Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
Ciara Princess Harris is an American singer, songwriter and model. Born in Austin, she traveled around the world during her childhood moving to Atlanta, Georgia where she joined the girl group Hearsay, she signed a publishing deal, befriended producer Jazze Pha, who recorded demos that would appear on her debut album. With his help, Ciara signed a record deal with LaFace Records. In 2004, Ciara released her debut studio album Goodies, which spawned four singles: "Goodies", "1, 2 Step", "Oh" and "And I". "Goodies" topped the Billboard Hot 100 chart. The album was certified triple platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America, garnered four nominations at the 48th Annual Grammy Awards. Ciara was featured on Missy Elliott's "Lose Control" and Bow Wow's "Like You", both of which reached number three on the Billboard Hot 100. In 2006, Ciara released her second studio album, Ciara: The Evolution, which spawned the hit singles "Get Up", "Promise", "Like a Boy" and "Can't Leave'em Alone"; the album reached number one in the U.
S. and was certified platinum. Ciara's third studio album, Fantasy Ride was less successful than her first two albums. However, it produced the international top-ten single "Love Sex Magic", featuring Justin Timberlake, which received a Grammy Award nomination for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals; the following year, Ciara released her fourth studio album Basic Instinct, which included the R&B top-five single "Ride", but was met with low sales, continuing a downward trend in her commercial performance. Ciara signed a new record deal with Epic Records in 2011. In 2013, she released her fifth studio album, which spawned the R&B top-ten single "Body Party", her sixth album, included the singles "I Bet" and "Dance like We're Making Love". In 2006, Ciara made her film debut in All You've Got, appeared in the films Mama, I Want to Sing! and That's My Boy. In 2013, she had a recurring role in The Game. In 2016, Ciara signed a signed a modeling contract with IMG; that year, she became a Global Brand Ambassador for the cosmetics giant Revlon.
Since making her musical debut in 2004, Ciara has attained eight Billboard Hot 100 top-ten singles. She has received many awards, including three BET Awards, three MTV Video Music Awards, three MOBO Awards, one Grammy Award; as of 2015, Ciara has sold over 23 million records worldwide. Ciara Princess Harris was born in Austin, Texas, on October 25, 1985, the only child of Jackie and Carlton Clay Harris. An army brat, she grew up in Germany, New York, California and Nevada. Ciara's parents are both African Americans. Ciara has some Irish ancestry, from her mother's background, she was named after the Revlon fragrance "Ciara", introduced in 1973 and is still sold today. During her teens and her family settled in Atlanta, Georgia. In her mid-teens, Ciara formed the all-girl group Hearsay with two of her friends; the group recorded demos, but as time went on, they began to have differences and parted ways. Despite this setback, Ciara was still determined to reach her goal and signed a publishing deal as a songwriter.
Her first success was writing the song "Got Me Waiting" for R&B singer Fantasia Barrino's debut album, Free Yourself. It was when she was writing songs that she met music producer, Jazze Pha, whom she called her "music soulmate." In 2002, the two recorded four demos, "1, 2 Step", "Thug Style," "Pick Up the Phone," and "Lookin' at You," which all appeared on her debut album, released two years later. "1, 2 Step" was the second single became a hit. After graduating from Riverdale High School in Riverdale, Georgia in 2003, she was signed by LaFace Records executive, L. A. Reid, whom she was introduced to by Jazze Pha, she began production on her debut album that year. In early 2004, she wrote a demo with record producer, Sean Garrett, which came to the attention of Lil Jon and became her debut single "Goodies". Lil Jon stated that he knew it would be big seeing how it sounded similar to Usher's international hit, "Yeah!."Ciara released her debut album Goodies on September 28, 2004. The album debuted at number three on the U.
S. Billboard 200, selling 124,750 copies in its initial week and topped the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart. Following the release of the album, Ciara was hailed as the "First Lady of Crunk&B". Goodies had a seventy-one-week run on the Billboard 200, was certified three times-platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America on October 10, 2006; the album has sold around nearly 3 million copies in the United States as of June 2010. Charting at twenty-two on the Canadian Albums Chart, it was certified Platinum by the Canadian Recording Industry Association; the album charted at twenty-six on the UK Albums Chart, spent twenty weeks on the chart. It was certified Silver by the British Phonographic Industry, remaining to be Ciara's sole certified album in the UK. Goodies' lead single, the title track, featuring Petey Pablo, was released on June 8, 2004. Conceived as a crunk female counterpart to Usher's "Yeah!", the lyrical content goes against the grain, speaking of abstinence, rejecting advances because "the goodies will stay in the jar."
