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Tibetan Buddhist canon

The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. In addition to sutrayana texts from Early Buddhist and Mahayana sources, the Tibetan canon includes tantric texts; the Tibetan Canon underwent a final compilation in the 14th century by Buton Rinchen Drub. The Tibetans did not have a formally arranged Mahayana canon and so devised their own scheme which divided texts into two broad categories: Kangyur or "Translated Words or Vacana", consists of works supposed to have been said by the Buddha himself. All texts have a Sanskrit original, although in many cases the Tibetan text was translated from Chinese or other languages. Tengyur or "Translated Treatises or Shastras", is the section to which were assigned commentaries and abhidharma works; the Tengyur contains 3626 texts in 224 Volumes. The Kangyur is divided into sections on Vinaya, Perfection of Wisdom Sutras, Avatamsaka and other sutras, tantras; when the term Kangyur was first used is not known.

Collections of canonical Buddhist texts existed in the time of Trisong Detsen, the sixth king of Tibet. The exact number of texts in the Kangyur is not fixed; each editor takes responsibility for removing texts he considers spurious or adding new translations. There are about 12 available Kangyurs; these include the Derge, Narthang, Peking, Urga and Stog Palace versions, each named after the physical location of its printing. In addition, some canonical texts have been found in Tabo and Dunhuang which provide earlier exemplars to texts found in the Kangyur; the majority of extant Kangyur editions appear to stem from the so-called Old Narthang Kangyur, though the Phukdrak and Tawang editions are thought to lie outside of that textual lineage. The stemma of the Kangyur have been well researched in particular by Paul Harrison. From the seventh century onward, existing literature were compiled and catalogued from time to time which extended, classified and put in different sets of different collections.

A separate set of translation works was re-grouped into two major collections popularly known as bka’-’gyur and bstan-’gyur, translation of Buddha’s discourses and translation of commentarial works respectively. The first Tibetan catalogue was introduced during the period of the 39th Tibetan King khri-lde srong-btsen known as sad-na legs-mjing-gyon, who issued decrees “requiring all translation works that were extant in Tibetan from their Indian original to be catalogued and subjected to be recurrently reviewed and to set guidelines of terminology in order to standardize all translation works”. A team of Indian and Tibetan scholars was assigned for the purpose; as a major step in this remarkable attempt at literary standardization, the bi-lingual glossary known as the Mahavyutpatti was accomplished in the Tibetan horse year. Another great achievement was the cataloguing of the collections available in royal libraries of the three famous Tibetan palaces under the supervision of the famous translator Bande sKa-ba dpal-brtsegs with help from his colleagues, Bande chos-kyi snying-po, Lo-tsa-wa Bande debendhara, Bande lhun-po and Bande klu’-dbang-po etc.

The earliest catalogue compilation was recorded from the manuscript of the royal collection housed in the palace- pho-brang ‘phang-thang ka-med kyi gtsug-lag-kang in the Tibetan dog year. This cataloguing work known as dkar-chag phang-thang-ma. Soon afterwards two further catalogues of collections available in two other royal libraries- pho-brang bsam-yas mchims-phu-ma and pho-brang stong-thang ldan-dkar were compiled and came to be known as dkar-chag mchims-phu-ma and dkar-chag ldan-dkar-ma respectively. Dkar-chag ldan-dkar-ma was compiled in the dragon year. Among these three catalogues, ldan-dkar-ma, included in the volume Jo of sna-tsogs in sde-ge bka’-bstan, is believed to be the only surviving so far, but a manuscript of dkar-chag phang-thang-ma is discovered and published from Tibet. It contains 961 titles listed under 34 subject headings with additional information of numbers of verses that contains in each text; the ldan-dkar-ma catalogue listed under a category of 27 subject headings.

