorian prefects Lucius Aelius Sejanus and Quintus Naevius Sutorius Macro; when Tiberius died, he was succeeded by Caligula. Tiberius was born in Rome on 16 November 42 BC to Tiberius Claudius Livia. In 39 BC his mother divorced his biological father and, though again pregnant by Tiberius Nero, married Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. In 38 BC his brother, Nero Claudius Drusus, was born. Little is recorded of Tiberius' early life. In 32 BC Tiberius, at the age of nine, delivered the eulogy for his biological father at the rostra. In 29 BC, he rode in the triumphal chariot along with his adoptive father Octavian in celebration of the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. In 23 BC Emperor Augustus became gravely ill, his possible death threatened to plunge the Roman world into chaos again. Historians agree that it is during this time that the question of Augustus' heir became most acute, while Augustus had seemed to indicate that Agrippa and Marcellus would carry on his position in the event of his death, the ambiguity of succession became Augustus' chief problem.

In response, a series of potential heirs seem to have been selected, among them Tiberius and his brother Drusus. In 24 BC, at the age of seventeen, Tiberius entered politics under Augustus' direction, receiving the position of quaestor, was granted the right to stand for election as praetor and consul five years in advance of the age required by law. Similar provisions were made for Drusus. Shortly thereafter Tiberius began appearing in court as an advocate, it was at this time that his interest in Greek rhetoric began. In 20 BC, Tiberius was sent east under Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa; the Parthian Empire had captured the standards of the legions under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus, Decidius Saxa, Mark Antony. After a year of negotiation, Tiberius led a sizable force into Armenia with the goal of establishing it as a Roman client state and ending the threat it posed on the Roman-Parthian border. Augustus was able to reach a compromise whereby the standards were returned, Armenia remained a neutral territory between the two powers.

Tiberius married Vipsania Agrippina, the daughter of Augustus' close friend and greatest general, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. He was appointed to the position of praetor, was sent with his legions to assist his brother Drusus in campaigns in the west. While Drusus focused his forces in Gallia Narbonensis and along the German frontier, Tiberius combated the tribes in the Alps and within Transalpine Gaul, conquering Raetia. In 15 BC he discovered the sources of the Danube, soon afterward the bend of the middle course. Returning to Rome in 13 BC, Tiberius was appointed as consul, around this same time his son, Drusus Julius Caesar, was born. Agrippa's death in 12 BC elevated Drusus with respect to the succession. At Augustus' request in 11 BC, Tiberius divorced Vipsania and married Julia the Elder, Augustus' daughter and Agrippa's widow. Tiberius was reluctant to do this, as Julia had made advances to him when she was married and Tiberius was married, his new marriage with Julia turned sour. Tiberius once ran into Vipsania again, proceeded to follow her home crying and begging forgiveness.

Tiberius continued to be elevated by Augustus, after Agrippa's death and his brother Drusus' death in 9 BC, seemed the clear candidate for succession. As such, in 12 BC he received military commissions in Germania. In 6 BC, Tiberius launched a pincer movement against the Marcomanni. Setting out northwest from Carnuntum on the Danube with four legions, Tiberius passed through Quadi territory in order to invade Marcomanni territory from the east. Meanwhile, general Gaius Sentius Saturninus would depart east from Moguntiacum on the Rhine with two or three legions

Dolly (1987 TV series)

Dolly is an American variety show starring Dolly Parton that aired on ABC from September 27, 1987 to May 10, 1988. The show was an attempt at a traditional variety show, featuring music, comedy skits and various guest stars, it had been a decade since the last successful variety series, The Carol Burnett Show, The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour and Cher had gone off the air, it was regarded as a gamble to try to revive the genre. Banking on Parton's talent and appeal, however, ABC paid the performer a reported $44 million for a two-year contract. With 39.47 million viewers, the first episode of Dolly attracted the largest audience for any television series premiere until Undercover Boss in 2010. It was acknowledged that a great deal of talent and work went into producing the show, but the high ratings during the first few episodes declined, despite many format changes and other attempts to create interest, ratings did not improve. Halfway through the run, who retained creative control over the show, took command and jettisoned many of the lavish, splashy segments that she felt were not working in favor of a more "down home" feel.

By this time, many of the initial viewers had stopped watching. To bolster the odds they brought in veteran variety show writers Buddy Sheffield, John Aylesworth, Jack Burns and producer Nick Vanoff. Around this same time, Parton hired then-relatively-unknown Brett Butler as one of the writers. Bruce Vilanch and Fannie Flagg were on the writing staff. Guest stars included Tammy Wynette, Merle Haggard, Tyne Daly, Bruce Willis, Emmylou Harris, Linda Ronstadt, Tom Petty, Tom Selleck, the Neville Brothers, Dudley Moore, Oprah Winfrey. Tyne Daly's appearance on the show, in which she sang a duet with Parton, directly led to Daly being cast in the lead role in the 1989 Broadway production of Gypsy; the opening theme song was Parton's 1978 hit, "Baby I'm Burning". Though most of the show's episodes were taped in ABC's studios in Los Angeles, a number of "special" episodes were recorded on location, including one in Hawaii, one in New Orleans, one in Nashville, a Thanksgiving episode in Parton's hometown of Sevierville, featuring most of her extended family.

