Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhism practiced in Tibet where it is the dominant religion. It is found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas, much of Chinese Central Asia, the Southern Siberian regions such as Tuva, as well as Mongolia. Tibetan Buddhism is a form of Mahayana Buddhism stemming from the latest stages of Indian Buddhism, it thus preserves "the Tantric status quo of eighth-century India." However, it includes native Tibetan developments and practices. In the pre-modern era, Tibetan Buddhism spread outside of Tibet due to the influence of the Mongol Yuan dynasty, founded by Kublai Khan, which ruled China and parts of Siberia. In the modern era, it has spread outside of Asia due to the efforts of the Tibetan diaspora. Apart from classical Mahayana Buddhist practices like the six perfections, Tibetan Buddhism includes Tantric practices, such as deity yoga and the Six Dharmas of Naropa, its main goal is rainbow body. The main language of scriptural study in this tradition is classical Tibetan.

Tibetan Buddhism has four major schools, namely Nyingma, Kagyu and Gelug. The Jonang is a smaller school, the Rimé movement is a recent nonsectarian movement which cuts across the different schools; each school has its own monastic institutions and leaders. The native Tibetan term for Buddhism is "The Dharma of the insiders" or "The Buddha Dharma of the insiders". "Insider" means someone who seeks the truth not within the nature of mind. This is contrasted with other forms of organized religion, which are termed chos lugs, for example, Christianity is termed Yi shu'i chos lugs. Westerners unfamiliar with Tibetan Buddhism turned to China for understanding. In Han buddhism, the term used is Lamaism to distinguish it from a then-traditional Han form; the term was taken up by western scholars including Hegel, as early as 1822. Insofar as it implies a discontinuity between Indian and Tibetan Buddhism, the term has been discredited. In China, the new term is 藏传佛教 zangchuan fojiao Tibetan Buddhism. Another term, "Vajrayāna" is used mistakenly for Tibetan Buddhism.

More Vajrayāna signifies a certain subset of practices and traditions which are not only part of Tibetan Buddhism, but prominent in other Buddhist traditions. In the west, the term "Indo-Tibetan Buddhism" has become current, in acknowledgement of its derivation from the latest stages of Buddhist development in northern India. While some stories depict Buddhism in Tibet before this period, the religion was formally introduced to Tibet during the Tibetan Empire. Sanskrit Buddhist scriptures from India were first translated into Tibetan under the reign of the Tibetan king Songtsän Gampo; this period saw the development of the Tibetan writing system and classical Tibetan. In the 8th century King Trisong Detsen established it as the official religion of the state. Trisong Detsen invited Indian Buddhist scholars to his court, including Padmasambhāva and Śāntarakṣita, which are considered the founders of Nyingma, the oldest tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. Trisong Detsen invited the Chan master Moheyan to transmit the Dharma at Samye Monastery.

Some sources state that a debate ensued between Moheyan and the Indian master Kamalaśīla, but they disagree on the victor, some scholars consider the event fictitious. A reversal in Buddhist influence began under King Langdarma, his death was followed by the so-called Era of Fragmentation, a period of disunity during the 9th and 10th centuries. During this era, the political centralization of the earlier Tibetan Empire collapsed and civil wars ensued. In spite of this loss of state power and patronage however, Buddhism thrived in Tibet. According to Geoffrey Samuel this was because "Tantric Buddhism came to provide the principal set of techniques by which Tibetans dealt with the dangerous powers of the spirit world... Buddhism, in the form of Vajrayana ritual, provided a critical set of techniques for dealing with everyday life. Tibetans came to see these techniques as vital for their survival and prosperity in this life." This includes dealing with the local gods and spirits, which became a specialty of some Tibetan Buddhist lamas and lay ngagpas.

The late 10th and 11th centuries saw a revival of Buddhism in Tibet with the founding of "New Translation" lineages as well as the appearance of "hidden treasures" literature which reshaped the Nyingma tradition. In 1042 the Bengali master Atiśa arrived in Tibet at the invitation of a west Tibetan king, his chief disciple, Dromton founded the Kadampa school of Tibetan Buddhism, one of the first Sarma schools. The Sakya, the Grey Earth school, was founded by Khön Könchok Gyelpo, a disciple of the great Lotsawa, Drogmi Shākya, it is headed by the Sakya Trizin, traces its lineage to the mahasiddha Virūpa. Other influential Indian teachers include his student Naropa, their teachings, via their student Marpa, are the foundations of the Kagyu, the Oral lineage tradition, which focuses on the practices of Mahamudra and the Six Dharmas of Naropa. One of most famous Kagyu figures was an 11th-century mystic; the Dagpo Kagyu, founded by the monk Gampopa who merged Marpa's lineage teachings with the monastic Kadam tradition