An interesting unique feature of Tibetan catalogue is that, alongside information about the source material of translation and the bibliographical details, it gives in physical descriptions, such as the nos. of words, verses and folios-pages in each of textual contents. Thus today we have a record of 73 million words contained in the bka’-’gyur & bstan-’gyur collection. According to the latest edition of Dharma Publication, the bKa’-‘gyur contains 1,115 texts, spread over 65,420 Tibetan folios amounting to 450,000 lines or 25 million words; the bsTan-'gyur contains 3,387 texts using 127,000 folios amounting to 850,000 lines and 48 million words. The sum total of both these collections is 4,502 texts in 73 million words. By fixing bampo to verses and to words of each of the textual contents, the individual works are interpolation and alteration; this further strengthened the authenticity of Tibetan Buddhist literature. These are the first Tibetan catalogues in three versions that were compiled and published in the beginning of the ninth century by the great sgra-sgyur gyi lo-tsa-wa Bande sKa-ba dpal-brtsegs and his team.

Tibet, becomes the earliest to accomplish catalogue as inventory in

Ervin Bauer

Ervin Bauer was a Hungarian biologist. In 1935, Ervin Bauer published a monograph Theoretical biology, in which he described the general thermodynamic features of living systems, his writings became influential for the development of theoretical biology in Russia and several other countries. In 1925 he moved from Hungary to Russia. Since 1933 he lived in Leningrad, his first wife was a writer Margit Kaffka, his second wife was a mathematician Stefánia Szilárd. Bauer and his wife Stefánia were arrested by NKVD on 4 August 1937, both were shot on 11 January 1938. Ervin Bauer formulated the principle of stable non-equilibrium state which he considered as the basic characteristics of living matter. According to Bauer, living systems function in the expense of non-equilibrium, the external energy is used not directly to perform work but to support the stable non-equilibrium state. Bauer's principle is incorporated into non-linear thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Living systems in this framework cannot support their organization only due to the influx of external energy, i.e. the ordering internal factor is involved.

The activity of living system is determined by the internal pattern of its non-equilibrium state and any work performed by the biological system appears as the work of its structural forces. The process of evolution, according to Bauer, corresponds to the increase in external work, which aims to exploit additional resources to maintain living state of evolving biosystems

Algernon West

Sir Algernon Edward West was an English civil servant. He acted as Principal Private Secretary to Prime Minister William Gladstone, he was the third son of Martin John West and Lady Maria Walpole, third daughter of Horatio Walpole, 2nd Earl of Orford. He was educated at Eton College and Christ Church, where he matriculated in 1850, he left after two terms, becoming a clerk in the Inland Revenue, them transferring to the Admiralty. West was Private Secretary to Gladstone between 1861 and 1894, he was a Progressive Party Alderman of London County Council from 1898 to 1907. He held the office of Justice of the Peace for Middlesex, he held the office of Chairman of the Board of the Inland Revenue. He was invested as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 30 July 1886, he was promoted to a Knight Grand Cross of the order in the 1902 Coronation Honours list published on 26 June 1902, was invested by King Edward VII at Buckingham Palace on 8 August 1902. He was invested as a Privy Counsellor. From 1880, West lived at the manor at Surrey.

West entertained many political figures at the manor including Gladstone, Queen Victoria and Bismarck. West was a director of the South Eastern Railway and he caused a new station, named Wanborough but at Normandy, to be opened in 1891. In 1900, Wanborough Manor was passed on to H. H. Asquith. In 1908, West returned to stay in the manor until his death in 1921. West married Mary Elizabeth Caroline Barrington, daughter of Hon. George Barrington and Lady Caroline Grey, on 12 August 1858. Three sons and a daughter survived him. Media related to Sir Algernon Edward West at Wikimedia Commons

R15 (New York City Subway car)

The R15 was a New York City Subway car model built by the American Car and Foundry Company in 1950 for the IRT A Division. A total of 100 cars were arranged as single units. Two versions were manufactured: Westinghouse -powered cars and General Electric -powered cars; the first R15s entered service on February 4, 1950. The R15s were replaced by the R62s in the 1980s, the final train of R15s ran on December 10, 1984. One R15 car was saved for the New York Transit Museum and the rest were scrapped; the R15s were numbered 5953-5999 & 6200-6252. The cars were the first to feature round "turtle-back" roofs and have the conductors' door controls located inside the motorman's cabs, as opposed to on the outsides as they were on the R12s and R14s. Additionally, the R15s featured porthole door windows, similar to those found on the R11s. While the R15s ran in solid consists on the Flushing line, the cars never did so on the mainlines. Two versions of the R15 were used: Westinghouse Electric-powered cars and General Electric-powered cars.

