Fred Atkinson, better known by his ring name Fred Atkins, was a New Zealand-born Canadian professional wrestler, referee and announcer, best known for his time with Maple Leaf Wrestling. Atkinson was born in New Zealand, he worked in the Australian outback cutting railway ties during the Great Depression. Atkinson spent his spare time wrestling for recreation, he wrestled as an amateur wrestler for five years before turning pro during World War II. Atkinson first wrestled as an amateur in New Zealand before turning pro in the late 1930`s. On October 10, 1942, he defeated Pat Meehan in a tournament final to win the Australian Heavyweight Championship, he wrestled in New Zealand and Singapore into the mid 1940`s. Atkinson's bout against world champion Jim Londos in November 1946 was held at Sydney Stadium in front of a record setting 14,000 spectators. Atkinson remained champion for several years until leaving the country in 1949. From there, he immigrated to Canada where he started a long association with Toronto promoter Frank Tunney.
While Atkins was not flashy compared to his fellow wrestlers he put on strong efforts as a heel. As well as Toronto he appeared in St. Louis and Chicago facing the likes of Moose Cholak, Sweet Daddy Siki, Pat Flanagan, Lou Thesz, Whipper Billy Watson and Pat O'Connor. For a time he appeared in San Francisco. In Toronto he pulled a major victory over Watson for the NWA British Empire Championship before losing it back to him. Into the 1960s he became a popular and respected baby face but again turned heel as a manager to the men he trained like Giant Shoehi Baba and Tiger Jeet Singh. Atkinson worked as a pre-season conditioning trainer for the Toronto Maple Leafs hockey club, he worked as a referee for the Tunney promotion and wrestled his final match in 1974 at age 63. He lived in Ridgeway, near Fort Erie and when training wrestlers would have them run along a Lake Erie beach on the sand to build their leg strength; as a referee he was no nonsense. If a wrestler wouldn't let go of a hold Atkins would shove an elbow in his face.
At Maple Leaf Gardens he refereed the February 6, 1977, NWA World Heavyweight title match in which Harley Race beat Terry Funk for the championship. On another card between Superstar Billy Graham and prelim Terry Yorkston he angrily removed his shirt and threatened to go at Graham as Graham roughed up Yorkston after the match. In 1977 he looked after follow longtime wrestler Lee Henning in his home until Henning died there of cancer; as the Tunney promotion went through changes holding cards for the American Wrestling Association, NWA Mid-Atlantic and the World Wrestling Federation he stayed on as a referee while working as a trainer for the Buffalo Sabers hockey club and for the Toronto Maple Leafs. Championship Wrestling from Florida NWA Southern Heavyweight Championship Maple Leaf Wrestling NWA British Empire Heavyweight Championship NWA Canadian Open Tag Team Championship - with Lord Athol Layton NWA International Tag Team Championship - with Professor Hiro and Tiger Jeet Singh Mid-South Sports NWA International Tag Team Championship - with Ike Eakins NWA San Francisco NWA World Tag Team Championship - with Ray Eckert NWA Pacific Coast Tag Team Championship - with Ray Eckert Other titles Australian Heavyweight Championship Silver Belt Australian Heavyweight Championship General"SLAM!
Wrestling Canadian Hall of Fame: Fred Atkins". Canadian Online Explorer. SLAM! Sports. Specific Obsessed With Wrestling Fred Atkins at WrestlingData.com
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Muhammad Hussain Inoki is a Japanese professional wrestling and mixed martial arts promoter and retired professional wrestler and martial artist, best known by his ring name Antonio Inoki. Inoki's ring name is a homage to fellow professional wrestler Antonino Rocca. Inoki began his professional wrestling career in the Japanese Wrestling Association under the tutelage of Rikidōzan. Inoki became one of the most popular stars in the history of Japanese professional wrestling. Inoki parlayed his wrestling career into becoming one of Japan's most recognizable athletes, a reputation bolstered by his 1976 fight against world champion boxer Muhammad Ali; the fight against Ali served as a predecessor to modern day mixed martial arts. With Ric Flair, Inoki headlined two shows in North Korea in 1995 that drew 150,000 and 190,000 spectators, the highest attendances in professional wrestling history. Inoki was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame in 2010. Inoki began his promoting career in 1972, he remained the owner of NJPW until 2005 when he sold his controlling share in the promotion to the Yuke's video game company.
