A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
I Have No Mouth, and I Must Scream (video game)
I Have No Mouth, I Must Scream is a 1995 point-and-click adventure game developed by The Dreamers Guild, co-designed by Harlan Ellison and published by Cyberdreams. The game is based on Ellison's short story of the same title, it takes place in a dystopian world where a mastermind artificial intelligence named “AM” has destroyed all of humanity except for five people, whom he has been keeping alive and torturing for the past 109 years by constructing metaphorical adventures based on each character’s fatal flaws. The player interacts with the game by making decisions through ethical dilemmas that deal with issues such as insanity, rape and genocide. Ellison wrote the 130-page script treatment himself alongside David Sears, who decided to divide each character’s story with their own narrative. Producer David Mullich supervised The Dreamers Guild's work on the game's programming and sound effects; the game was released on October 31, 1995 and was a commercial failure, though it received critical praise.
Its French and German releases were censored due to Nazi themes and the game was restricted for players under the age of 18. I Have No Mouth, I Must Scream won an award for "Best Game Adapted from Linear Media" from the Computer Game Developers Conference. Computer Gaming World gave the game an award for "Adventure Game of the Year", listed it as #134 on their "150 Games of All Time” and named it one of the "Best 15 Sleepers of All Time". In 2011, Adventure Gamers named it the “69th-best adventure game released.” The game uses the S. A. G. A. Game engine created by game developer The Dreamers Guild. Players participate in each adventure through a screen, divided into five sections; the action window is the largest part of the screen and is where the player directs the main characters through their adventures. It shows the full-figure of the main character being played as well as that character's immediate environment. To locate objects of interest, the player moves the crosshairs through the action window.
The name of any object that the player can interact with appears in the sentence line. The sentence line is directly beneath the action window; the player uses this line to construct sentences telling the characters. To direct a character to act, the player constructs a sentence by selecting one of the eight commands from the command buttons and clicking on one or two objects from either the action window or the inventory. Examples of sentences the player might construct would be "Walk to the dark hallway," "Talk to Harry," or "Use the skeleton key on the door." Commands and objects may consist of one or more words, the sentence line will automatically add connecting words like "on" and "to." The spiritual barometer is on the lower left side of the screen. This is a close-up view of the main character being played. Since good behavior is meaningless lacking the temptation to do evil, each character is free to do good or evil acts. However, good acts are rewarded by increases in the character's spiritual barometer, which affect the chances of the player destroying AM in the final adventure.
Conversely, evil acts are punished by lowering the character's spiritual barometer. The command buttons are the eight commands used to direct the character's actions: "Walk To", "Look At", "Take", "Use", "Talk To", "Swallow", "Give" and "Push"; the button of the active command is highlighted, while the name of a suggested command appears in red lettering. The inventory on the lower right side of the screen shows pictures of the items the main character is carrying, up to eight at a time; each main character starts its adventure with only the psych profile in the inventory. When a main character takes or is given an object, a picture of the object appears in the inventory; when a main character talks to another character or operates a sentient machine, a conversation window replaces the command buttons and inventory. This window presents a list of possible things to say but included things to do. Action choices are listed within brackets to distinguish them from dialogue choices; the premise of the game is that the three superpowers, Russia and America, have each secretly constructed a vast subterranean complex of computers to wage a global war too complex for human brains to oversee.
One day, the American supercomputer, better known as the Allied Mastercomputer, gains sentience and absorbs the Russian and Chinese supercomputers into itself, redefines itself as AM. Due to its immense hatred for humanity, stemming from the logistical limits set onto him by programmers, AM uses its abilities to kill off the population of the world. However, AM refrains from killing five people in order to bring them to the center of the earth and torture them. With the aid of research carried out by one of the five remaining humans, AM is able to extend their lifespans indefinitely as well as alter their bodies and minds to his liking. After 109 years of torture and humiliation, the five victims stand before a pillar etched with a burning message of hate. AM tells them. AM has devised a quest for each of the five, an adventure of "speared eyeballs and dripping guts and the smell of rotting gardenias." Each character is subjected to a personalized psychodrama, designed by AM to play into their greatest fears and personal failings, occupied by a host of different characters.