Delivery of the cars began in January 1950. The first R15s entered service on the 7 on February 4, 1950. All cars were in service as of April 23, 1950; the R15s ran on the Flushing Line until the arrival of the R33Ss and R36s in late 1963-early 1964. The R15s were transferred to operate on other A-division routes before being retired and replaced by the R62s in the mid 1980s; the last R15 ran on December 10, 1984. Except for one car, all cars have since been taken off property to be scrapped. For example, cars 5965, 5984-5985, 5989, 6214 were converted into R71 rider cars after retirement, but were replaced with R161s and subsequently reefed in 2009. Car 6239 has been preserved by the New York Transit Museum since 1976; this car was retrofitted with the first prototype air conditioners and went into service on September 8, 1955, but the prototype failed and was removed. It was restored to operational status and has operated on many fantrips since 2004 on the Train of Many Colors. Media related to R15 at Wikimedia Commons

Leones de Yucat√°n

The Leones de Yucatán are a Triple-A Minor League Baseball team which plays in the Mexican League. Their home games are played at Parque Kukulcán Alamo in Yucatán; the Yucatán Lions were founded in 1954 under the leadership of Alvaro Ponce Vidiella and Humberto "Beto" Abimerhi Abimerhi. The team's entry to the Mexican League was announced on January 5, 1954; the team nickname is a reference to the name of the beer company built by the Ponce family. The Leones opened the season on April 17 at the newly built Carta Clara Park, hosting the previous season's champions, the Nuevo Laredo Owls, earning an 8–0 victory. In its first year in the league, the Leones won 47 games and lost 32, with one tie, finished in second place to the defending champion Owls; the team ceased play after the 1958 season. After the 1969 season, filmmaker Manuel Barbachano Yucatán Ponce, moved the Pericos de Puebla franchise to Mérida, renaming it the Leones. In the opening game of the 1970 season on March 18 the Leones beat the Rojos del Águila de Veracruz, 4–1.

The franchise remained in Mérida for five seasons and moved to Villahermosa, when Ariel "Picho" Magaña Carrillo purchased the team. The third incarnation of the Lions began in 1979. On April 6, 1978, the Assembly of the Mexican League approved five expansion teams for the 1979 season. One of the expansion teams was awarded to Yucatán. On March 16, 1979, the Leones returned to the Mexican League when they opened the season at the Cafeteros de Córdoba and lost 10–4; the Leones finished fifth in the Southern Division with 69 losses. Rookie pitcher Fernando Valenzuela, who became a star in Major League Baseball, played for the Leones in 1979. Valenzuela had a win–loss record of 10–12 with an earned run average of 2.42 and allowed only 70 walks while striking out 141 batters in 181 innings, catching the attention of the Los Angeles Dodgers with whom he would play from 1980 to 1990. Since they began play in the Mexican League in summer 1954, the Lions have had fierce rivalries, first with the Mexico City Diablos Rojos and the Mexico City Tigres, from 1980 with the Campeche Piratas.

1 Juan José Pacho 2 Luis "Rayo" Arredondo 3 Mercedes Esquer Llanes 4 Oswaldo Morejón 15 Juan Fernando Villaescusa Elías 17 Carlos Paz González 18 Ray Torres 19 Ricardo Conde Hernández 21 Héctor Espino González 29 Leonel Aldama Rossel Official website

The 1st Chapter (album)

The 1st Chapter is the debut album by the Norwegian progressive metal band, Circus Maximus. The 1st Chapter was released on June 7, 2005 in the United States; the ongoing theme of The 1st Chapter is about "the journey" to salvation expressed through the lyrics. Musically, it sports a circus-like theme playing throughout the album; the lyrics to the song "Glory of the Empire" refer to the 2000 film, Gladiator. The 1st Chapter contains, the longest running Circus Maximus song with "The 1st Chapter" running for 19 minutes and 7 seconds. Michael Eriksen – vocals Mats Haugen – guitars Truls Haugen – drums, backing vocals Glen Cato Møllenbass guitar Espen Storø – keyboards Produced by Circus Maximus Mixed and mastered by Tommy Hansen Artwork by Mattias Norèn Layout and logo by Claus Jensen Official Circus Maximus website