In 2007, he founded the Inoki Genome Federation. In 2017, Inoki founded ISM and the following year left IGF. In 1989, while still an active wrestler, Inoki entered politics as he was elected to the Japanese House of Councillors. During his first term with the House of Councillors, Inoki negotiated with Saddam Hussein for the release of Japanese hostages before the outbreak of the Gulf War, his first tenure in the House of Councillors ended in 1995, but he was reelected in 2013. Inoki was born in an affluent family in Yokohama in 1943, he was the second youngest of the seven boys and four girls. His father, Sajiro Inoki, a businessman and politician, died. Inoki entered the Higashidai Grade School. Inoki was taught karate by an older brother while in 6th grade. By the time he was in 7th grade at Terao Junior High School, he was 180 centimeters tall and joined the basketball team, he quit and joined a track and field club as a shot putter. He won the championship at the Yokohama Junior High School track and field competition.
The family fell on hard times in the post-war years, in 1957, the 14-year-old Inoki emigrated to Brazil with his grandfather and brothers. His grandfather died during the journey to Brazil. Inoki won regional championships in Brazil in the shot put, discus throw, javelin throw, the All Brazilian championships in the shot put and discus. Inoki met Rikidōzan at the age of 17, he went back to Japan for the Japanese Wrestling Association as Rikidōzan's disciple. One of his dojo classmates was Giant Baba. After Rikidozan's death, Inoki worked in Baba's shadow until he joined the original Tokyo Pro Wrestling in 1966. After a long excursion of wrestling in the United States, Inoki found a new home in Tokyo Pro Wrestling. While there, Inoki became their biggest star; the company folded in 1967, due to turmoil behind the scenes. Returning to JWA in late 1967, Inoki was made Baba's partner and the two dominated the tag team ranks as the "B-I Cannon", winning the NWA International tag team belts four times.
Wrestling legend Bruno Sammartino tells a story about Inoki trying to "shoot" him during a tag match in Osaka to build his reputation against the then-world champ. Bruno pounded Inoki mercilessly and threw him out of the ring. Inoki refused to re-enter the ring with Sammartino and tagged in Baba to finish the match. Fired from JWA in late 1971 for planning a takeover of the promotion, Inoki founded New Japan Pro-Wrestling in 1972, his first match as a New Japan wrestler was against Karl Gotch. In June 1979, he fought with Pakistani wrestler Zubair Jhara Pahalwan and lost the fight in the fifth round. In 2014, twenty two years after Zubair Jhara's death, he announced to take Jhara's nephew Haroon Abid under his guardianship. On November 30, 1979, Inoki defeated WWF Heavyweight Champion Bob Backlund in Tokushima, Japan to win the title. Backlund won a rematch on December 6. However, WWF president Hisashi Shinma declared the re-match a no contest due to interference from Tiger Jeet Singh, Inoki remained Champion.
Inoki refused the title on the same day, it was declared vacant. Backlund defeated Bobby Duncum in a Texas Death match to regain the title on December 12; as Inoki refused the title, his reign is not included nor is it recognized by WWE in its official history, Backlund is recognized as having one reign from 1978 to 1983. In 1995 the Japanese and the North Korean governments came together to hold a two-day wrestling festival for peace in Pyongyang, North Korea; the event drew 150,000 and 190,000 fans to Rungnado May Day Stadium. The main event saw the only match between Ric Flair, with Inoki coming out on top. Days before this event and the Korean press went to the grave and birthplace of Rikidōzan and paid tribute to him. Inoki's retirement from professional wrestling matches came with the staging of the "Final Countdown" series between 1994 and 1998; this was a special series in which Inoki re-lived some of his mixed martial arts matches under professional wrestling rules, as well as rematches of some of his most well known wrestling matches.
As part of the Final Countdown tour, Inoki made a rare World Championship Wrestling appearance. Inoki faced Don Frye in the final match of his professional wrestling career. In 2005, Yuke's, a Japanese video company, purchased Inoki's co
Dusty Rhodes (wrestler)
Virgil Riley Runnels Jr. better known as "The American Dream" Dusty Rhodes, was an American professional wrestler and trainer who most notably worked for the National Wrestling Alliance, Jim Crockett Promotions, the World Wrestling Federation known as the WWE. Following his retirement from wrestling, he made occasional on-air appearances on WWE television and pay-per-views and worked as a backstage booker and producer in WWE's NXT developmental territory. Billed as "the son of a plumber", Rhodes did not have a typical wrestler's physique. WWE chairman Vince McMahon remarked that no wrestler "personified the essence of charisma quite like Dusty Rhodes". Rhodes was a three-time NWA World Heavyweight Champion, during his time in Jim Crockett Promotions known as WCW, he was a United States Heavyweight Champion, multi-time World Television, World Tag Team and World Six-Man Tag Team Champion, he won many regional championships, is one of six men inducted into each of the WWE, WCW, Professional Wrestling, Wrestling Observer Newsletter Halls of Fame.