Al-Muabbada is a town in al-Hasakah Governorate, Syria. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics, Al-Muabbada had a population of 15,759 in the 2004 census. According to the Kurdish news agency "Rudaw", the Ba'athist Party under president Hafez al-Assad changed the name of the town to Al-Muabbada; the town is 15 kilometres from the Turkish border. As of 2004, Al-Muabbada is the eighth largest town in Al-Hasakah governorate; the majority of the inhabitants of the town are Kurds with a large Arab minority. On 24 July 2012, the PYD announced; the YPG forces afterwards took control of all government institutions and the town became under the PYD's control. As a preliminary result of the ongoing Syrian Civil War, Al-Muabbada today is situated in Jazira Canton within the autonomous Democratic Federation of Northern Syria framework

Principality of Orange-Nassau

Orange-Nassau known as Nassau-Orange, was a principality, part of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle within the Holy Roman Empire. It existed under this name between 1702 and 1815; the territory of the former state of Orange-Nassau is now part of Germany. It was ruled by the House of Orange-Nassau. In 1702, the first House of Orange-Nassau became extinct with the death of William III, Prince of Orange, the Stadtholder in the Netherlands and King of England and Ireland. John William Friso, Prince of Nassau-Dietz inherited part of the possessions and the title "Prince of Orange" from his cousin, William III. From on, the rulers used the title Fürst von Nassau-Oranien in Germany, the title Prins van Oranje-Nassau in the Netherlands; the principality soon became larger with the incorporation of other Nassau territories, due to the extinction of other branches of the House of Nassau. In 1711, the branch of Nassau-Hadamar died out. Although belonging to the remaining branches of Nassau-Siegen, Nassau-Dillenburg and Orange-Nassau, the principality of Nassau-Hadamar was not divided.

When the branches of Nassau-Dillenburg and Nassau-Siegen died out in 1739 and 1743, all Nassau areas of the Ottonian Line were reunited and inherited by the branch of Orange-Nassau. The Prince of Orange-Nassau from on had two seats in the Council of Princes of the Reichstag: Hadamar-Nassau and Nassau-Dillenburg. By article 24 of the Treaty of the Confederation on 12 July 1806, William VI, Prince of Orange lost all the territories of the Principality of Orange-Nassau; the counties of Siegen and Hadamar, the Herrlichkeit of Beilstein, were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Berg. By German Mediatisation, the county of Dietz and its dependencies, the Lordships of Wehrheim and Burbach, all came under the sovereignty of the Duke of Nassau-Usingen and the Prince of Nassau-Weilburg. In 1808, the Prince of Orange lost his rights as mediatized prince, all his property was confiscated. After the French troops were expelled from Germany in 1813, the Prince of Orange could retake the territories that were lost to the Grand Duchy of Berg in 1806.

In addition, the following mediatised areas were added under his sovereignty: the Herrlichkeit of Westerburg, the Herrlichkeit of Schadeck, that part of the county of Wied-Runkel that lay on the right bank of the river Lahn. On 26 November 1813, the Prince of Orange concluded a treaty with the Duchy of Nassau, in which the county of Nassau-Dietz was returned to the prince; the Amt Wehrheim, remained with the Duchy of Nassau. However, the restoration was short-lived. On 31 May 1815, Prince William VI concluded a treaty at the Congress of Vienna with his Prussian brother-in-law and first cousin, King Frederick William III, by which he ceded the Principality of Orange-Nassau to the Kingdom of Prussia in exchange for Luxembourg, elevated to a Grand Duchy. On the same day, the Prussians gave most of the principality to the Duchy of Nassau. Only Siegen remained with Prussia. In 1815, the prince became the new King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg with the name of William I of the Netherlands.

To this day, the Netherlands are ruled by descendants of the House of Orange-Nassau. County of Nassau-Dillenburg County of Nassau-Siegen County of Nassau-Dietz County of Nassau-Hadamar Fief Beilstein Fief Spiegelberg Amt Nassau Amt Kirrberg Grund Seel and Burbach Amt Camberg Amt Wehrheim Ems custody Principality of Orange Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda House of Orange-Nassau