Critics hailed it as an "anthem of the summer" and one of the best singles of the year, complementing its dance-feel and beat, the irony of the "clever" lyrics. The single performed well worldwide, topping the charts in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom, charting in the top ten of other charts, receiving Platinum certification in the United States. "1, 2 Step" featuring Missy Elliott was released. The song peaked in the top ten of many countries, topping
Lisa Tucker (singer)
Lisa Gabrielle Tucker is an American singer, musical theater actress, television actress, the tenth-place finalist on the fifth season of American Idol. Tucker was born in Anaheim, California to Stanley and Eleanor Tucker, has two older brothers: Billy and Stanley III. Both of her brothers were backup singers and choreographers for Tucker's concert in 2002. Tucker is a songwriter, pianist, is learning to play the drums. Tucker attended La Palma's John F. Kennedy High School, she was returned to John F. Kennedy High after she was voted off. Tucker was encouraged by her parents to audition for a production of The Little Princess at Orange County Children's Theater. Despite the fact it was her first audition, she landed the lead role. At the age of ten, Tucker was referred by OCCT to Walt Disney Productions, who cast her as young Nala for the musical production of The Lion King, it was her first paying job and Tucker said, "I would have done it for free!" Tucker played Nala for 11 months but had to stop due to child labor laws and contract limitations for minors.
When Tucker was 13, she auditioned for Star Search and made it to the finals. She was the runner-up to Tiffany Evans. At the age of 16, she auditioned for the fifth season of American Idol in Denver, Colorado with a song she sang on Star Search, One Moment in Time by Whitney Houston. Simon Cowell said she was the best 16-year-old to audition for the show; the judges made a unanimous decision to put her through to the season's final 24. America voted her through to the top 12. While she was on American Idol she attended high-school classes with former Idol finalists Paris Bennett and Kevin Covais, she was eliminated and was given 10th place on March 29, 2006, after being in the bottom three with Katharine McPhee and Ace Young. She has performed at numerous city events in Anaheim such as the Mayor's Prayer Breakfast, Flag Day events, a Mighty Ducks Game, an Anaheim Angels baseball game. Tucker sang on the city of Anaheim float in the 118th Tournament of Roses, she made a guest appearance on The O.
C. playing herself in the prom episode. She can been seen on season 3 of the teen Nickelodeon network show Zoey 101. In August 2007, Tucker was featured on the reality TV show "Dr. 90210" as the singing instructor for Dr. Rey's children, she is signed to join the cast for the pilot of the new FOX series Born in the USA by 19 Entertainment. She had a recurring role on the CW series, The Game, where she played Pucci Wright in the third season. Tucker sang at Gulf Middle School, in Cape Coral, after the school won a competition for its annual book fair; the students saw her participated in a question and answer session with her. Two schools won this competition; the other school was in North America. It too had an American Idol finalist sing. Tucker sang "Then Came You" with Dionne Warwick on Warwick's new album, My Friends and Me. Tucker is signed to recording artist Ne-Yo's production company Compound Entertainment and has a recording deal through Island Def Jam. Lisa Tucker on Myspace Lisa Tucker on IMDb
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
Tiffany Evans (album)
Tiffany Evans is the self-titled debut album by R&B singer Tiffany Evans. It was released by Columbia Records on April 22, 2008 in United States and on August 27, 2008 in Japan with two bonus tracks; the first single was "Promise Ring", which features Ciara and is Evans' most successful single to date. The second was; the album was executive produced by The Clutch. Album peaked at number 134 on US Billboard 200. Both DJBooth.net and AllMusic gave album four out of five stars. AllMusic wrote saying: "In hopes on striking gold with the current pop market, Evans isn't presented as the next Mariah Carey. Rather, she is showcased as a more talented Ciara, toning down on the dance tracks but keeping the beat up the whole way through. With guest appearances by Bow Wow and Ciara herself, Evans keeps the vibe on the album vibrant and sassy, while never crossing over to inappropriate. On the heavier tracks, Evans never gets lost in the music, her voice sails over the beats and cuts, thus synthesizing the best of both worlds.
More than a handful of the tracks show the playfulness of Lil' Mama, the mainstream appeal of Miley Cyrus, Beyoncé's soulful voice, which propels Evans to a pop sound, refreshing. The music is accessible. "Promise Ring" was released as the main single from the album on 29 May 2007. Track featured a guest appearance by singer Ciara. Single peaked at number one on US Billboard's Bubbling Under Hot 100 and it's the most successful single by Evans to date. "I'm Grown" was released as second and final single on 12 January 2008. It featured a guest appearance by rapper Bow Wow, it peaked at number 99 at Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart. Third single "Lay Chill" was planned but wasn't released. Instead of release of that single, Evans started working on her second album. Official website