His sons and Cody, both pursued careers in professional wrestling and performed for WWE. After graduating from Arlington Heights High School in Fort Worth, Rhodes played baseball and football for West Texas State. Turning professional, Rhodes tried out for the American Football League's Boston Patriots but was cut, he played for the Hartford Charter Oaks in the Continental Football League until the team folded. In 1967, Rhodes saw an advertisement in the newspaper for Tony Santos’ professional wrestling promotion Big Time Wrestling, based in Boston. Rhodes drove to Boston, despite not having any wrestling experience, bluffed his way into working for the company by using his real life friendships with Bobby Duncum and the Funk brothers. Billed as Dusty Runnels, one of his first matches was for the BTW World Heavyweight title against champion Frank Scarpa in the Boston Arena. Having little money, Rhodes slept in his car and spent Thanksgiving with Rufus R. Jones in a Boston soup kitchen. Rhodes moved on to Fritz Von Erich's Texas territory World Class Championship Wrestling in 1968, at that time called Big Time Wrestling.
It was in Texas where Rhodes first adopted the ring name "Dusty Rhodes". Upon meeting Rhodes, Gary Hart suggested that he change his ring name to "Lonesome Rhodes", a character Andy Griffith portrayed in the film A Face in the Crowd. Rhodes replied: "Well... I don’t plan on being'Lonesome'. I think I’ll stick with Dusty." Hart convinced Von Erich of the young wrestler's potential. Rhodes became a rule-breaking heel with Hart as his manager, teaming with Don Jardine, better known as The Spoiler. In 1968, Rhodes left Texas and entered the Kansas City territory, tagging with fellow Texan Dick Murdoch to form the tag team The Texas Outlaws; the team traveled both nationally and internationally, appearing in Big Time Wrestling, NWA Western States Sports, NWA Detroit, National Wrestling Federation, Championship Wrestling from Florida, World Championship Wrestling, Tri-State Wrestling, the American Wrestling Association, International Wrestling Enterprise. Rhodes did not have a typical wrestlers' physique, but he was well known for his personality and interviews.
In 1974, Rhodes's character became a hero after tag team partner Pak Song and manager Gary Hart turned on him during a match in Florida against Eddie and Mike Graham. This led him to break out as a solo wrestler in Florida, referring to himself as the "American Dream", a working class hero, aligning himself with Eddie Graham. In 1977, Rhodes wrestled for Vince McMahon, Sr.'s World Wide Wrestling Federation on and off for lengthy periods of time until 1981. During that time, Rhodes main-evented twice in Madison Square Garden, both times challenging for the WWWF Heavyweight Championship against reigning champion Superstar Billy Graham. Rhodes won the first match on September 26 via countout, lost the second, a Texas Death match, on October 24. Graham won after a mid-ring collision, he began working as a booker and wrestler with Jim Crockett Promotions in the Mid-Atlantic, which purchased World Championship Wrestling Georgia Championship Wrestling. Rhodes teamed with Magnum T. A. as "America's Team", who opposed the Four Horsemen and The Russian Team in 1985.