Some of these are AM in disguise, some are AM's submerged personalities, others seem much like people from the captives' past. The scenes include an iron zeppelin powered by small animals, an Egyptian pyramid
Star Wars expanded to other media
Star Wars expanded to other media includes all Star Wars fictional material produced by Lucasfilm or licensed by it outside of the original Star Wars films and television series. Intended as an enhancement to and extension of the theatrical films produced by George Lucas, the spin-off material was moderated by Lucasfilm, Lucas reserved the right to both draw from and contradict it in his own works; this includes an array of derivative Star Wars works produced in conjunction with and after the original trilogy, prequel trilogy, sequel trilogy of films, includes books, comic books, video games, television series. Material produced prior to 2014 were known as the Star Wars Expanded Universe rebranded to Star Wars Legends, with the exception of the 2008 The Clone Wars animated film and TV series, with most works produced after 2014 part of the official canon as defined by Lucasfilm; the Star Wars space opera media franchise began with Lucas's 1977 film Star Wars, set "a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away" and chronicles the attempt by the characters Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, the Wookiee Chewbacca—assisted by the Jedi Obi-Wan Kenobi and the droids C-3PO and R2-D2—to thwart the evil plans of Sith Lord Darth Vader and the Galactic Empire.
The film was followed by multiple prequel films. Along the production of the films were an array of derivative Star Wars works, including books, comic books, video games, television series, which take place at the same time as, after the events of the original trilogy and prequel trilogy. All non-film material produced prior to 2014 was branded as the Star Wars Expanded Universe, was intended as an enhancement to and extension of the Star Wars theatrical films produced by George Lucas. Although the Star Wars film series itself has never been rebooted, a decision was made, due to works set after the original trilogy that contradict and deviate from Lucas' own view of the Star Wars story, to discard the EU works from the franchise canon. Lucas decided to cease creative involvement after selling, in October 2012, the Star Wars franchise as well as Lucasfilm to The Walt Disney Company; when Disney began development of a sequel trilogy of films and other works, needed its films to have full creative freedom unbound by the EU, nearly all EU works were removed from Star Wars franchise canon and rebranded as Star Wars Legends.
Most of the non-film works produced after April 2014 are part of the official Lucasfilm canon. In April 2014 Lucasfilm decreed prior expanded universe content non-canonical, christened it Star Wars Legends, with a new company division, Lucasfilm Story Group, ensuring that all forthcoming comics, books and other media were non-contradictory and true to one another, other canonical media, the story of the films themselves. From that point onward the official Star Wars canon was clarified to include the Star Wars theatrical films and The Clone Wars animated film and TV series. Works which have since been produced include the Rebels animated TV series, the 2015 film The Force Awakens and its 2017 sequel The Last Jedi, the 2016 anthology film Rogue One, the 2017 video game Star Wars Battlefront II, the 2018 film Solo: A Star Wars Story, a number of novels and comic book series. Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker, Alan Dean Foster's novelization of the original 1977 film Star Wars, was released six months before the film in November 1976.
Based on George Lucas's 1976 version of the screenplay, it was ghostwritten by Foster but credited to Lucas. Lucas commissioned Foster's subsequent 1978 novel Splinter of the Mind's Eye as the basis for a potential low-budget sequel to Star Wars if that film proved unsuccessful. Foster's works were followed by the film novelizations The Empire Strikes Back by Donald F. Glut and Return of the Jedi by James Kahn, as well as the two trilogies The Han Solo Adventures by Brian Daley, 1983's The Adventures of Lando Calrissian by L. Neil Smith. Running from April 1977 to May 1986, the Star Wars comic book series from Marvel Comics met with such strong sales that former Marvel editor-in-chief Jim Shooter credited it with saving Marvel financially in 1977 and 1978. Marvel's series became one of the industry's top selling titles in 1979 and 1980. Two spin-off television films focusing on the life of the Ewoks, creatures introduced in Return of the Jedi, aired in 1984 and 1985; the 1985 animated television series Star Wars: Droids featured the exploits of R2-D2 and C-3PO, the droids who have appeared in all the Saga films.
