SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tigris

The Tigris is the eastern of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq and empties into the Persian Gulf; the Tigris is 1,750 km long, rising in the Taurus Mountains of eastern Turkey about 25 km southeast of the city of Elazig and about 30 km from the headwaters of the Euphrates. The river flows for 400 km through Turkish Kurdistan before becoming part of the Syria-Turkey border; this stretch of 44 km is the only part of the river, located in Syria. Some of its affluences are Garzan, Anbarçayi and the Great and the Little Zab. Close to its confluence with the Euphrates, the Tigris splits into several channels. First, the artificial Shatt al-Hayy branches off. Second, the Shatt al-Muminah and Majar al-Kabir branch off to feed the Central Marshes. Further downstream, two other distributary channels branch off; the main channel continues southwards and is joined by the Al-Kassarah, which drains the Hawizeh Marshes.

The Tigris joins the Euphrates near al-Qurnah to form the Shatt-al-Arab. According to Pliny and other ancient historians, the Euphrates had its outlet into the sea separate from that of the Tigris. Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, stands on the banks of the Tigris; the port city of Basra straddles the Shatt al-Arab. In ancient times, many of the great cities of Mesopotamia stood on or near the Tigris, drawing water from it to irrigate the civilization of the Sumerians. Notable Tigris-side cities included Nineveh and Seleucia, while the city of Lagash was irrigated by the Tigris via a canal dug around 2900 B. C; the Tigris has long been an important transport route in a desert country. Shallow-draft vessels can go as far as Baghdad, but rafts are needed for transport upstream to Mosul. General Francis Rawdon Chesney hauled two steamers overland through Syria in 1836 to explore the possibility of an overland and river route to India. One steamer, the Tigris, was wrecked in a storm which killed twenty.

Chesney proved the river navigable to powered craft. The Euphrates and Tigris Steam Navigation Company was established in 1861 by the Lynch Brothers trading company, they had 2 steamers in service. By 1908 ten steamers were on the river. Tourists boarded steam yachts to venture inland as this was the first age of archaeological tourism, the sites of Ur and Ctesiphon became popular with European travelers. In the First World War, during the British conquest of Ottoman Mesopotamia and Thames River paddlers were used to supply General Charles Townsend's army, in the Siege of Kut and the Fall of Baghdad; the Tigris Flotilla included vessels Clio, Lawrence, armed tug Comet, armed launches Lewis Pelly, Shaitan and sternwheelers Muzaffari/Muzaffar. These were joined by Royal Navy Fly-class gunboats Butterfly, Dragonfly, Sawfly and Mantis, Tarantula. After the war, river trade declined in importance during the 20th century as the Basra-Baghdad-Mosul railway, an unfinished portion of the Baghdad Railway, was completed and roads took over much of the freight traffic.

The Ancient Greek form Tigris meaning "tiger" was adapted from Old Persian Tigrā, itself from Elamite Tigra, itself from Sumerian Idigna. The original Sumerian Idigna or Idigina was from *id gina "running water", which can be interpreted as "the swift river", contrasted to its neighbour, the Euphrates, whose leisurely pace caused it to deposit more silt and build up a higher bed than the Tigris; the Sumerian form was borrowed into Akkadian as Idiqlat, from there into the other Semitic languages. Another name for the Tigris used in Middle Persian was Arvand Rud "swift river". Today, Arvand Rud refers to the confluence of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. In Kurdish, it is known as Ava Mezin, "the Great Water"; the name of the Tigris in languages that have been important in the region: The Tigris is dammed in Iraq and Turkey to provide water for irrigating the arid and semi-desert regions bordering the river valley. Damming has been important for averting floods in Iraq, to which the Tigris has been notoriously prone following April melting of snow in the Turkish mountains.

Recent Turkish damming of the river has been the subject of some controversy, for both its environmental effects within Turkey and its potential to reduce the flow of water downstream. Mosul Dam is the largest dam in Iraq. Water from both rivers is used as a means of pressure during conflicts. In 2014 a major breakthrough in developing consensus between multiple stakeholder representatives of Iraq and Turkey on a Plan of Action for promoting exchange and calibration of data and standards pertaining to Tigris river flows was achieved; the consensus, referred to as the "Geneva Consensus On Tigris River" was reached at a meeting organized in Geneva by the think tank Strategic Foresight Group. In February 2016, the United States Embassy in Iraq as well as the Prime Minister of Iraq Haider al-Abadi issued warnings that Mosul Dam could collapse; the United States warned people to evacuate the floodplain of the Tigris because between 500,000 and 1.5 million people were at risk of drowning due to flash flood if the dam collapses, that the major Iraqi cities of Mosul

João Amaral (footballer, born 1991)

João Pedro Reis Amaral is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for F. C. Paços de Ferreira on loan from Lech Poznań as a winger. Born in Vila Nova de Gaia, Porto District, Amaral played lower league and amateur football until the age of 24, working in a wine bottle label factory during this timeframe. On 6 June 2016, he moved straight into the Primeira Liga after signing a three-year contract with Vitória F. C. from F. C. Pedras Rubras. Amaral made his debut in the Portuguese top division on 21 August 2016, starting and featuring 64 minutes in a 1–1 away draw against S. L. Benfica, he scored his first goal in the competition the following weekend to help the hosts defeat F. C. Arouca 2–0, adding a further four until the end of the season – while providing two assists – to help his team finish 12th. On 29 May 2018, Amaral joined Benfica on a three-year contract. Shortly after, on 21 July, he signed a four-year deal with Polish club Lech Poznań, he made his debut for the latter five days netting in the last minute of the 1–1 away draw against FC Shakhtyor Soligorsk in the UEFA Europa League second qualifying round.

Amaral returned to his country and its top tier on 2 January 2020, being loaned to F. C. Paços de Ferreira until 30 June; as of 22 December 2019. João Amaral at ForaDeJogo Portuguese League profile

Romulus (CDP), New York

Romulus is a hamlet located in the Town of Romulus, Seneca County, New York, United States on the border with the Town of Varick. The population was 409 at the 2010 census; the hamlet was called "Romulusville." It was renamed Romulus, after the town, around 1870. Romulus is located at 42°45′06″N 76°50′06″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.6 square miles, all of it land. The primary intersection in the hamlet is at N. Y. Route 96, Cayuga Street and Seneca Street. Romulus is adjacent to the former Seneca Army Depot; as of the census of 2010, there were 409 people, 152 households, 100 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 681.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 94.9% White, 2.0% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.0% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.4% of the population. There were 152 households out of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.1% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families.

28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.18. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 29.1% under the age of 20, 4.9% from 20 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 28.8% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $49,583, the median income for a family was $48,917. Males had a median income of $22,188 versus $22,241 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $17,521. About 8.2% of families and 17.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.7% of those under age 18 and 0.0% of those age 65 or over. There were 170 housing units at an average density of 283.3 per square mile. 10.6% of housing units were vacant. There were 152 occupied housing units in the CDP. 111 were owner-occupied units, while 41 were renter-occupied.

The homeowner vacancy rate was 5.9% of total units. The rental unit vacancy rate was 12.5%