They were one of the more dominant tag teams in the promotion until 1986, when Magnum's career was ended in a car accident. Subsequently, he teamed with Nikita Koloff as The Super Powers. Rhodes was a two time World Six-Man Tag Team Champion with The Road Warriors. Rhodes had feuds with Abdullah the Butcher, Pak Song, Terry Funk, Kevin Sullivan, Blackjack Mulligan, Nikita Koloff, Harley Race, Superstar Billy Graham, "Crippler" Ray Stevens and, most notably, The Four Horsemen. Rhodes and Race fought each other many times over the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. Rhodes won the NWA World Heavyweight Championship three times. In October 1985, during his feud with Flair, Rhodes gave an interview that became known as his "Hard Times" promo, arguably his most popular promo: "First of all, I would to thank the many, many fans throughout this country that wrote cards and letters to Dusty Rhodes, The American Dream, while I was down. Secondly, I want to thank Jim Crockett Promotions for waitin’ and takin’ the time ‘cause I know how important it was, Starrcade'8
Milton is a town in Southern Ontario and part of the Halton Region in the Greater Toronto Area. Between 2001 and 2011 Milton was the fastest growing municipality in Canada, with a 71.4% increase in population from 2001 to 2006 and another 56.5% increase from 2006 to 2011. In 2016, Milton's census population was 110,128 with an estimated growth to 228,000 by 2031. Milton is located 40 km west of Downtown Toronto on Highway 401, is the western terminus for the Milton line commuter train and bus corridor operated by GO Transit. Milton is on the edge of the Niagara Escarpment, a UNESCO world biosphere reserve and the Bruce Trail; the Mississaugas of the Credit held 648,000 acres of land north of the Head of the Lake Purchase lands and extending to the unceded territory of the Chippewa of Lakes Huron and Simcoe. In mid-October, 1818, the Chippewa ceded their land to the Crown in the Lake Simcoe-Nottawasaga Treaty and, by the end of October, the Crown sought to purchase the adjacent lands of the Mississaugas of the Credit.
The Deputy Superintendent of the Indian Department, William Claus, met with the Mississaugas from October 27–29, 1818, proposed that the Mississaugas sell their 648,000 acres of land in exchange for an annual amount of goods. The continuous inflow of settlers into their lands and fisheries had weakened the Mississaugas’ traditional economy and had left them in a state of impoverishment and a declining population. In their enfeebled state, Chief Ajetance, on behalf of the assembled people agreed to the sale of their lands for £522.10 of goods paid annually. Significant municipalities found within the lands of the Ajetance Purchase of 1818 include Brampton and Milton; the town took root out of a settlement by Jasper Martin along the Sixteen Mile Creek. Martin was granted 100 acres of land, from the Crown in 1820, designated Lot 14, Concession 2, Township of Trafalgar, Halton County, in the District of Gore. Martin created a pond, known as Mill Pond, to power his mill; the mill became the centre of settlement for others.
In 1837 the area had a population of 100 people and was named after the English poet John Milton. The town, as it is today, soon after became known as Milton; the two principal property owners of the young town were the Fosters. The current site of Milton's town hall was donated by Mr. Hugh Foster. By 1855, the United Counties of Halton and Wentworth split, Halton became a separate county, its council consisted of members representing the townships of Esquesing, Nassagaweya and Nelson, along with Acton, Milton and Oakville. Milton was named as the county town, a decision that created a lot of local controversy; the people in Oakville were upset because Oakville was an established place with a railway. Milton did not have a railway, according to historian John McDonald. For 25 years there was this great rivalry; every time county council tried to pass something to improve the Milton area, the Oakville councillors would balk at it. A man named Hugh Foster donated 4 acres of land to the county to construct its administration building in Milton, still in place on Mary Street today and now used as the Milton Town Hall.
Milton was incorporated after being chosen as county seat for Halton. By 1869, Milton had a population of 1,000. Records from 1874, indicate that Milton had county buildings, a telegraph office, a foundry, a tannery, a woolen factory, a grist mill and a saw mill, a weekly newspaper and a number of stores. In the early 1900s Milton was well known because of the P. L. Robertson Manufacturing Company, the first to make socket-head screws. Although formed in Hamilton in 1907, the business relocated to Milton in 1908. P. L. Robertson was the inventor of the square-socket drive for screws. In 1974, the present municipal structure was created when the Regional Municipality of Halton replaced Halton County; the new town of Milton added parts of the former township of Esquesing, all of Nassagaweya Township including the village of Campbellville, the northern sections of Trafalgar and Nelson from Oakville and Burlington respectively. With the addition of the Niagara Escarpment lands, tourism and heritage conservation have increased in importance.
The Halton Region Museum, which has a large number of historic agricultural buildings, the Halton County Radial Railway museum are located in Milton, as is Country Heritage Park. Five large parks operated by Conservation Halton reside in the town, Mohawk Raceway is located near Campbellville, it is home to Maplehurst Correctional Complex, the Vanier Centre for Women and one of two criminal courthouses serving Halton Region. On 1 January 2010, land was bought by the City of Mississauga and scaled down its border by 400 acres to Hwy. 407, affecting 25 residents. In 2015, the population numbers on all signs entering Milton increased to 100,000 based on official estimates by Town planners. According to the Canada 2016 Census there were 101,715 people living in Milton, its population in 2006 was 53,939, representing an increase of 56.5%. The 2016 Census counted 31,325 being occupied; the average population density per square kilometre was 2,520.3 persons. Age distribution indicated 32.5% of the population was 19 and younger, 59.1% of the population ages 20–64 and 8.4% 65 and older.