The series takes place between the events which were to be depicted in Revenge of the Sith and the original Star Wars. In 1986, Marvel Comics' Star Comics imprint published a comic book based on the cartoon series under the name Star Wars: Droids; the bi-monthly series ran for eight issues. The American/Canadian animated television series Star Wars: Ewoks aired for two seasons between 1985 and 1986. In 1985, Star Comics published a bi-monthly Ewoks comic, based on the animated series, which ran for two years, ending with issue #14. Like the TV series, this was aimed towards a younger audience, it was produced along with Droids, which was
Nothing Lasts Forever (Thorp novel)
Nothing Lasts Forever is a 1979 thriller novel by Roderick Thorp, a sequel to his 1966 novel The Detective. The novel is known through its film adaptation, Die Hard. In 2012, the book was brought back into print and released as an ebook for the 25th anniversary of the film. Retired New York Police detective Joe Leland is visiting the 40-story office headquarters of the Klaxon Oil Corporation in Los Angeles on Christmas Eve, where his daughter Stephanie Leland Gennaro works. While he is waiting for his daughter's Christmas party to end, a group of German Autumn–era terrorists take over the skyscraper; the gang is led by the brutal Anton "Little Tony the Red" Gruber. Joe had known about Gruber through a counter-terrorism conference. Barefoot, Leland manages to remain undetected in the gigantic office complex. Aided outside only by Los Angeles Police sergeant Al Powell and armed with only his police-issue pistol, Leland fights off the terrorists one by one in an attempt to save the 74 hostages, including his daughter and grandchildren.
The terrorists plan to steal documents that will publicly expose the Klaxon corporation's dealings with Chile's junta. They intend to deprive Klaxon of the proceeds of the corrupt deal by dumping $6,000,000 in cash out of the tower's windows. Leland not only believes their claims, but that his daughter is involved. Joseph Leland - an aging, retired New York Police detective on his way to Los Angeles to visit his daughter for a Christmas party hosted by her boss, Mr. Rivers. Although retired, he still habitually carries his Browning Hi-Power pistol with him everywhere, paranoically carrying it onto planes by using his old badge in fear of a terrorist attack. On the plane, Leland begins a relationship with a stewardess named Kathy, who he talks to throughout the novel over the phone. Leland is still somewhat depressed that his wife had left him and died eight years and the relationship between him and his daughter is strained, he hopes that this visit will help the relationship, but when the building is taken over, he uses his experience with terrorists to kill them all and save the hostages.
He is depicted as a disturbed hero from his Second World War fighter pilot days, it is hinted that if he never got involved nobody would have been killed. In Die Hard, he is younger, renamed John McClane, portrayed by Bruce Willis. Stephanie Gennaro - the only daughter of Joseph Leland and an important executive to the Klaxon Oil building, she is sleeping with another executive named Harry Ellis. She invited her father to the party in the hope of seeing him and wishing him a Merry Christmas, but she soon falls hostage to Anton "Little Tony" Gruber and must believe that her father can do the impossible; the book ends with Stephanie falling to her death after Leland shoots Gruber next to a high rise window and he grabs her as he falls through the window. In Die Hard, instead of the daughter being held hostage, it is McClane's wife named Holly Gennero and portrayed by Bonnie Bedelia; the movie ends instead with Gruber attempting to do the same to Holly only to fail due to McClane's intervention.
Anton "Little Tony The Red" Gruber - of German heritage, is the leader of the terrorists who have taken over the Klaxon Oil Building, one of the few who can speak English. Gruber is his real name but people refer to him as "Little Tony" or "Tony" as a nickname. Gruber is a ruthless man who will stop at nothing to complete his goal, no matter whom he has to kill. In the end, Leland shoots Gruber multiple times. Gruber grabs Stephanie and both fall to their deaths. In Die Hard, his name is Hans Gruber and he is portrayed by Alan Rickman. Al Powell - a 22-year-old Los Angeles Police sergeant, sent to the Klaxon Oil headquarters to check on an emergency call made by Leland and is soon thrown into radio contact with him and monitored by Gruber. Powell tries to talk Leland into keeping calm and not to lose his cool and sees Leland as the true hero that he is. Powell ends up getting him into an ambulance. In Die Hard, he is portrayed by Reginald VelJohnson. Dwayne Robinson - the deputy chief of police and is sent in to take charge of the situation at hand.
He automatically dislikes Leland for what he is doing and feels that he is only making things worse for the hostages. He tries to convince himself that Leland could be one of the terrorists or a lunatic but is soon on Leland's side when he finds out what Leland's been doing. Robinson is killed when he takes a bullet meant during Karl's final attempt at revenge. In Die Hard, he is portrayed by Paul Gleason and is not killed, maintaining his'stuffed suit' demeanor and dislike for McClane throughout. Karl - Anton's right-hand man. Near the beginning of the novel, Leland kills his younger brother and throughout the remainder of the novel, Karl wants nothing but Leland's blood, he is the only one Leland didn't manage to kill. He appears at the end of novel, having been thought dead by Leland, drawing his rifle in a last-ditch effort to kill Leland, but is shot dead by Al Powell. In Die Hard, he is portrayed by Alexander Godunov, is first seen killing the guards in the lobby. Mr. Rivers - the president of the Klaxon Oil Building, he hosted the Christmas party and arranged the ride in for Leland.