Dolly on IMDb Dolly at TV.com

New York City Comptroller

The Office of Comptroller of New York City is the chief fiscal officer and chief auditing officer of the city. The comptroller is elected, citywide, to a four-year term and can hold office for two consecutive terms; the current comptroller is the former Borough President of Manhattan. Stringer was elected on November 5, 2013; the comptroller is responsible for auditing the performance and finances of city agencies, making recommendations regarding proposed contracts, issuing reports on the state of the city economy and selling municipal bonds, managing city debt. The comptroller "is the custodian and investment advisor to the Boards" of the five pension funds which are collectively referred to as "NYC Public Pension Funds" or "New York City pension funds"; the funds collectively amounted to US$158,700,000,000 as of September 30, 2014. The comptroller's regulations are compiled in title 44 of the New York City Rules; the office was created as an appointive office in 1801. Thirty years the comptroller became head of the department of finance.

In 1884 the office became elective, in 1938 the comptroller became head of a separate, independent department of the City's government. Until it was found unconstitutional in 1989, the comptroller served on the eight-member New York City Board of Estimate, composed of the Mayor of New York City, the comptroller and the president of the New York City Council, each of whom was elected citywide and had two votes, the five Borough presidents, each having one vote. If vacancies should occur in the offices of Mayor of New York City and New York City Public Advocate, the comptroller would become acting mayor; these have been the three offices elected citywide, so traditional practice has tried to balance a winning three-candidate ticket among the city's different ethnic and political interests. But, while there is a delicate interaction between the campaigns for the three offices, the actual election results can sometimes differ quite markedly; the Democratic nominee in the 2009 general election, John Liu won 76% of the citywide vote on Tuesday, November 3.

The Republican nominee, Joseph Mendola, won 19.3%. Manhattan Borough President Scott Stringer won the September 10, 2013 Democratic primary with 52% of the vote, defeating former New York State Governor, Eliot Spitzer, forced to resign as governor over various scandals. Former Wall Street financier John Burnett was unopposed as the Republican candidate in 2013; the Libertarian Party has nominated Hesham El-Meligy as their candidate for the office. In a prior convention, since declared invalid, they had nominated Kristin Davis, who decided not to challenge the new convention's outcome. 1802–1805 Selah Strong 1805–1806 Benjamin Romaind 1806–1807 Isaac Stoutenburg 1807 Jacob Morton 1808–1813 Garret N. Bleecker 1813–1816 Thomas Mercein 1816–1831 Garret N. Bleecker 1831–1836 Talman J. Waters 1836–1839 Douw D. Williamson 1839–1842 Alfred A. Smith 1842 Douw D. Williamson 1843–1844 Alfred A. Smith 1844–1845 Douw D. Williamson 1845–1848 John Ewen 1848–1949 Talman J. Waters 1849 John L. Lawrence 1850–1853 Joseph R. Taylor 1853–1859 Azariah C.

Flagg 1859–1863 Robert T. Haws 1863–1867 Matthew T. Brennan 1867–1871 Richard B. Connolly 1871–1876 Andrew H. Green 1876–1881 John Kelly 1881–1883 Allan Campbell 1883–1884 S. Hastings Grant 1884–1888 Edward V. Loss 1888–1894 Theodore W. Myers 1894–1898 Ashbel P. Fitch 1898–1901 Bird S. Coler 1902–1905 Edward M. Grout 1906–1909 Herman A. Metz 1910–1917 W. A. Pendergast 1918–1925 Charles Lacy Craig 1926–1932 Charles W. Berry 1933 George McAneny 1934 Arthur Cunningham 1935 Joseph D. McGoldrick 1936–1937 Frank J. Taylor 1938–1945 Joseph D. McGoldrick 1946–1953 Lazarus Joseph 1954–1961 Lawrence E. Gerosa 1962–1965 Abraham D. Beame 1966–1969 Mario Procaccino 1970–1973 Abraham D. Beame 1974–1989 Harrison J. Goldin 1990–1993 Elizabeth Holtzman 1994–2001 Alan G. Hevesi 2002–2009 William Thompson 2010–2013 John Liu 2014–Present Scott Stringer Article on "comptroller" by Noel C. Garelick in The Encyclopedia of New York City, edited by Kenneth T. Jackson NYC Comptrollers New York City Office of the Comptroller Comptroller in the Rules of the City of New York