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Punjab is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west; the state covers an area of 1.53 % of India's total geographical area. It is the 20th-largest Indian state by area. With 27,704,236 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Punjab is the 16th-largest state by population, comprising 22 districts. Punjabi is the most spoken and official language of the state; the main ethnic group are the Punjabis, with Sikhs forming the demographic majority and Hindus forming a sizable minority. The state capital is Chandigarh, a Union Territory and the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana; the five rivers from which the region took its name were Sutlej, Beas and Jhelum. The Punjab region was home to the Indus Valley Civilization until 1900 BCE.
The Punjab was invaded by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE and was captured by Chandragupta Maurya under Chanakya. The Punjab was home to the Gupta Empire, the empire of the Alchon Huns, the empire of Harsha, the Mongol Empire. Circa 1000, the Punjab was part of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire. Sikhism originated in Punjab and resulted in the formation of the Sikh Confederacy after the fall of the Mughal Empire; the confederacy was united into the Sikh Empire by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The entire Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company from the Sikh Empire in 1849. In 1947, the Punjab Province of British India was divided along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab; the western part was assimilated into new country of Pakistan. The Indian Punjab as well as PEPSU was divided into three parts on the basis of language in 1966. Haryanvi-speaking areas were carved out as Haryana, while the hilly regions and Pahari-speaking areas formed Himachal Pradesh, alongside the current state of Punjab.
Punjab's government has three branches – executive and legislative. Punjab follows the parliamentary system of government with the Chief Minister as the head of the state. Punjab is agriculture-based due to the presence of abundant water sources and fertile soils. Other major industries include the manufacturing of scientific instruments, agricultural goods, electrical goods, financial services, machine tools, sewing machines, sports goods, tourism, bicycles and the processing of pine oil and sugar. Minerals and energy resources contribute to Punjab's economy to a much lesser extent. Punjab has the largest number of steel rolling mill plants in India, which are in "Steel Town"—Mandi Gobindgarh in the Fatehgarh Sahib district; the region was called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The Sanskrit name for the region, as mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabharata for example, was Panchanada which means "Land of the Five Rivers", was translated to Persian as Punjab after the Muslim conquests.
The word Punjab is a compound of the Persian words āb. Thus Panjāb means "the land of five rivers"; the five rivers are the Sutlej, Ravi and Jehlum. Traditionally, in English, there used to be a definite article before the name, i.e. "The Punjab". The name is sometimes spelled as "Panjab"; the Greeks called Punjab an inland delta of five converging rivers. During the period when the epic Mahabharata was written, around 800–400 BCE, Punjab was known as Trigarta and ruled by Katoch kings; the Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of the Punjab region with cities such as Ropar. The Vedic Civilization spread along the length of the Sarasvati River to cover most of northern India including Punjab; this civilisation shaped subsequent cultures in the Indian subcontinent. The Punjab region was ruled by many ancient empires including the Gandhara, Mauryas, Kushans, Palas, Gurjara-Pratiharas and Hindu Shahis; the furthest eastern extent of Alexander the Great's exploration was along the Indus River. Agriculture flourished and trading cities such as Jalandhar and Ludhiana grew in wealth.
Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and influence from both west and east. Punjab faced invasions by the Achaemenids, Scythians and Afghans; this resulted in the Punjab witnessing centuries of bitter bloodshed. Its culture combines Hindu, Islamic and British influences; the original Punjab region is now divided into several units: West Punjab, portions of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa such as the Gandharar region, the Indian states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and the Indian Union territory of Chandigarh and Jammu Division. The Punjab is the'Sapta Sindhu' region mentioned in the Rig Veda, the seven rivers are: Saraswati, Satadru/Shutadri, Asikani, Purushni, Vitasta/Vet and Sindhu. Among the classic books that were wholly or composed in this region are the following. Rigveda Grammar of Sakatayana Ashtadhyayi of Pāṇini Nirukta of Yaska Charaka Samhita Mahabharata along with the Bhagavad Gita Brihatkatha of Gunadya Bakhshali ManuscriptThe world's oldest university Takshashila flourished here before the Buddha's birth.
The Brahmins of this region