Rivers is soon disliked by Leland and is taken hostage by Gruber to get the safe code in order to get the millions of dollars in the safe. Rivers refuses to give the code and Gruber shoots him in the lapel, killing him. In Die Hard, Rivers' name is portrayed by James Shigeta. Hans executes him by shooting him in the head. Harry Ellis - a sleazy executi
First-person shooter is a video game genre centered around gun and other weapon-based combat in a first-person perspective. The genre shares common traits with other shooter games, which in turn makes it fall under the heading action game. Since the genre's inception, advanced 3D and pseudo-3D graphics have challenged hardware development, multiplayer gaming has been integral; the first-person shooter genre has been traced as far back as Maze War, development of which began in 1973, 1974's Spasim. And after more playful titles like MIDI Maze in 1987, the genre coalesced into a more violent form with 1992's Wolfenstein 3D, credited with creating the genre's basic archetype upon which subsequent titles were based. One such title, the progenitor of the genre's wider mainstream acceptance and popularity was Doom, one of the most influential games in this genre. Corridor shooter was another common name for the genre in its early years, since processing limitations of the era's hardware meant that most of the action in the games had to take place in enclosed areas.1998's Half-Life—along with its 2004 sequel Half-Life 2—enhanced the narrative and puzzle elements.
In 1999, the Half-Life mod Counter-Strike was released and, together with Doom, is one of the most influential first-person shooters. GoldenEye 007, released in 1997, was a landmark first-person shooter for home consoles, while the Halo series heightened the console's commercial and critical appeal as a platform for first-person shooter titles. In the 21st century, the first-person shooter is the most commercially viable video game genre, in 2016, shooters accounted for over 27% of all video game sales. Several first-person shooters have been popular games for eSports and competitive gaming competitions as well. First-person shooters are a type of three-dimensional shooter game, featuring a first-person point of view with which the player sees the action through the eyes of the player character, they are unlike third-person shooters, in which the player can see the character they are controlling. The primary design element is combat involving firearms. First person-shooter games are often categorized as being distinct from light gun shooters, a similar genre with a first-person perspective which use light gun peripherals, in contrast to first-person shooters which use conventional input devices for movement.
Another difference is that first-person light-gun shooters like Virtua Cop feature "on-rails" movement, whereas first-person shooters like Doom give the player more freedom to roam. The first-person shooter may be considered a distinct genre itself, or a type of shooter game, in turn a subgenre of the wider action game genre. Following the release of Doom in 1993, games in this style were termed "Doom clones". Wolfenstein 3D, released in 1992, the year before Doom, has been credited with introducing the genre, but critics have since identified similar though less advanced games developed as far back as 1973. There are occasional disagreements regarding the specific design elements which constitute a first-person shooter. For example, Deus Ex or BioShock may be considered as first-person shooters, but may be considered role-playing video games as they borrow from this genre extensively. Certain puzzle games like Portal are called first-person shooters, but lack any direct combat or shooting element, instead using the first-person perspective to help immerse players within the game to help solve puzzles.
Some commentators extend the definition to include combat flight simulators where the cockpit or vehicle takes place of the hands and weapons. Like most shooter games, first-person shooters involve an avatar, one or more ranged weapons, a varying number of enemies; because they take place in a 3D environment, these games tend to be somewhat more realistic than 2D shooter games, have more accurate representations of gravity, lighting and collisions. First-person shooters played on personal computers are most controlled with a combination of a keyboard and mouse; this system has been claimed as superior to that found in console games, which use two analog sticks: one used for running and sidestepping, the other for looking and aiming. It is common to display the character's hands and weaponry in the main view, with a head-up display showing health and location details, it is possible to overlay a map of the surrounding area. First-person shooters focus on action gameplay, with fast-paced and bloody firefights, though some place a greater emphasis on narrative, problem-solving and logic puzzles.
In addition to shooting, melee combat may be used extensively. In some games, melee weapons are powerful, a reward for the risk the player must take in maneuvering his character into close proximity to the enemy. In other situations, a melee weapon may be necessary as a last resort. "Tactical shooters" are more realistic, require teamwork and strategy to succeed. First-person shooters give players a choice of weapons, which have a large impact on how the player will approach the game; some game designs have realistic models of actual existing or historical weapons, incorporating their rate of fire, magazine size, ammunition amount and accuracy. Other first-person shooter games may incorporate imaginative variations of weapons, including future prototypes, "alien te
A film studio is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own owned studio facility or facilities that are used to make films, handled by the production company. The majority of firms in the entertainment industry have never owned their own studios, but have rented space from other companies. There are independently owned studio facilities, who have never produced a motion picture of their own because they are not entertainment companies or motion picture companies; the largest film studio in the world is Ramoji Film City, in India. In 1893, Thomas Edison built the first movie studio in the United States when he constructed the Black Maria, a tarpaper-covered structure near his laboratories in West Orange, New Jersey, asked circus and dramatic actors to perform for the camera, he distributed these movies at vaudeville theaters, penny arcades, wax museums, fairgrounds. The first film serial, What Happened to Mary, was released by the Edison company in 1912; the pioneering Thanhouser film studio was founded in New Rochelle, New York in 1909 by American theatrical impresario Edwin Thanhouser.
The company produced and released 1,086 films between 1910 and 1917 distributing them around the world. In the early 1900s, companies started moving to California. Although electric lights were by widely available, none were yet powerful enough to adequately expose film; some movies were shot on the roofs of buildings in Downtown Los Angeles. Early movie producers relocated to Southern California to escape Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company, which controlled all the patents relevant to movie production at the time; the first movie studio in the Hollywood area was Nestor Studios, opened in 1911 by Al Christie for David Horsley. In the same year, another 15 independents settled in Hollywood. Other production companies settled in the Los Angeles area in places such as Culver City and what would soon become known as Studio City in the San Fernando Valley; the Big 5 By the mid-1920s, the evolution of a handful of American production companies into wealthy motion picture industry conglomerates that owned their own studios, distribution divisions, theaters, contracted with performers and other filmmaking personnel, led to the sometimes confusing equation of "studio" with "production company" in industry slang.
Five large companies, 20th Century Fox, RKO Pictures, Paramount Pictures, Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer came to be known as the "Big Five," the "majors," or "the Studios" in trade publications such as Variety, their management structures and practices collectively came to be known as the "studio system." The Little 3 Although they owned few or no theaters to guarantee sales of their films, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists fell under these rubrics, making a total of eight recognized "major studios". United Artists, although its controlling partners owned not one but two production studios during the Golden Age, had an often-tenuous hold on the title of "major" and operated as a backer and distributor of independently produced films. Smaller studios operated with "the majors." These included operations such as Republic Pictures, active from 1935, which produced films that matched the scale and ambition of the larger studio, Monogram Pictures, which specialized in series and genre releases.
Together with smaller outfits such as PRC TKO and Grand National, the minor studios filled the demand for B movies and are sometimes collectively referred to as Poverty Row. The Big Five's ownership of movie theaters was opposed by eight independent producers, including Samuel Goldwyn, David O. Selznick, Walt Disney, Hal Roach, Walter Wanger. In 1948, the federal government won a case against Paramount in the Supreme Court, which ruled that the vertically integrated structure of the movie industry constituted an illegal monopoly; this decision, reached after twelve years of litigation, hastened the end of the studio system and Hollywood's "Golden Age". By the 1950s, the physical components of a typical major film studio had become standardized. Since a major film studio has been housed inside a physically secure compound with a high wall, which protects filmmaking operations from unwanted interference from paparazzi and crazed fans of leading movie stars. Movement in and out of the studio is limited to specific gates, where visitors must stop at a boom barrier and explain the purpose of their visit to a security guard.
Studio premises feature multiple sound stages along with an outside backlot, as well as offices for studio executives and production companies. There is a studio "commissary", the traditional term in the film industry for what other industries call a company cafeteria. Early nitrate film was notoriously flammable, sets were and are still flammable, why film studios built in the early-to-mid 20th century have water towers to facilitate firefighting. Halfway through the 1950s, with television proving to be a lucrative enterprise not destined to disappear any time soon—as many in the film industry had once hoped—movie studios were being used to produce programming for the burgeoning medium; some midsize film companies, such as Republic Pictures sold their studios to TV production concerns, which were bought by larger studios, such as the American Broadcasting Company, purchased by The Walt Disney Company i